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ers who are as much poder the influence of ing, and not without some kind of ples ; the principle of witchcraft as these poor de first, because they have usually a slender luded women. In his judicious remarks, provision of either ; secondly, because a however, he does not appear to me to have man has no occasion to spend his time and -adverted to the cause of wilch and some his pains in the studious way, who has an other crafts, moral as well as physical, inward illumination to guide him to truth, that phantom of a being called a Devil. and to make such labour unnecessary. The agency of this omnipresent author and Will it be pretended that certain pastors of promoter of all craft is maintained in this the flock do not encourage all this? Read country both by church and state; and, sectarian pamphlets and periodicals of the while in our courts of law crimes are pub- present period. licly denounced as being committed at the New

Never was hypocrisy carried to a greater instigation of the devil, can it be expected



beight than in the civil wars of Charles I: that either his influence or that of his imps the

" they had Triers who appointed preachers will entirely lose their influence on the

to their livings, first asking them such minds of the uneducated ? If King James

questions as these: When were you conhad not been so food of contending against

verted? Where did you begin to feel the witchcraft, we should not have read, most

motions of the spirit ? In what year? In likely, of the witch, but of the ventriloquist,

wbat month? In what day? About what of Endor; nor would the term wilch have

hour of the day, had you the secret call or been in the translation of the Scripture,

motion of the spirit, to undertake and la. since it is not the proper rendering of any

bour in the ministry? What work of grace words used in the Hebrew writings. It

" has God wrought upon your soul ? and a was this King's fondness for demonology,

: great many other questions, about regeneas originating in the devil, which occasion ed this term to be so frequently and so im

ration, predestination, and the like. properly introduced by his subservient Mechanics of all sorts were then preach. translators. The religion of Jesus is wholly ers, and some of them were much admired free from any such absurdity, as that of in and followed by the mob. "I am to tell culcating a belief in any such beings as thee. Christian reader. (says Dr. Featley, wilches, devil, or derils. This, so far as I

1 preface to his Dipper Dipped, 1647,) this am capable of judging, has been most sa

sa- new year, of new changes, never heard of tisfactorily ascertained and proved in some in form

some in former ages, namely of stables turned discourses which I have lately read, deliv. into temples, and I will beg Jeave to add, ered at Portsmouth, and published under temples turped into stables,stalls into quires, the title of “an Analytical Investigation of shopboards into communion tables, tubs in. the Scriptural Claims of the Devil," by a to pulpits, aprons into linen ephods, and preacher of that town of the name of Scott.

mechanics of the lowest rank into priests I think, if I were accused of committing any of the highest places. I wonder that our crime at the instigation of the devil, I should

uld door-posts and walls sweat not, upon which demur against the count which contained such notes as these have been lately affixthe charge, on the ground of its impossi.

ed ; ' on such a day such a brewer's clerk bility.

exerciseth, such a tailor expoundeth, such

a waterman teacheth. If cooks instead of PIOUS LIBERTIES.

minciog their meat, fall upon dividing of

(Recreative Mag.) the word ; if taylors Jeap up from the It may be asked, why expose the infirm- shopboard into the pulpit, and patch up ities of the human mind? Why display so sermons out of stolen shreds; if not only many instances of raving superstition and of the lowest of the people, as in Jeroboignorance? To this we answer, that we am's time, priests are consecrated to the wish them to be laughed down ; for the au- most high God; do we inarvel to see such thors of such farrago do much dis-service confusion in the church as there is ?' to religion, not among those who know how Here are felt-makers who can roundly deal tod

