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the principle that wiscounts, “ when stamina, and this defect is the favourite unadorned,” are “adorned the most.” text of the abuse levelled against the He professes a religion compared with Hindoo by his enemies. The secret of which all other creeds are mere par- our rapid conquest and secure tenure of venus; which looks down on the vene- the country is the absence of energy rable faith of Buddhism as a vulgar among the inhabitants. In every action modern heresy, and watches the varying of his life, the Bengalee makes it manifortunes of Mahommedanism with the fest that he is entirely without the earsame contemptuous curiosity as that nestness of purpose which a Briton with which the Church of England carries into his business, his pleasures, regards the progress of the Revival even his vices. Your native is perfectly movement. He still may recognise at contented to glisten and bask in the sun every turn the traces of a system of for days and weeks together, dozing, government, justice, and finance, as com- waking to scratch his arms, and turn over, prehensive and minute, though not so and dozing again. Conceive a Scotchphilosophical, as that which we have man, not under the influence of whisky founded in its place. His countrymen and unprovided with tobacco, lying on were bankers, and merchants, and shop- his back for two hours of daylight! He keepers, long before the renaissance era would never be able to recover his lost of European commerce ; ere Venice had ground and catch up his brother Scotchyet supplanted Amphitrite in the affec men in the race of life. John Stuart Mill tions of Neptune ; ere Britain was has shown that “the standard of comaware of the charter which had been fort indispensable in the opinion of the drawn up for her benefit on the occasion labouring classes” is the ruling principle of her rising from the azure main amidst of social progress. Now, in India that a flattering but somewhat monotonous standard is lamentably low. A penny chorus of guardian angels. Broking, or twopence a day will provide a man and discounting, and forestalling, and with rice enough to produce a pleasing retailing were going on briskly along sense of plethora ; a single coarse cotton either bank of the Ganges while Gurney garment, a mat, and a brass lotah reand Overend were squabbling over the quire no large outlay. He digs a great skin of a badger which they had trapped hole in the ground, and makes a dirton the ground where the Exchange now pie, which he calls a house. He grinds stands; while Fortnum and Mason were his curry on a stone prigged from an driving a bouncing trade in acorns, and English graveyard, cooks his rice in Swan and Edgar were doing a good an extempore oven on a fire of dried thing in woad; while Rothschild was cow-dung, and eats till he “swells compounding for his last grinder with visibly before your very eyes.” One some fierce chieftain in Franconia. Who good fit of dyspepsia, tempered by a can wonder that the member of such a pipe and a siesta, suffices for his sustesociety should differ radically from a nance. The great mass of the populaFrenchman or a German ; not as a tion will do just as much work as will savage differs from a civilized man, but earn them their simple but flatulent as one man differs from another who has dinner, and not a stroke more. The been brought up amidst an entirely dis- distinctive traits of the Oriental and the similar set of ideas, scenes, associations, Frank are strongly marked in their and influences ? The day has long respective methods of limiting their passed when the Bengalee could be dis- exertions to their wants. An English posed of by being termed a “mild Hin- navvy will work like a horse for four doo," and I trust that it will not be days out of the seven, and spend the long before he will cease to be disposed other three in an Elysium of beer, bird'sof by being called a “damned nigger.” eye, pugilism and bull-terriers. A ryot

In the constitution of the native mind, lounges and snoozes over his business the fundamental characteristic is want of every day and all day long, except on

some high festival, when he splotches drink of water, and the other half are his turban with pink paint, and sets off smoking in a circle and listening to a to drink the water of the holy river in disquisition of the torch-carrier, who has an exalted state of piety and bang, in just pronounced to the satisfaction of his the company of twenty or thirty of his audience that you are of a lower caste than neighbours, a tomtom, and two females the Sahib at the last dawk bungalow, beof bad reputation.

