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called the glacier is seven miles in ex creates appetite, and hunger and thirst tent, and two miles in perpendicular are not dainty. Ye sons of luxury, who height; but the Mer de Glace, and other have little appetite, less health, and no connected portions of this mighty glacier, energy, were ye to become chamois hunters altogether extend, perhaps, as much as ye would lose your ailments. twenty leagues. Look at the Mer de Glace, the surrounding mountains make Toil

, on the frosty mountains and the plains,

Sends the blood spinning through the bounding it appear almost a plain ; but see how the solid mass is riven, cleft, and split

But how shall they bear away their into all imaginary forms. Some of the

prize? How

up

the precipices and across yawning fissures have been plumbed to the ravines shall they carry the slaughthe depth of more than a thousand feet. tered chamois ? Already has Ritzer the The whole scene is an arresting variety game slung across his shoulders, and of gigantic crystals, pinnacles, and pyra- now, with agile foot, and sinewy frame, mids, fearful blocks, and frightful abysses. he is scaling the crag. He leans his From his very boyhood has Ritzer, the

spiked pole against the rock, he places chamois hunter, been familiar with scenes his foot on the shoulder of his compalike these.

nion, who at first crouches down and Ritzer and his companion still pursue then stands on his legs. Ritzer is hack, the wounded chamois, that flies along ing himself a foothold in the rock; and the slopes, and leaps from rock to rock.

now he has gained its summit. He lets The rugged rift, the gloomy abyss, and down his rope to his companion, who the fearful precipice, alter but not arrest partly climbing, and partly drawn up by the course of the flying fugitive. He the rope, soon stands beside him. springs across the mountain torrent, he leaps down the precipice of fifty feet, on

It is even, the air is clear, and the the narrow and slippery ledge of the peaks and snow-clad heights, lit up by granite rock; he stands on the sharp the setting sun, are intensely glittering ridge, where there is barely room for his in the beam. The richest hues of creafeet, and seeks the inaccessible fastnesses tion dazzle the sight, and cliffs of crimof the mountains. But see! Ritzer is son, purple and gold, sun-gilt spires, on his track. Now he hastens over the cupolas of living light, pyramids of seamountain's brow, now descends the zig

green ice, roofs of purest snow, and zag ledges of the crag; now flings him- spiral shafts of blended and ever-changself with his pole across the yawning ing dyes, astonish and bewilder with ravine; now lets himself down the preci- their magnificence the eyes of the bepice with his rope ; and now, with a holder. The red granite mountain, the strong hand, cleaves himself a foothold in Aiguille du Dru, shoots up at top in one the face of the solid rock. Excited by unbroken

pointed shaft of four thousand his enterprises he sees no danger, and is feet, and the whole mountain is more overcome by no difficulty. On, on!

than twelve thousand feet in height.
the chamois, and nothing but the cha-
mois, is before him.

“ High the Alpine summits rise,
Height o'er height, stupendous hurld,

Like the pillars of the skies,
To lose his game is something like disgrace ;

Like the ramparts of the world." His heart, his mind, his soul are in the chase.

The scene is romantic in the extreme, In vain the craggy barriers oppose extravagantly beautiful, and almost unhim ; in vain the glacier stretches itself limited in extent. Mountains and rugged in his path, and the foaming cataract ob- rifts, aiguilles and glaciers, glittering structs his course ; he is ready for every ridges and gloomy ravines, peaks, precitrial, and equal to every exigency—the pices and cataracts, mingle together with chamois must not escape.

all the dazzling pomp and prodigality

that height and colour, and sunshine and Ritzer and his fellow-hunter are on shade can impart, with forests of pine the broad ledge of a precipitous rock, and and larch, the richest and most luxuriant there lies dead beside them the slaugh- foliage, and more remote, the romantic tered chamois. They have each taken a and verdant valley. All is vast, glorious, scrap of cheese from their wallets, with a and sublime. In the immensity, man is morsel of barley bread, and their flasks lost, and God is everywhere ! have been raised to their lips. Sweet to them are their bits and drops, for toil Ritzer, with the chamois on his shoul

*

*

*

THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE

REFORMATION.