hose who do with the blockheads and neutral demicasters not. If these rhapsodies had been acted of the world : cobblers who can give good only among the covenanters of Scotland, rules for upright walking, and handle then it would not be worth while to drag scripture to a bristle ; coachmen who know forth the unwelcome records from their by- how to lash the beastly enormities, and gone obscurity ; but the same cant is every curb the headstrong insolence of this bru. now and then attempted to be obtruded tish age, stoutly exhorting us to stand np among us, by the fanatics of the present for the truth, lest the wheel of destruction day, who even go to the length of saying roundly overrun us. We have weavers that that they are sensible' of the operations of can swectly inform us of the shuttle swiftthe Holy Spirit, and even name time and ness of the times, and practically tbread out place. Now we think this is going too far; the vicissitudes of all sublunary things till so far indeed, as to deserve our ridicule ! the web of our life be cut off ; and here are for reasoning with such inspirati, or illumi- mechanics of my profession, who can sepnati, the favoured people, is altogether out arate the pieces of salvaion from those of of the question. In fact, fanatics never damnation ; measure out every man's por. were any great friends to reason and learn- tion, and cut it out by thread ; substantial

ly pressing the points, till they have fash- Horace, or an eclogue of Virgil; espeionably filled up their work with a well- cially if he can but drivel a little, either at bottomed conclusion."

the mouth or eyes, when he repeats them. But to proceed : the Puritans in the days

And such a soul may pass for a soul-ravishof Charles I. were so daring as to make

ing spiritualist, if he can but set off his saucy expostulations with God from the nonsense with a wry mouth, which with pulpit. Mr. Vines, in St. Clement's church,

them is called a grace-pouring-down counnear Temple Bar, used the following words: tenance. The snufiling and twang of the " O Lord, thou hast never given us a victo pose passes for the gospel sound : and the ry this long while, for all our frequent fast

throwings of the face for the motions of ing. What dost thou mean, O Lord, to fling

the spirit.” But we shall now proceed to us in a ditch and there leave us ?" And

give some extracts from this book, with the one Robinson, in his prayer at Southamp

pious hope that the ludicrous instances citon, Aug. 25, 1642, expressed himself in the

ted will stop those who are getting into this following manner : “ O God, O God, many.

way, and prevent any sect starting up in are the hands that are lift up against us;

future, to act their parts in this manner ; but there is one, God, it is thou thyself, o

viz, in giving us a torrent of words, and Father, wbo doest us more mischief than

but a drop of sense :they all.” They seemed to encourage this

Mr. W. Guthrie, of Fenwick, hath a sauciness in their public sermons. « Gath

printed sermon full of curses and impreer upon God, (says Mr. R. Harris, Fast

cations. " Will you gang, man, to the curSermon before the Commons) and hold

sed curates ? Gang! and the vengeance him to it, as Jacob did ; press him with his

of God gang with thee; the devil rug their precepts, with his promises, with his hand,

hearts out of their sides." with his seal, with his oath, till we do duso

Mr. Kirkton, lately in the church he pospein, as some Greek Fathers boldly speak;

sesses at Edinburgh, began his sermon thus : that is, if I may speak it reverently enough,

Devil take my soul and body.' The peoput the Lord out of countenance ; put him,

ple startling at the expression, he anticias you would say, to the blush, unless we

pates their wonder with this correction ; be masters of our requests."

you think, Sirs, this is a strange word in

the pulpit, but you think nothing of it out Evans goes still farther : “0 God, o

of the pulpit; but what if the devil should God, many are the hands lift up against us,

take many of ye when ye utter such lanbut there is one, God, it is thou thyself, ó

guage?' Another time preaching against Father, who doest us more mischief than

cockups (part of the head-dress we supthey all (this was a favourite phrase). O

pose, he told, I have been this year of Lord, when wilt thou take a chair and sit