cause he wore a collar and waistcoat, The ordinary Hindoo has no feeling while you travel without those badges about the sacredness of toil. Honest of rank. It is difficult to imagine how faithful performance you will expect from any business was done before we came him in vain. A drunken, debauched into the country-how any one ever mechanic in our own country will turn made a road, or a boat, or a journey. out what work he does, in first-rate style. The other day I was on a visit at the A knavish, dissipated groom will bring house of a Maharaja. We were to set your horse to the door in perfect con- off at three in the morning, in palandition, with not a hair out of place, as quins, to catch a train at a distant fresh as he himself was the evening be- station. Most minute arrangements had fore. A native, on the contrary, must be been made over night. Our servants watched from morning till night. He were to start on an elephant at one A.M., has no sense of shame in the matter of our baggage on the heads of coolies an laziness, and considers himself horribly hour after that, while we were to find ill-used if he is kept to his duty. I breakfast ready at a quarter before three. learnt this fact during my first night on At five minutes before three I awoke by these shores. After half an hour's sleep, chance, and, out of a household of a hunI began to dream that I was Dante, and dred and more, not a soul was stirring. that I was paying a visit to the Infernal They had all gone to bed, not with a derealms under the guidance of Martin termination to oversleep themselves, but Tupper. Protected by his divine pre- absolutely indifferent whether they oversence, I traversed the regions of torment, slept themselves or not. This utter want escaping with difficulty from the clutches of conscience in everything that concerns of minor demons, who bore a strong re- industry is very trying to men who emsemblance to the Lascars in the service ploy natives in large numbers ; and a of the P. and 0., until we arrived at the natural indignation is too apt to render sanctum of the Father of Lies, who such men oblivious of the fact that the received us very cordially. The atmo- most idle, worthless, servile, timid ryot sphere was hot, very hot; so hot that I had is the equal of the Viceroy himself in begun to think of negotiating a retreat, his rights of man and citizen. when an imp came up to his majesty, Unfortunately, this want of truthfultouched his horns respectfully, and said, ness leavens the whole being of the Ben“ More coals, please sir, for General galee. And here, though I use the Butler.” At this moment I awoke in a language of the most cruel foes of the fearful state of perspiration to see the native, I entreat you to believe that the punkah hanging motionless overhead. same language may be employed with I sallied forth, and there was the bearer very different ends. Facts are facts. rolled up in his blanket, fast asleep; The deduction to be drawn from them and this fellow had absolutely nothing is the vital point. Is a firm friend of else to do besides pulling a string for the Hindoo, a devout believer in the three hours and a half every night : the destinies of the race, to blink his eyes rest of the twenty-four he had at his to grand faults of the Hindoo character, own disposal. If you go to sleep on a because those faults form a pretext for journey, nothing is more usual than to those who desire to lower the peasantfind your palanquin on the ground at proprietor to the condition of a serf ? Let the side of the road, while half the menus boldly take the native as he is, comare gone to a village a mile off for a pare him with what he was, and we shall find no reason for despair as to wþat he drinking bottled ale. Bengalees who have will be. It is not too much to assert received an English education, and who that the mass of Bengalees have no mix much with Englishmen, have learnt notion of truth and falsehood. During to appreciate the English feeling about the earliest weeks of Indian life one is veracity. The Jemmadar, or headman amused or irritated, as the case may be, of a factory, who is high in the confiby the transparency or ingenuity of the dence and much in the company of his lies which meet one at every turn. The master, is often every whit as trustfirst Mofassil town at which I spent any worthy as a Norfolk or Yorkshire bailiff. time was Patna. When my servant Who can doubt, then, that among the heard that we were going thither, he many blessings which England will have appeared to be in high glee, and said conferred upon India truth will not be that he had a papa and mamma at wanting? At present she is certainly Patna. Pleased at his filial piety, I lying with Hope at the bottom of the gave him some hours' leave in the course tank in Short's bazaar. of every day, little dreaming that his The love of gain is strong in the parents were represented by a hideous Hindoo, but not so strong as to countervenal sweetheart of eight-and-thirty. act his aversion for what an Englishman At Mofussilpore his papa and mamma would call work. His covetousness diswere succeeded by his brother and sister, plays itself in a penchant for saving at Chupra by his uncle and aunt. As money that almost amounts to a mania, we went from station to station he had and in the popularity of all occupations reason to regret that he had been so which afford an opportunity for turning extravagant with his relations at first two-thirds of an anna without any great setting out. By the time we came to exertion of mind or body. Your BenGya he had exhausted the whole con- galee dearly loves a contract. He is the nexion, and was reduced to the clumsy ideal contractor, as far as his own inexpedient of transporting the author terests are concerned. He will spare no and authoress of his being from Patna trouble or time to buy the article at an in search of employment. You are absurdly low price, and of the worst obliged to engage a servant with your quality that can by any possibility pass eyes shut. It is a hundred to one that muster. If there is any quiet little the testimonials which he brings for knavery practicable, he marks it with your inspection refer to some other the glance of a vulture. The universal man. A lady told me that three ayahs “dustoorie" is a singular monument o applied to her consecutively, one dirtier the petty peculation which has been than another, with precisely the same going on throughout Bengal for thouset of testimonials. But, however deeply sands of years. Every agent employeil engrained in the Hindoo nature are to make a purchase, great or smal habits of mendacity, there is good pockets a commission unknown to his ground for believing that those habits principal. This commission is called may be corrected or modified in time. “dustoorie,” or “the customary sum ;" Under favourable circumstances a native the amount being regulated by the imcan refrain from saying the thing that pudence of the buyer, and the anxiety of is not. Powerful Rajahs and high-born the seller to dispose of his goods. A Zemindars are too proud and indepen. native prince, who agreed to take the dent to lie and cozen. There are abun- house and furniture of a gentleman dance of signs which must convince about to leave the country, claimed to those who do not in their heart of hearts make a deduction from the price, on wish their dark brethren to continue the ground that he was his own agent. “ always liars, eyil beasts, slow bellies," The rascality and acuteness of the serthat the Hindoo is capable of speaking vants in European families are something the truth, just as he is capable of reading stupendous. A bad servant cheats you Gibbon, wearing peg-top trousers, and right and left. A good servant takes less and less every year that he lives : “THAKKUR AND SPINK's EKLIPS. with you, but he will always take something. He could not reconcile it with

