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night, after witnessing the sabbath as they have also been found in England, spent by the poor Africans, I was made but far more sparingly than in Ireland. a witness to the manner in which it was It is remarkable, however, that few spent by Europeans, and these highly- perfect skeletons have been discovered, favoured Britons. I found my messmates although in Ireland the bones are playing at cards. God, I beseech thee, common in some districts as to attract for the sake of those few who call on thy but little regard; and skulls, with the name, do not take thy candlestick from vast and expanded antlers, have been among us, though richly deserved.” used for stopping gaps in walls.* The

Shortly after writing this letter, Robert bones are generally found dispersed conwas seized with the fever peculiar to fusedly beneath the turf, in a deposit of Sierra-Leone. Delirium came on almost shelly marl,—and sometimes under this immediately. No time was given to the latter, resting on a stratum of clay, and young man to ask for mercy, or to wit- almost always are in admirable preservaness for God. A few short days of ill- tion. A perfect skeleton exists in the ness were suffered, and his body was laid museum of the Royal Dublin Society, in in a sailor's grave, in the mighty deep, the Royal Museum of the University of but his freed spirit ascended to God. Edinburgh; and another in the British The solemn service was read over his re- Museum. They are truly magnificent, and mains, and the words, “I know that my lead back the mind to the time when this Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand noble deer, equalled in stature by no at the latter day upon the earth,” were in living species, not even by the elk, wanfull accordance with the feelings which dered over the hills, and ranged the inspired him while living. Robert knew wilds, fearless even of the wolf, which, not that his letter was that of a dying with his mighty antlers, he could keep at man; yet who, that reads this narrative, bay. These antlers are palmate, like is not ready to exclaim, “Blessed are the those of the fallow deer, but much more dead which die in the Lord from hence- so—the breadth of the palmation being forth : Yea, saith the Spirit, that they in the Dublin specimen two feet nine may rest from their labours, and their inches; the span of both horns together, works do follow them.” Which of us (measured over the skull,) is eleven feet cannot add, “ Let me die the death of the ten inches, and their circumference at the righteous, and let my last end be like his!" root something more than one foot. The

Robert had entered his twenty-eighth height of the animal at the shoulders is year when he died, on the 12th of Octo- six feet six inches, and the length of the ber, 1844.

P. spine, from the head to the tail, ten feet

ten inches; the length of the head is one foot and nearly nine inches. These details will give some idea of what the living animal must have been.

It was the opinion of Cuvier that, as in the case of the reindeer, the females

were provided with antlers, as well as the There are two splendid skeletons in male; and there are reasons, from the the British Museum, of quadrupeds, which characters of the skulls, to believe that now extinct, have become so, as there is Cuvier was correct; for skulls of animals, every reason to believe, within a compa- evidently aged, are found, the antlers of ratively recent date, We allude to those which are smaller and lighter than those of the Irish elk, and the enormous mas- of the skulls of younger individuals. todon. The Irish elk, so called from the “What,” says professor Jameson,” could abundance of its semi-fossilized bones in the turf bogs and marl pits of Ireland, mittee of Natural Philosophy of the Royal Dublin

* In a report which Mr. Hart made to the Comwhich country appears to have been once Society and which was printed in their Proceedings its stronghold, evidently belonged to the of July, 1824, he alluded to an instance of a pair same section of the deer tribe as our Tipperary. Since that he has learned that a pair delicate fallow-deer, and not to that com has been in use for a similar purpose near Newprehending the elk of Scandinavia, or of posed by the action of the weather. There is also a

castle, county of Wicklow, until they were decomNorth America.

It was widely spread; specimen in Charlemont House, the town residence for its remains occur in the Isle of Man, of the earl of Charlemont, which is said to have been and also in France, Italy, and Germany; rivulet in the county of Tyrone.

used for some time as a temporary bridge across a


No. I.