No. XII.

PROGRESS OF THE FOLLOWERS OF HUSS

CONTROVERSIES-SECOND RETREAT OF
HUSS--CONVOCATION OF А GENERAL
COUNCIL AT CONSTANCE.

ders, is toiling on, now threading the hills, and her arms are clasped around narrow defiles, and now descending the the neck of her husband. There! they dizzy heights. Sometimes the chamois are calmer now, and are descending the is swung over a ravine, that the hunters, mountains together. There is gladness with their poles, may leap across it unin- in the bright blue eyes of the boy; a cumbered, and sometimes the game is tear, not of sorrow but of joy, rolling carried between the two hardy moun down the flushed cheek of Annette, and taineers. Light-hearted they proceed— a smile of love and inward satisfaction in but now they come to a difficult point the manly face of Ritzer, the chamois of the rock, a fearful pass, for the ledge, hunter. with a precipice below, is hardly broad enough to stand on. Aiguilles and spires and mountainous crags are above them, ravines and rifts, and rugged rocks and watercourses, are below, with the valley seen in the distance. Ritzer, bearing the chamois, has crossed the pass, but his comrade-dreadful! dreadful! his foot has slipped-he tries to recover himself in vain-he falls headlong from Although king Wenceslaus for a time the craggy ledge. () Danger how unex withdrew his protection from the Husspected is thy arrival!— Death, how sud- ites, yet he does not appear to have den is thy approach! Hapless Adolphe! severely persecuted them. This avariwhat a tale to tell the sharer of thy cot ! cious and rapacious prince found an adwhat tidings to relate to the mother that | vantage in secretly favouring their docbore thee!

trines, and when, from the first rise of

the disturbances in Bohemia, he was Be ready, Ritzer, on thy mountains drear, For life is brief, and death is ever near.

urged to destroy John Huss, he answered,

“ Let him alone, he is the bird that lays The bright sun has withdrawn him- for me many a golden egg.” Some of self from view, though the peak tops and the sentiments of Huss, especially those summits of the mountains are yet spark- which he derived from Wickliffe, reling with his beams. The glaciers specting tithes and church property, glitter not as they did, with a silvery were very much to the taste of Wenceseffulgency, but the stately aiguilles still laus. He said, “ The temporal lords, wear their golden crowns.

Å subdued when they please, have power to take and sober light is prevailing among the away temporal property from ecclesiasmountains and the valleys.

tics who live in the practice of sin.” This

maxim Huss supported by the authority The glowing orb of day recalls his fires,

of Scripture and of the fathers, not forAnd now, to light up other lands, retires.

getting these words, uttered in the presence Through a telescope from the valley of St.Bernard, by the famous German proAlphonse was seen to fall, and Rumour, phetess, St. Hildegarde, “ The Almighty with her hundred tongues, has spread Father has divided all things well, he has the report that Ritzer is numbered with given heaven to heavenly men, and the the dead. Pale is the cheek of Annette, earth to earthly men, so that, according his wife, and loud the lament of his to this division, spiritual and secular men, only boy ;-even now, half frantic with each possessing that which belongs to fear, the twain are toiling up the steeps. them, should not usurp that of the other; And didst thou, Annette, at the dawn for it is not the will of God that either of of day, commit, on thy bended knees, his children should wear at once the robe thy husband to almighty care? Fear and the cloak. He has given the cloak not, for he shall yet fold thee in his to the secular, the robe to the spiritual arms!