To the Edditur of the Englishman.' his conscience to impugn the institution “SIR, I beg to trubble on your of the dustoorie. If you give your man “ honnor's benificense for shameless a rupee to pay a cab, he puts the coin in “ neglekt of Messrs. Thakkur and his pouch, and arranges the matter when “ Sphinx not keep there words about your back is turned. If you bid him “ Ekklips of mune. I buy Thakkur throw a few pice into a beggar's lap, he “and Spink's Post ofice dirrektions takes his percentage after a bargain “ which say ekklips of mune 1st Joone made at great length and with much “ at 8.45 with diskount and kommishun heat. But it never occurs to the cab- “ for redy rupees. What for my rupees man or the beggar to dispute his right “ all gone and no Ekklips? Not my to a commission. The other day, a “rupees, but master's. I very good treasury messenger was sent to buy " man, get edukating in Mission Skul. some stamps. Not being aware that " while Mission Sahib smoke cheroots. this commodity is supplied by the “ and Mission Sahib buy Thakker and Government, which is more apt to take “ Spink's for Society, which give me dustoories than to give them, he de “commisshun and diskount very small manded his discount, which was sum “ pice. I very fond of Ekklipses, and marily disallowed by the clerk. Shocked “I sit up to see Ekklips with Mem and scandalised by a refusal which ap- “ Sahib's ayah, and she say I know peared to him monstrous and unreason- " nothing, and she not turn Kristian, able, he jumped over the counter,

er the counter; " and very angry, and I give her chota knocked the functionary on the head " drop out of master's bottle, make her with his own official ruler, and carried

“ very glad, and turn anything. Then off the ledger in triumph as a hostage “ master he come out, and look at mune, back to the treasury. A lady, who lately “ and say 'dam Thakkur and Sphinx, set up house here, paid the wages of " and throw him in tank, and send me twelve bearers into the hands of the “ to fish out Post ofice Direkshions to Sirdar or headman during the first “ curl chota Mem Sahib's hair. But I month. At the end of that time, she “ think master all rong. Thakker and held a review of all the establishment, “ Sphinx very good gentlemens, and a step which disconcerted the policy of “ give dishkount, and its the Post ofice the Sirdar. who was able to produce “ and Elekrik Telegremps what made only nine bearers, of whom two were “ Ekklips come rong day; and if you evidently coolies, got in for the occasion « will put it in your paper Post ofice from a neighbouring bazaar. The same “ peoples very mad, and tare wigs, and man offered the steward ten shillings a “ kick punka-wallah, but erklips come month for the privilege of supplying “ all right yesterday after rumpus. the lamps with oil. Yet there is every