God, preaching against the vanity of womamong the house of Peers? And when, o God, when, I say, wilt thou vote among the

en, yet I see my own daughter in the kirk

even now, have as high a cockup as any of honourable house of Commons ? We know,

you all.' O Lord, that Abraham made a covenant, Mr. Kirkton, preaching in his meetingand Moses and David made a covenant,and

house on the Castle Hill of Edinburgh, adour Saviour made a covenant; but thy duced several instances of the poverty of Parliament's covenant is the greatest of all the people of God : amongst others. he had covenants. I say this is God's cause, and this

this remarkable one ; Brethren, (says he) if our God has any cause, this it is; and if critics with their trim fram

critics with their frim frams, and why. this be not God's cause, then God is no God

tie whaties (trifles) may imagine a hundred for me, but the devil has got up into heav

reasons for Abraham's going out of the

land of Chaldea; but I will tell you what It is curious to observe, that those who

was always my opinion, I believe Abraham, took these pious liberties, took the liberty

poor man, was forced to run out of the also of quarrelling with the most innocent

land of Judea, for debt. customs then in use, as the eating of Christ

One Fraser, of Bray, preaching at a conmas pies and plan-porridge at Christinas,

tas, venticle in the beginning of King James's which they reputed as very sinful. This

reign, began his discourse thus: “I am might be further illustrated if we had room.

come here to preach this day, Sirs, in spite These were the people who considered

of the curates, and in spite of the prelates mirth to be only made for reprobates, and

their masters, and in spite of the King their cheerfulness of heart denied those who are

master, and in spite of the Hector of France, the only persons that have a proper title

his master, and in spite of the Pope of to it.

Rome, that's both their master, and in spite The anthor of The Scotch Presbyterian of the Devil, that's all their master." Eloquence, 4to. 1693,' speaks of “the Mr. Areskine, praying in the Tron church force that a loud voice and a whining tone, church last year, said, “ Lord have mercy in broken and smothered words, have upon on all fools, and idiots, and particularly on the Presbyterian rabble ; that they look not the magistrates of Edinburgh." upon a man as endued with the spirit of I have (says the author) often heard God, without such canting and deformity blind Mr. Best, at Utretcht, use this expresof holiness. A person that hath the dex. sion in his prayers : " O Lord, confound terity of whining, may make a great con. that man of sin, that child of perdition, gregation of them weep with an ode of that Anti-Christ, the Pope of Rome : thou



must confound him, thou shalt con found observe." He left the assembly inbin ; good Lord, I will have you confound stantly. They admire him, lament bis CHIMNEYS.

fate, and doubt whether he will persist Time brings up many new and strange "mis des

in his design. The intrepid and pious things, and there are i evolutions in men's Guyon, animated by all the sublime miede as well as in their circumstances. energy religion can inspire, acted up to Our old historiographers examined subjects his words. He had never married, be with original views; and, though not the most respectable of writers, expressed their wars

was rich, and he immediately made a ideas with clearness. Hollingshed wrote will dictated by justice and piety; he during the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; his confessed, and in the middle of the intention was manifestly good, in noticing night received the sacraments. A man the increase of luxury as prevailing in his bad died of the plague in his house days; but few, probably, will adopt an opinion which he gives, respecting an io. within four and twenty hours : Guyon vention from which so many advantages at day break shut himself up in the accrue. Among other daily changes, he same room ; he took with him an inkprotests against “the multitude of chimneys lately erected, whereas, in the sound

stand, paper, and a little crucifix. Full remembrance of some old men, there were

of enthusiasm, never had he knelt not above two or three, if so many, in most more firm or more collected : kneeling uplandish towns in the reign."

before the corpse, he wrote : “ Mould

ering remains of an immortal soul, not HEROISM.

only can I gaze on thee without borror,

(Lit. Gaz. Oct.) The plague raged more violently

, but even with joy and gratitude. Thou · than ever at Marseilles. Every link

wilt open to me the gates of a glorious of affection was broken, the father

eternity. In discovering to me the seturned from the child, the child from

cret cause of the terrible disease which the father : cowardice, ingratitude, no

destroys my native city, thou wilt enalonger excited indignation. Misery is

ble me to point out some salutary remat its beight when it thus destroys ev

edy--thou wilt render my sacrifice ery generous feeling, that dissolves ev.