But who are those descending order, and when both are found in posfrom the heights ! — Ritzer, with the session of the same man, the cloak chamois on his shoulder, and can it be? should be taken away, and given to the Yes, it is Alphonse! A mountain stream poor." As for tithes, Huss maintained, broke his fall, and bruised, but with no with Wickliffe, that they are merely alms; bone broken, he is returning to his cot- he concluded that churchmen are neither tage. See! they meet! they meet! A the masters nor the owners of these shriek from Annette is echoed by the revenues, but only their keepers and

dispensers; that they have no right to opinions of Wickliffe on tithes and church retain from them beyond what their own property, and on some other leading wants require, and that unless they give points. He observed, “ Those who cease the residue to the poor, they will be to preach, or to hear the word of God, will judged at the last day as guilty of rob- be accounted traitors at the day of judgbery and sacrilege.

ment. Every deacon and every priest is Wenceslaus adopted these doctrines, permitted to preach the word of God, which were held by most of the Reform- without the authority of any bishop, or ers, and which rendered many princes the apostolic see; and all temporal lords, favourable to them. He declared himself every prelate, every bishop, living in accordingly to be a judge as to the em mortal sin, in fact is not a temporal lord, ployment of church property, but as he a prelate, or a bishop. cared not for the poor, the misused trea Huss softened these doctrines by the sures of the church passed into his trea manner in which he explained them. On sury, and when he appeared publicly to the latter point, his opinion, literally consupport the new opinions, his severities sidered, did not require a serious refutaand his exactions increased the number tion; but he added, that the power of of those who adhered to Huss. Several wicked rulers is not sanctioned by God, wealthy ecclesiastics professed themselves and that such are not kings and bishops Hussites; the desire of saving their after his own heart. wealth induced them to become advo John Huss preached also, with much cates of those doctrines which directed popular approbation, against the worship its rightful use.

of images. He taught that priests ought Another cause of the progress of the to be poor; that auricular confession was Hussites was, the very contempt into of no use; that the burial of the dead in which the church dignitaries of Bohemia churchyards was not necessary for the had fallen, chiefly on account of the welfare of their souls; and that the obcovetousness of the sovereign, who sold servance of canonical hours, and absti. the offices to the highest bidder. The dis nence from food, were only the traditions graceful elevation of Albicus to the episco- of men, without any authority from the pal see of Prague has been already men word of God. tioned; that unworthy prelate dreading The Romish priests declaimed with .lest the king should confiscate the whole no less vehemence; every head seemed of the revenues of his office, hastened to on fire, the city every day exhibited fresh sell it in his turn to Conrad, bishop of scenes of bloodshed; there was no safety Olmutz, and Romish writers themselves in Prague for any one, the monarch himadmit, that the buyer was no better than self left it, and went hastily from place the seller.

to place. Conrad showed, at first, much earnest A powerful league, however, was ness in resisting the new doctrines, formed against Huss, by several doctors which, however, he subsequently em- of theology at Prague. Among these, braced, after he had completely alienated the most distinguished were Stephen the revenues of his see, He refused to Paletz, (already mentioned) Andrew allow Huss to preach, but the latter was Broda, and Stanislaus onna, a profesaware of his own power, and also be sor of theology, once the tutor of Huss, lieved that he was not to obey any and, like him, an admirer of Wickliffe, earthly authority that forbade him to whom he now insulted. These doctors, preach the gospel

in their writings, accused Huss of belongWhen summoned to Rome a second ing to the Armenian sect, who relied time, he did not even attempt to justify only on the authority of Scripture,* and his refusal to appear.

not on that of the church, or the fathers, In the town of Prague, many copies of Huss replied, that in this respect he the writings of Wickliffe hạd escaped the agreed with St. Augustine, St. Jerome, flames kindled by archbishop Sbinko. and St. Gregory, who recognised the Huss recommended men to read them, Scripture alone as the foundation of their and forcibly reproved the condemnation faith. The divines also alleged that of the forty-five articles extracted from Huss erred greatly as to the power of the works of the celebrated English teacher. He published, in the name of * De secta Armenorum. They said this of any the faculty of theology at Prague, a power

man who required information as to his doubts ful treatise, in which he defended the Huss, Hist. et Mon. 'Vol. 1., p. 63.

