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Biography of celebrated Characters lately deceased.
THE Greeks have just sustained the doubt the fact of the death of this dis
bitterest loss which has befallen tinguished patriot, it may be interesting them during the whole of their short, to our readers, and, what is of even but brilliant contest with the enslavers more importance, it may serve the alof their country. Marco Botzari, the most sacred cause which he espoused, Achilles of their cause- the Achilles in if we give a slight notice of his public all things but his invulnerability-bas life and character : and we do this the perished prematurely in the flower of rather, as we have reason to believe his age and his fame ; and has left that the source from whence we derive none behind him that can adequately our information is the only one at pressupply his place. They have still ma- ent in this country that is capable of ny excellent leaders ; but none who supplying it. unite into one noble whole the various Marco Botzari was the son of the admirable qualities possessed by that celebrated Kitzo Botzari, a member of distinguished person.
one of the principal families of Sulei, The following is extracted from the and a head of his tribe during their Morning Chronicle, which purports to long war with the late Ali Pacha. give the substance of a letter just re. When this war was terminated, by the ceived from Missolonghi :–« In the fall of Sulei into the hands of the Pacha, neighbourhood of Valto the Greeks had Kitzo Botzari retired to the Ionian again assembled in considerable force, Islands ; but Marco, the subject of this made a most determined resistance,and notice, remained in Albania, with seycompelled the invaders to take the di eral other members of his family, and rection of Carpanesi. The Suliotes, lived for some time in the most entire having marched upon this place, and obscurity. During this period, no cirhaving been joined by other chiess as cumstances occurring to call forth any they advanced, came up with the bar. peculiar traits of character, nothing was barians on the evening of the 8th of noted of him but that he was a young August; and on the next morning, by man of great personal courage, and one of those daring movements for with high notions of justice and honour. which this nation of Christians has al- A trifling anecdote will here illustrate ways been so justly celebrated, they his views on the latter points. A pargained a great victory over the Turkish ticular friend of Marco was playing at army. During this memorable engage- cards with two persons who were in ment Marco Botzari placed himself at the service of Ali Pacha, at the time the head of four hundred of his country- the latter was at Prevesa ; and this men, penetrated to the centre of a col friend, in conjunction with one of the umn of five thousand of the enemy, and other players, had contrived to mark by his example infused the greatest the cards, and thus make a certainty confidence into his small but determin- of winning the third. But Marco, who ed phalanx of Suliotes. He was se- was present, and observed what had verely wounded in the groin, but con- been done, openly noticed it ; saying, cealed his situation until, in the heat of " There is no true victory, my friend, the action, he received a musquet-ball but that which is gained by fair skill in the head, and instantly fell, &c." and open courage."
66 Another account states, that Mar. It was at the time Ali Pacha was reco Botzari penetrated to the tent of the duced to the last extremity, when bePacha himself, whom he slew, but was sieged in Joannina, (in the latter end wounded by a black servant, faithful to of the year 1820) that Marco Botzari the Pacha, while he was exhibiting the first began to distinguish himself as a bead to his soldiers."
warlike leader of his countrymen, the As there is, unhappily, no reason to Suliotes. At this epocha the Suliotes
had leagued themselves with Ismael Albanians, which happened shortly afPacha, the successor of the deposed ter this, he retired with his own counAli, in the hope of recovering their trymen to the mountains of Sulei. country, which the latter had conquer. At the period now alluded to, the ed from them. In this league, under distinguished talents and reputation of the command of his uncle Noto Botzari, Marco Botzari had acquired for him chief head of the Suliote tribe, Marco the particular notice of Prince Mavroled several bold and successful attacks cordato, and the uses to which he apagainst the troops of Ali-chasing plied the influence which these gave them to the very gates of the fortress him, immediately cemented a friendof Joannina. This league, however, ship between the two leaders ; and at was almost immediately broken, on the the time that the general rising of the discovery that Ismael Pacha,-jealous Greeks against their Turkish oppresof the Suliotes once more gaining any sors took place, Marco was the first to head in Greece,- had actually employ- submit bimself to the regular governed a company of his Albanian troops ment that was formed, and to use his to take the field in the rear of the little almost resistless influence with his tribe of Sulei, for the purpose, if possi- countrymen to induce them to follow ble, of extirpating them altogether. his example. When it is considered
On the discovery of this perfidy, the that Marco was (unlike bis brother Suliotes made common cause with Ali Constantine) an entirely uneducated Pacha against the Turks; and in this man ; in the flower and heat of his league Marco displayed, from time to youth ; at the summit of a well-earned time, the most conspicuous military fame ; and with unbounded influence talents, and became the terror of all the over the sentiments and conduct of his Pachas, and of the Albanians. On one countrymen ; his thus laying aside all occasion, in particular, with a little personal and ambitious views, and subtroop of about thirty followers alone, he mitting himself wholly and uncondisucceeded in dislodging Hassan Pacha, tionally to a new-formed government, of Negroponte, from the village of Strie --seeking and desiring to hold no bighvina, in the plain of Arta. And on er station in it than that of an humble another occasion, with a very inferior agent in fulfilling its plans for achiev. force, he defeated and took prisoner a ing the liberties of his country,-evinBey of Gregaria, at the foot of some ces a self-devotion and simplicity of mountains near Joannina.