useful. Oh God! (continued he,)thou, ery tie of humanity! The city became

wilt bless the action thou hast thyself a desert, grass grew in the streets, a fu

inspired.” He began,-he finished the neral met you at every step. The phy

dreadful operation, and recorded in desicians assembled in a body at the Ho

tail his surgical observations. He then tel de Ville, to hold a consultation on

left the room, threw the papers in a the fearful disease, for which no reme

vase of vinegar, and afterwards sought dy had yet been discovered. After a

the lazaretto, where he died in twelve long deliberation, they decided unani

hours-a death ten thousand times mously that the malady had a peculiar

more glorious than the warrior's, who, and mysterious character, which open

to save his country, rushes on the ening a corpse alone might develope,-an

emy's ranks, since he advances with operation it was impossible to aitempt,

hope, at least, sustained, admired, and since the operator must infallibly be

seconded by a whole army.- La Peste come a victim in a few hours, beyond

de Marseilles, by Madame de Gerlis. the power of human art to save him, as the violence of the attack would pre

We hear that the scene of the next Waclude their administering the accustom

verley Novel is laid in Scotland, aod the

time about forty years ago. ed remedies. A dead pause succeeded

ied Mr. Maturin's forthcoming Romance is this fatal declaration. Suddenly a sur- called the “ Albigenses ;” and founded upgeon named Guyon, in the prime of on historical events of the early part of the lise, and of great celebrity in his pro. 13th century, interwoven with the fictitious lession, rose and said firmly, 6 Be it part of the narrative.

The Expedition to the Polar Regions, unso: I devote myself for the sake of my der Captain Parry, has returned. The discountry. Before this numerous assen- coveries during this voyage have not yet Sly I swear, in the nanie of humanity transpired, and religion, that to-morrow, at the

the News Works.-Lizar's Views of Edin

e burzh, No. 3, royal 410 58.—Britton's Grapbreak of day, I will dissect a corpse, ic and Literary Illustrations of Fonthill and write down as I proceed, what I Abbey, medium 4to. 21s.; imperial 4to. 21.28.

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List ye landsinen all to me. MTHAT “one half of the world. There are means of earning a sub

does not know how the other sistence-modes of human toil, so out half lives, is a very ancient truth, I of the great high-ways of industry-s0 fancy, and, in spite of the advances of disconnected from the regular rattle knowledge, it is perfectly applicable, I and bustle of the community--so lov. believe, in the present era of mankind. ly-lone, and independent of all geEvery man has his own world, or a lit- neral interests; that, with regard to ortle plot cut out of the great mass to dinary observers, they may be said to which his own wants and habitudes be absolutely invisible to the naked confine his experience, and which he eye. You must seerch for themcalls “the world." The Duke of stoop down to them -- handle them .

- has so many courses served up as you would some minute and mysteto his dinner-table daily, the remains rious process of animal life- put your of which, he is positive, are removed to ear to them-smell at them--before be consumed by his servants; and you can ascertain or guess at their nathis, he determines, is the way of the ture and use. What is that strangeworld.” Every body does so. He looking man about ? What then wears a coat three weeks, and then pampered sloth! You will not go and makes it over to his butler-and that see? Well-stay a little, and I will is how people get clothed. Not a doz- tell you all about it. I can assure the en streets from his princely mansion, great Duke before-mentioned, that he there are human beings wondering, may see an old man clad in black sackwhether “ the bone hashed up with a cloik, with a rope round his waistfew potatoes will do for to-morrow;" bent, and wan and grey-pass by his others agreeing that a bit of mutton window daily at his breakfast-time, " is rather high, but will do to make who feeds and clothes himself (just as his broth of:” and a fellow-creature pro- Grace may see) with the profit accru. testing that, shabby as his coat is, it ing from old bones which he picks up will go a month or two yet--turned; from the public streets. I am positivevet such things are as inconceivable to ly serious, yet his Grace, I dare say, the Duke as if they were occurrences will pause from his chocolate, and lisof another planet. Has his Grace the ten to the fact with the same sort of insmallest conception that there is such a credulous wonder with which he might stratagem on our earth as re-beavering hear that there are living beings some a hat, and reviving a pair of trowsers ? hundred thousands of times less than a Not he, believe it.

mite. And this too is far-far indeed, 27 ATHENEUM VOL. 14.