have been the use of these immense of callus, (bony deposit.) This opening horns ?-It is quite evident that they had evidently been produced by a sharpwould prevent the animal making any pointed instrument, which did not peneprogress through a thickly wooded coun trate so deep as to cause the animal's try ;—that the long, tapering, pointed death, but which remained fixed in the antlers, (digitations of the palm,) were opening for some time afterwards; in totally unfit for lopping off the branches fact, it was such an effect as would be proof trees, a use to whịch the elk sometimes duced by the head of an arrow remaining applies his horns. It would rather appear in the wound after the shaft is broken off. that they were given the animal as wea Thus, then, we may presume that, in pons for its protection-a purpose for distant ages, upon which, as it respects which they seem to have been admirably Ireland and Britain, (if then islands,) designed; for their lateral expansion is history throws no light, the savage

hunter such, that should occasion require the of the hills chased this mighty beast, for animal to use them in his defence, their the sake of its flesh, its skin, and its hair. extreme tips would easily reach beyond Who were the rude tribes, and of what the remotest parts of his body; and if we origin, which, “ere Greece and Rome consider the powerful muscles for moving had writ their annals," occupied the island the head, whose attachments occupied of Erin? Were they of the Celtic stock, the extensive surfaces of the cervical or a people of distinct origin, preceding vertebræ, with the length of the lever the Celtæ in their occupation of western afforded by the horns themselves, we can Europe ? Who can tell? Of this, howeasily conceive how he could wield them ever, we may be sure—the chase was with a force and velocity which would their principal occupation; the deer roamdeal destruction to an enemy having the ed the hills, the wolf prowled in the glens, hardihood to venture within their range." and, perchance, other beasts of prey,

That the wolf was one of those enemies, obliged man to contest with them the we cannot doubt-perhaps, also the hyæ- possession of the soil. na; and there are good reasons for be With respect to the wolf, we know that lieving that man, an enemy far more it owes its extirpation in Ireland to the formidable, chased this noble deer, both continued agency of the hunter; but to in Ireland and on the continent, although what causes are we to attribute the extincthere are neither records nor traditions tion of the Irish elk, not only in Ireland, respecting it. A skull of this species, but in Britain, and on the continent? It described by professor Goldfuss, of Bonn, appears, if we may judge from the abunwas discovered a few years since in Ger- bance of its remains, and their only parmany, in the same drain with several tially fossilized charactera great portion stone hatchets and urns. In the seventh of animal matter remaining in themvolume of the “ Archæologia Britannica, that this noble deer lingered longer in a letter from the Countess of Moira is Ireland than in any other part of Europe, published, in which is detailed the account and perhaps existed there when it had of a human being found in gravel, under elsewhere become extinct. If we are to eleven feet of peat, soaked in the bog suppose that on the continent, like that water. It was in good preservation, and huge-horned ox described by Cæsar, the completely clothed in antique garments uras of the Heracynian forest, it ultimately of hair. This hair, it is suggested, may failed before the continued and successful probably have belonged to this fossil persecution of its pursuers, till the last deer, the bones of which are found under survivor perished, (as has nearly occurred the peat, in the same situation as the to the aurocks of Lithuania,) are we to body in question. “But” says professor attribute the disappearance of the herds Jameson, “more conclusive evidence on in Ireland to the same cause? Have they this question is derived from the appear- fallen before the bow and spear of the ance exhibited by a rib, presented by hunter? It is difficult to determine. Has archdeacon Maunsell to the Royal Dublin some sudden catastrophe of nature overSociety, in which I discovered an oval whelmed them?-or were they thinned opening near to its lower edge, the long by some epidemic malady, the few survidiameter of which is parallel to the length vors being destroyed by man for his of the rib; its margin is depressed on the sustenance, almost from necessity? We outer, and raised on the inner surface, cannot tell. It is, however, singular that round which there is an irregular effusion it is mostly under the peat that their


relics are found. Is the formation of the nor precise and comprehensive views of peat bogs, or the deposition of the shelly the relations of that truth to moral subinarl beneath, connected with their exter- jects; it is something more than all this mination ?-that is, did the causes which often the result of a different cast of produced these deposits, visit the whole mind and combination of ideas. The race with destruction? Did some sudden true missionary character, indeed, is local flood inundate the island, overtop based upon a single sublime conception, the hills, and, gradually subsiding, dis- --that of reconciling immortal souls to perse their bones, depositing, at the same God. To gain this with an effective time, the beds of shelly marl in the val. practical power, the missionary needs leys? If so, why are not the bones of himself to have passed from death unto wolves, foxes, and other animals—nay, life, and to have had deep experience of why are not the bones of man found his own enmity to God and hell-desert, intermingling with those of the mighty and of the vast transforming agency of deer? Surely it was not the only animal the reconciling grace of God in Christ. extant in the ancient land of Erin! All | As this conception has more of moral is mere theory and vague conjecture. greatness and sublimity in it than any We know that these noble beasts once other that ever entered the mind of man, roamed the hills, and we have good rea no missionary can attain to the highest son to believe that they were hunted by elevation and dignity of his calling, un