from the word of God, and the reasons of the law.

error,

spiritual and temporal authorities. “To disputation, by the scythe of our holy hear him," they said, “it seems that the councils. At length this evil is growing orders of popes, emperors, kings, princes, desperate, and recourse must be had to and other rulers, are only to be obeyed the secular arm, as holding an axe with when they are founded upon testimony which to cut down heresies and heretics, and reasoning, which tends to no less and to cast them into the fire. By this than the destruction of all civil order." merciful cruelty, the discourses of such

To this weighty argument, John Huss men will be kept from spreading to their opposed the example of the Maccabees, own ruin, and that of others. Should showing that the orders of princes are the false teachers, who scatter among you not to be obeyed when they are contrary the seeds of heresy, ask for miracles, let to the laws of God. “According to our them know, the time for miracles is now doctors,” he said, “if they were com- passed away, manded by the pope, or the king, to slay “Men are no longer permitted to tempt all the Jews in Prague, and were fur- God, by requiring miracles to confirm nished with troops for that purpose, they our faith, as if it were a new thing. They would have no objection to obey. Neither have not only Moses and the prophets, would they hesitate to slaughter us at but the apostles and ancient doctors, the first word, especially to kill me, who, with the holy councils. They have also in their opinion, teaches such a dangerous modern divines assembled in the univer

Yet surely such orders no less sities, especially in that of Paris, the require consideration, than the letters of mother of studies, * which has hitherto Artaxerxes, that required the massacre been free from the monsters of heresy, of all the Jews. Neither was Paul bound and will, with the Divine help, always to obey the orders of the sanhedrim, by continue so. They have all these; let delivering over the disciples of Christ to them believe these, or they will not bethe executioner."

lieve, even if the dead were raised. Such a debate never fails to show that Moreover, there is no end of disputing human reasoning never loses its claims, with such presumptuous men. On the and that we almost always wander out of contrary, as Seneca has said, when disa the way when pushing the best principles putation is pushed too far, people are to their farthest consequences by logical Offended, and charity is hurt. To their arguments. To admit that examination obstinate effrontery the language of the and approval must always go before obe poet may be applied. The remedy indience, is to render all government im creases the evil.”+ Therefore, if the prepossible; but to forbid all investigation, sent remedies are ineffectual, nothing reis to renounce the faculties of a man, and mains but to apply the axe of the secular to degrade oneself, according to circum- power to the root of this unfruitful and stances, into a senseless machine, or a accursed tree. Do you implore the asferocious brute.

sistance of this power in every possible Irritated by the disobedience of Huss, way; it is your duty, for the sake of the and alarmed at the progress of his doc- souls committed to your care. trines, John xxiii. stirred up the secular Peter d'Ailly, cardinal of Cambray, in power against him. He wrote to Wen

a treatise upon reformation, touched ceslaus, and also the king, and universi- upon the very point which made these ties of France, Gerson answered this efforts useless, and thereby gained over appeal in the name of the university of the hearts of many to the novelties, or Paris; he wrote to Conrad, the Bohe- rather to what appeared such. He said : mian archbishop, respecting Huss. This “ It is owing to the heresy of simony, letter has been preserved by a popish and the other iniquities of the court of historian, John Cochlæus; it shows the Rome, that so many sects have arisen in angry passion of the times. Gerson says, Bohemia and Moravia, which have spread “Xitherto various means, like so many from the head to the other members of different scythes, have been used to de- that kingdom, where a thousand things stroy the heresies arising in the field of injurious to the pope are publicly dethe church. The first scythe which cut bated. Thus the glaring vices of the them down was the power of miracles, by Romish court confound the catholic faith, whicb God gave testimony to the catholic and corrupt it by its errors. It were well truth, and that of the times of the apos- if these heresies and their authors were tles. Then they were rooted out by our rooted out from these provinces; but I doctors with the force of argument and * Mater studiorum. + (Ægrescit medendo.)