“I pour native boy rite butiful Engreason to believe that he is honest, as “lish, and rite good Sirkulars for MateSirdar-bearers go. The following com- “land Sahib and Chamber of Kommerce munication to the Englishman will give “very cheap, and gives one rupee eight you a notion of the universality of “ annas per diem, but new man say he * dustoorie," and is likewise a fair speci- « make betterer English, and put it all men of a native letter. You must know “ rong, and only give one rupee ; so I that Messrs. Thacker and Spink publish " leave the gentlemen's and come to you a Post-office Directory, prefaced by an “ if you will give two eight per diem. almanac. “Chota," as you will proba

“I can make potery and country korrusbly discover by your unassisted genius, « pondance. signifies “ little."

“ Yours trully,


Of all avenues to wealth, that most lie, but in the witness-box he surpasses peculiar to this country is the tortuous himself. Even if there is no intention path of litigation. The native regards a to deceive, the native has not yet been court of law, not as the bulwark of the found who can stand the cross-examinainnocent, and the refuge of the wronged, tion of an English barrister. A bold but as a prize-ring, which affords a fair big lawyer will make a ryot contradict field and no favour ; a stock-exchange, himself ten times in as many sentences. where fortunes are to be made by clever- The testimony of a single one of our ness and industry, and lost by careless countrymen has more weight with the ness and stupidity; where all men have court than that of any number of Hinan equal chance, and no one must rely doos, a circumstance which puts a terrion the justice of his cause, or the blame- ble instrument of power into the hands lessness of his life, or any such natural of an unscrupulous and grasping Engadvantage which he may possess over lishman. It is no uncommon thing for his fellows. The wealthiest and most a rich native to purchase an estate in respected man in a district will often the name of a dependent, who farms it be one who dates his prosperity from for his master's profit, partly from an a suit which, as everybody is well innate dislike of open dealing, partly aware, was brought to a successful ter- from an ancient prejudice against premination by unlimited perjury, and a senting to the world an appearance of document discovered at the bottom of a wealth-the relic of a lawless age, when chest in the Zenana, just in time to be none but the poor were safe. On one produced in court. His neighbours occasion, a zeminadar bought some valspeak of him as the society of an Eng- able indigo works, without taking the lish provincial town speaks of a man precaution of binding by a document who began life under a counter and ends the agent to whom the factory was noit in the parlour of the county bank, minally to belong. An Englishman in whither he has pushed his way by dint of in the neighbourhood got the ear of the prudence and frugality. Great families agent, and bribed and bullied him into carry on their feuds in the cutcherries making over the whole concern to himand the Zillah courts instead of in the self, knowing well that, in the absence tented field. Accusations and counter of written evidence, the word of a Euroaccusations of murder, violence, fraud, pean would carry the day. And small writs of ejectment and trespass, appeals, wonder, when every week a dozen cases summonses, false wills, false witnesses, come into court in which a plain fact, false dates-such are the weapons which asserted on oath by a score of men, is are familiar to the Percies and Douglases, denied on oath by another score. the Capulets and Montagues of Bengal India is the country for those conand Bahar. A planter confessed to a scientious barristers who have doubts friend of mine, that he had been reduced about the morality of advocating a cause to the verge of ruin by a rajah, who which they believe to be unfounded. trumped up three actions in succession, If Felix Graham came out here he would and gained them all. The Englishman, lead the bar within five years, and his however, eventually won back the ground pretty wife wonld be a charming addiwhich he had lost in a suit, the facts of tion to Calcutta society. He would be which had been invented and arranged utterly unable to make out whether his by his agent and zeminadar. Amidst client was the wronged or the wronger, such an entagled mass of chicane, false- guilty or not guilty. He might say to hood, and inaccuracy, a judge requires a himself, “We employ perjury, it is local experience of many years, and con- “true, but the other side employ both siderable natural discernment, to arrive “perjury and forgery. We bring forwith any certainty at a conclusion, and ward fifteen witnesses, who would not even with these advantages he is often “speak truth if they could, but the misled. A Hindoo never sticks at a “other side brings forward as many

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