The rest is mystery ;-on that less he have strong mental power, and a ancient people, and that ancient species taste for the morally sublime. This the of deer, rest the clouds and darkness of apostle Paul had. What conceptions of vague antiquity.

M. his office and work and of spiritual things

animated the great soul of that apostle !

“ Now then we are ambassadors for THE MISSIONARY SPIRIT.

Christ, as though God did beseech you For objects that are not spiritual and by us: we pray you, in Christ's stead, eternal, men will seldom renounce the be ye reconciled to God.”—" Eye hath world for themselves and their families, not seen, nor ear heard, neither lave as missionaries must do. Mere philoso- entered into the heart of man, the things phers have never gone as missionaries; which God hath prepared for them that and seldom do mere philanthropists go love him "_"Oh the depth of the riches into the heathen world, nor would they both of the wisdom and knowledge of remain long, should they happen to go. God.”—“ Able to comprehend with all Nor will a merely impulsive, unreflecting saints what is the breadth and length and piety ever bring about a steady, perse- depth and height, and to know the love vering, laborious, self-denying mission. of Christ, which passeth knowledge." It generally gives out before the day for To make persevering and useful misembarkation, or retires from the field sionaries, however, it is not necessary before the language is acquired and the that the power of thought and of spiritual battle fairly commenced. Nothing but apprehension should come nearly up to the grand object of reconciling men to that of the apostle Paul. But there God, with a view to their eternal salva- should be a similar cast of mind, similar tion, and the happiness and glory thus views and feelings, and a similar charesulting to Christ's kingdom, will call racter. There should be a steady and any considerable number of mission- sober, but real enthusiasm, sustained by aries into the foreign field, and keep a strongly spiritualized doctrinal experithem cheerfully there. And it is neces ence, and by the “

powers of the world sary that this object be made to stand to come,” intent upon reconciling men out alone, in its greatness and majesty, to God, from a conviction of its transtowering above all other objects, as the cendent importance. hoary-headed monarch of the Alps towers Such men must compose the great above the inferior mountains around him. / body of every mission, or it will not be It is not fine conceptions of the beautiful worth supporting in the field; and the and orderly in human society that will only way such men can be induced to enfire the zeal of a missionary; it is not gage in the work, is by having the idea of rich and glowing conceptions of the life spiritual conquest, through the cross of and duties of a pastor: it is not broad Christ, the predominant and characterand elevated views of theological truth, istic idea of the enterprise.

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passed, but some of the most devout still

A Preaching House in Burmah.

this most holy place. The occasion had Early in 1832, accompanied by Ko Thah-byu, the writer, the Rev. F. lingered there ; and while the Burman Mason,) made an exploring tour through assistant and myself went round to see the province. We stopped about noon

some neighbouring villages, distributing the first day at Shen Mouktee, an old tracts, I left the old man to rest himself walled town, but reduced to an inconsi- in one of the zayats, supposing that, as derable village. This town is remark- natives usually do, he would lie down to able for containing the most famous idol sleep. I was surprised, however, on my in the province. It is said to have been return, to find him surrounded by a large found

Aoating up the river on a peepul congregation of Burmans, whose attenlog, which stopped opposite the town; tion seemed

to be riveted on his flashing and the little brass idol, from being á eyes, less, apparently, from love, than few inches high, to have miraculously from an indescribable power, that may grown to the full size of a man beneath best be compared to the fascinating influthe spreading peepul, that sprang from

ence of the serpent over an unconscious the log on which it was found. Some brood of chickens. The first sentence I times, when war or pestilence was ap- heard, on coming up, was, “ Your god proaching, it had been known to weep uttered with such a peculiar expression

was a black kula." *

The words were veracious legends, draw to its shrine all of countenance, that the events of a the devout people of the province; and dozen years have done nothing to efface once a year the inhabitants of Tavoy have the impression from my memory. a fête for several days, when nearly the

ever a man hated idolatry," observed whole population make a pilgrimage to * That is, "a black foreigner.”