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do not see how this can be done, unless the true and manifest successor of St. the church of Rome is brought back to Peter; that the cardinals, like priests of its early morals and praiseworthy cus the Levitical race, are associated with

him in the sacerdotal office, and that Thus Peter d'Ailly pointed out the they should be resorted to in all eccledisease and the remedy, but not the siastical matters. It is not for the clergy method of applying it. Daily did the of Prague to judge whether or not the schism furnish the adherents of Huss excommunication of Huss is just or unwith new arguments for resisting the just: it ought to consider it as just, since authority of the pope. “If he is to be it has been fulminated by apostolical obeyed, then whom shall we obey ?" they authority.” inquired. “Balthazar Cossa, called John This decree, though approved by the xxiii., is at Rome; Angelo Corario, king, was powerless. The Hussites renamed Gregory XII., is at Rimini. Peter sisted it, and the evangelical_clergy de Luna, calling himself Benedict XIII., is refuted the arguments of the Romish in Aragon. If one of these is to be clergy. They referred to the pacificatory obeyed as our most holy father, how is edict of the nobles and the royal council, he to be distinguished from the others, which was signed by archbishop Sbinko, and why does he not begin by reducing and stated that that primate had found them to submission?"

in Huss neither error nor heresy. The Thus the troubles in Bohemia still king had been requested to order a notice continued, and the archbishop, finding in every city, that John Huss was ready, his admonitions ineffectual, had recourse publicly, to give reasons for his faith. to other measures. He put in force an If no one should appear to convince him edict against the opponents, which had of heresy, then the kingdom must be been drawn up by the doctors of the faculty cleared of his accusers, and they should of theology. This decree required every be sent to Rome, to receive the wages man who filled any public office at Prague due for their calumnies. The Hussite to sign a papistical form, and also se party said, that Jesus Christ alone, and verely condemned the Hussites. The not the pope, is the head of the church, bishop of Litomissels, an eager opponent and all the faithful are the members. of John Huss, even surpassed these se- They added, that the ecclesiastics of vere requirements. He desired that a Prague had condemned, without sufficient chancellor for the university might be authority, the forty-five articles of Wickelected, who would exercise a strict in- | liffe; that the church of Rome could not quisition over the masters and scholars, herself be admitted to pass sentence upon and should be required to punish the this matter, because at present there was favourers of heresy. He required that no certainty as to where the church John Huss and his supporters should be could be found, for the authority in forbidden to preach, and should be ex which three popes contested. Those three pelled from the chapel of Bethlehem; popes, they repeated, contradict themthat Huss should be banished from the selves, when they blame us for our atsociety of the faithful; that those books tachment to Holy Scripture, and allege should be prohibited in which his opi- this very Scripture against us! They are nions were set forth in the vulgar tongue, punishable for falsehood, because they and that all who sold or read these books falsify Scripture and the canons, saying should be excommunicated.

that the pope is to be obeyed in ali A decree to this effect was drawn up things, while it is evident that there and published, confounding the ancient have been several heretical popes. In dispensation with the present; it applied short, it is absurd to pretend that the to the see of Rome what is said in the orders of the court of Rome are to be book of Deuteronomy, about the place put in force against John Huss, and to alwhich the Lord should choose, repeating, lege as a reason, that the clergy of Prague that all who refused to obey the high have always submitted to its authority. priest should be put to death.

" It would follow from hence, that we “ It is well known to all,” said this should be heathens because our fathers decree, “that the church of Rome is the were som-or even that we must obey the place which God has chosen, under the devil, because our first parents did so!" New Testament dispensation; that he has given to it the primacy over all the church; that the pope presides in it as

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