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from the limit of human littleness and of the returns given by this occupation desolation.

to a life of toil, through a winter's seaThe accidents of my life have often son and severities, I will explain in due brought me ipto very intimate commu- time. The circumstances of the seanion with the poor, so as to make me roamer may derive a certain fanciful perfectly familiar with their disposi- dignity from the external scenery in tions and habits, as dependent upon the which he moves,-from his bold familpeculiar circumstances of their condi- iarity with storm and rain, and the untion, and let me into many secrets of disputed freehold which he has and enstrange drudgery and privation, which, joys in the ample sky, and the pure as I never saw them mentioned under breath of the bountiful sea ; but, in all any head in the quarterly reports of essential respects of rank and conseour ever-increasing prosperity, are. I quence, he stands in about the same reimagine, very little known or selt for lation to society, as those Cyclops-like out of the bosoms of the sufferers. The figures, with sacks at their backs, wbich obscurity, remoteness, and narrowness my London readers, no doubt, must of their 5 world”-and the extreme have often seen lurking about under insignificance of their relations with back walls, and in dingy corners, rifling the worlds of other people, readily ac- the treasures of cinder-heaps. These count for the sort of exile in which searchers of cinders are more abject in they live from common sympathy: a their appearance; they are blackstate still further secured to them by blear-eyed, and have a fertive, larcethe gentle and quiet humility of their nous look about them, which is not preown manners and deportment-for, possessing; but still they may be honest, though the last the lowest among the (when back doors are shut) and as to sons of toil, they are never forward to substantial profits they rather outdo, I announce themselves in the angry lan- believe, the poor rangers of the beach. guage of repining and discontent. I shall, perhaps, best illustrate the naThey have still something to lose who ture and vicissitudes of sea-roaming, by lift up their voices to remonstrate and some little account of the life one of its threaten. The poor patient drudges most assiduous followers; a man with of whom I am speaking, who have whose ways I happen to be deeply connothing more to fear, and they know versant, and who surely deserves some not what to gain-lay down their heads notice, as having been long known benightly in perfect gratitude tbat they tween Castle Point and Birley Gap, are permitted to live. Oh! how beau- on the coast of S-- as “ King of the tiful are the dispensations of nature ! Roamers.” I adopt this plan too the how certain her consolations ! how all- more readily, seeing that this distincovering her charities in every condi- guished old beach-man had, indepention of human existence!

dent of his merits and services in his I have lately been much in the com- profession, many peculiarities in his acpany of a class of lowly labourers, call- tions, manners, and deportment, that ing themselves Sea-Roamers, who work rendered him a very interesting perout, I think, about as stubborn and sonage ; so much so, that, even among precarious a “ daily bread” from this the dull partners of his labours, he had earth of ours, as any men who have the credit of being “ quite a character." ever fallen under my observation. Half an hour's biography, collected They are not of the order of adventur- from his pilgrimage of nearly fourer's called wreckers; the service of the score years on this globe, may not be urecker is uncertain and occasional : unentertaining, I hope, to the reader, whereas, the roamer is a never-failing and, perhaps, not quite uninstructive. attendant at the sea-side, where he wan “Old Johnny Wolgar” had always ders about from morning till night, to lived in his native place, a small town pick up (if God sends him luck, says on the Coast of S- , where, in one he) the refuse-the offal of the sea, na- form of enterprise or another, he had tive and extraneous, that is cast ashore always, as the phrase is, followed the by the tides. The nature and extent sea. I propose to say little of him but

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