character rarely to be met with even Again, when the town of Arta was under circumstances which might seem occupied by the expedition consisting more likely to call it forth. of mixed troops-Greeks and Mahome W lien Sulei was invested by a formedan Albanians-who were acting midable Turkish force, and every ar. for Ali Pacha, Marco, with a little enue of entrance or escape was shut up, troop of twenty-five men only, night Marco, who was there, contrived, with after night attacked the fortified dwels a very few of his countrymen, to effect ling of Combotti, which is a place of a passage through the Turkish camp, great strength, and in which was post- and to reach Messolongio ; where, afed the Hasnadar (treasurer) of Chour- ter having collected more troops, he shid Pacha, and Soultzo Kersea, with took up a position at Plaka, and the 200 men ; and not a night passed that memorable battle fought on that spot the enemy did not lose several men, again testified his extraordinary skill, either by the boldness and suddenness valour, and devotion. He fought sword of his attacks, or by his dexterity in in hand for a great length of time apicking them out with his musquet gainst a party of Mahomedan Albaniihrough the windows and other acces- ans; when, after having killed several sible points of the place. Twice, also, of their officers, and been himself sehe set fire to the building; and had verely wounded, he lost his horse and nearly succeeded in mining and blow. baggage, and was again compelled to ing it up.
retire to Messolongia. On the defection of the Mahomedan When the Suliotes afterwards made
terms with their besiegers, he was at in this extremity ; but he determined Messolongio ; and though aware of the to make one gallant effort to rally them, critical situation in which they were which entirely succeeded. While they placed, he did not disapprove of their were retiring precipitately, he rushed resolution to submit themselves condi- in among them, flourishing his sword tionally to their enemies, yet he refused and shouting Hurra! and gave them to follow their example and retire with to believe that their fellows had repulsthem, as he might have done with hon- ed the Turks, and that they were flingour, but resolved to remain with Prince ing themselves from the walls into the Mavrocordato, conscious that if he had ditch. His troops rallied at these left him, he would have lost that most sounds ; he again placed himself at efficient support which he derived from their head and led them unexpectedly the opinions of his fellow-countrymen on the enemy, and the place was final. as to the state of their cause, and that ly abandoned by the Turks, leaving the edifice of liberty, which seemed to behind them an immense booty in arbe just rising from its foundation, ce- tillery, ammunition, and baggage of mented by the blood of his fellowgreat value. soldiers, would again fall to pieces and Botzari was in no instance known to go to nought. He therefore sent away avail bimself even of the fair spoils his family to Ancona, to avoid the im- that were taken from the enemy, but portunities which they were urging up- suffered them all to be divided among on him, and linked himself, for better his men, with whom, however, he infor worse, to the fortunes of Mavrocor- variably shared the dangers and harddato and his suffering country.
ships of the campaign, being neither The most successful, distinguished, armed, attired, or sed in any way diffeand important epoch of Marco's ex- rent from them. It is also well known ploits was that which included the that he has often refused large bribes siege and storining of Messolongio by offered him by the enemy, if he would the Turks. At this period, when the retire into the Ionian Islands. Once, town was invested on all sides by a in particular, at Messolongio, 500
Turkish army of fifteen thousand men, purses* were offered him if he would he still kept possession of the weak quit the place. The person from whose outskirts (for they do not deserve the lips these notices of his life are collectname of fortifications) in company with ed, was informed of the above through his friend Mavrocordato, and with a an unquestionable channel.. body of no more than 300 men—both B ut the most prominent and striking of them determining to perish in the illustration that can be offered of the ruins of the towni, rather than willingly pure patriotism that actuated Botzari in abandon it. And it may, perhaps, be all his views, is perhaps to be found in attributed to this determination, that the following fact :- the father of the cause of Greece at present bears an Marco (Kitzo Botzari) was extremely aspect of hope instead of despair. Io obnoxious to Ali Pacha, on account of this campaign, with the aid of some his being one of the heads of the Suliote slight reinforcements, they occasioned tribes, against which Ali had so long the Turks a loss of 3000 men, and made war. It was mentioned, in the finally saved the town. This latter commencement of this paper, that, on event was effected purely by a piece of the fall of Sulei into the hands of Ali, personal valour and conduct on the Kitzo Botzari retired to the Ionian part of Marco Botzari. The Turkish Islands. Shortly after this period, Ali troops had assaulted Messolongio, and made several underhand attempts on actually gained possession of the out- the life of Kitzo, one of which at last posts of the town,-overpowering for succeeded. flaving occasion to leave a time the chief body of troops under the islands, and come to Arta, he was the command of Botzari, and compel. there privately shot by an agent of Ali. ling them to retire to the shore and en- At the time the Greeks first rose on deavour to escape in their boats, &c. A purse is 500 Turkish piastres, or a. Marco was compelled to follow them bout £10 sterling.