MARCH, 1847.

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and moan.

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our journey, he was boundary of pursued the following strain : ‘All in

one of the brethren in conversation, | valued so much. He looks around, and Ko Thah-byu did.” Now, were I able sees none of his former possessions. Asto throw on canvass Ko Thah-byu's coun tonished, he exclaims, “Where are my tenance at that moment, as it exists in slaves ? Where are my buffaloes ? I the picture gallery of my mind, every cannot find one of them. Where are my one that looked on it would go away and houses and my chests of money? What say, “ If ever a man hated idolatry, Ko has become of all my rice and paddy Thah-byu did."

that I laid up

store? Where are all On the evening of the fourth day we the fine clothes, that cost me so much? were, for the first time, in the vicinity of I can find none of them. Who has Karens, at Ka-nyen, and, though exceed- taken them? And where are my wives ingly fatigued, he requested permission and my children? Ah! they are all to go and look for his countrymen. In missing. I can find none of them. I like manner, when we came to Pai, the am lonely and poor indeed. I have nonext stage, he could not be easy to rest thing ! But what is this?!” The preacher in the Burman village over the sabbath, here entered upon a description of the sufbut must go up the river to preach to the ferings of the soul that is lost; after which Karens. So it was through the whole he represented the rich man as taking up journey. If Karens were accessible, no this lamentation : 'Oh, what a fool have fatigue, no obstacles, would prevent his I been! I neglected God, the only seeking them out; but if not, he would Saviour, and sought only worldly goods attack the Burman's and their idolatry while on earth, and now I am undone.': most unmercifully, utterly heedless of the While the old man was preaching in this ridicule that they would sometimes heap manner, every eye was fixed on him, and upon him for being an ignorant Karen, every ear was attentive. Soon after he At Palou, near the

a day or two to this world is misery. Sickness and pain, rest on account of his infirmities, while I fear and anxiety, wars and slaughter, old visited and returned from Pa-la; but it age and death, abound on every hand. appeared on our return that he had spent But hearken! God speaks from on high : nearly the whole of both days in the Children, why take ye delight, and seek kyoung, talking with the priests and all happiness, in that low village of mortathat came to visit them. In short, Ko lity, that thicket of briers and thorns ? Thah-byu had a passion for preaching, Look up to me; I will deliver you, and and it was his ruling passion. On one give you rest, where you shall be for ever occasion, when out in a boat with one of blessed and happy.' the missionaries at Maulmain, he was in On reaching the eastern Karen setevident danger of losing his life, when he tlements, which had been the principal cried out, not for God to have mercy on scene of his labours, and, with the excephis soul, as might have been expected, tion of a single visit of two or three days (that he felt was safe,), but, “ I shall be from Mr. Boardman, of his labours alone, drowned, and never more preach the the writer penned his impressions in the word of God to the Karens."

following language : Mr. Boardman has recorded the fol "I cry no longer, 'The horrors of healowing specimen of his preaching : “Ko thenism!' but« The blessings of missions: Thah-byu had been describing the folly I date no longer from a heathen land. and hurtfulness of worldly things and Heathenism has fled these banks. I eat worldly tempers, and proceeded to say, the rice, and yams, and fruit, cultivated • A worldly man is never satisfied with by Christian hands; look on the fields of what he possesses. Let me have more Christians, and see no dwellings but houses, more lands, more buffaloes, more those inhabited by Christian families. I slaves, more clothes, more wives, more am seated in the midst of a Christian children and grandchildren, more gold village, surrounded by a people that love and silver, more paddy and rice, more as Christians, converse as Christians, act boats and vessels ; let me be a rich man. like Christians, and look like Christians. This is his language. He thinks of no If it be worth à voyage across the Atlanthing so much as of amassing worldly tic to see the Shenandoah run through goods. Of God and religion he is quite the Blue Ridge, surely a voyage around unmindful. But watch that man. On a the globe would be amply repaid by a sudden his breath departs, and he finds sabbath spent in this valley." himself deprived of all he possessed and

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