their oppressors, this agent in the death ed chieftain. The relater of the foreof Marco's father, (one Capitan Gogo, going was one day dining at the head. of Tzumeska) was considered as an quarters of Marco's uncle, at Arta, and important aid to the cause, but he was after dinner he was walkiog alone in reluctant to come forward in conjunc- the town with Marco, when several tion with Marco, knowing that the lat- balls from the Turkish batteries fell at ter was aware of the part he had taken a very short distance from them. While (by the order of Ali) in the death of the relater (who is no soldier was eohis father. But Marco voluntarily deavouring to conceal his sense of the sought an interview with this person, in danger that seemed to surround then, which he assured him that this was an Marco observed laughingly, and pointepoch at which he had thought it ne. ing to the balls, “ You see these are cessary to dismiss from his breast all the only kind of apples the Turks passions but the love of country; and would send us for our dessert." he urged him to do the same ; adding, Marco Botzari was, at the period of “ It was not you who killed my father, bis death, not more than 30 or 31 it was Ali.” And he actually endeav- years of age, stout, but of low stature, oured to bring about a marriage between with extremely fine bright black eyes, some branches of their respective fami- dark complexion, and a countenance lies, in order to strengthen the bond of altogether bigbly animated and expres union which he wished to exist between sive. His arms consisted of a musquet, them on this occasion.
a sabre, and a Turkish knife, and one Only one more anecdote will be ad- small pistol of extremely inferior ded, in illustration of the personal cool- quality. ness and intrepidity of this distinguish
Ilow lovely art thou in thy tresses of foam;
And yet the warm blood in my bosom grows chill,
Mid the boom of the echoing forest and hill.
And spread their vast ruin wide over the ground;
And whirl'st them like pebbles contemptuously round.
They streak with the tints of the heavenly bow
Forth from the bubbling cauldron below.
If grandeur makes happiness, sure it is found
Thou boundest, and all gives response to thy sound.
For there thou must crouch beneath Slavery's rod;
Free as an angel, and strong as a god.
True, it is pleasant, at eve or at noon,
To gaze on the sea, and its far-winding bays,
Or red with the gold of the mid-summer rays;
That lustre as nought but a bait and a snare;
To him who breathes not in pure freedom the air ?
Still art thou streaming --my words are in vain ;
Lord there below on the time-serving main !
For there thou must croucb beneath Slavery's rod;
Tree as angel, and strong as a god.
EDINBURGH AND QUARTERLY REVIEWS.
(Europ. Mag.) TT is now twenty years ago that the speaking, to works of consequence ;
i innovation of the Edinburgh Re- whilst the great body of the people view attracted the attention of the pub- were left to seek their amusement in the lic, and weaned the general attachment current works of the day, which the from the then standard works of critic reviewers hardly condescended to nocism (the Monthly and Critical Re- tice, or noticed briefly in a sort of Apviews), which had been hallowed by pendix. But from the dawn of the time, and exalted in the estimation of American Revolution our countrymen the republic of letters by the contribu- began to press forward into another iions of Johnson, of Smollett, and of rank in the scale of social existence. the literary phalanx of that distinguish. What had bitherto been considered as ed era.
the lower ranks of society now began The plan upon which the Edinburgh to aspire to that education, which had Review was first given to the pubiic previously been considered as the alwas, at least in one respect, admirably most prescriptive right of the higher calculated to benefit the community, circles ; the public mind became no and seemed indeed to have been ren- longer satisfied with the ephemeral dered absolutely necessary to the im. novels of a circulating library, but a proved spirit of the times, and by the demand arose for analytical works of great accessions to knowledge which criticism at once sound and adapted to had been made to all classes of the pub- well educated, rather than to learned lic within the preceding half century. people. The middle and even many At the period when the Monthly and of the lower orders of society began to Critical Reviews were at their zenith, feel an unusual interest in public affairs, the line of demarcation between the and a periodical work which in an eruliterary world, and the public in gene- dite, but yet popular manner, should ral, was by far more distinctly marked discuss the most material subjects of than it is at present. Literary men in the day, and enter upon the yet untrodEngland were then extremely numer- den field of statistical politics, was sure ous, but there was no gradation from to meet with a considerable degree of what was then called literary people to public attention and support. The an exceeding low degree of knowledge Edinburgh Review, in its plan of adapwith which the middle classes of Eng. ting its critiques to the taste of the day, lish society were then satisfied, but did not renounce the design of giving which would now scarcely satisfy peo- occasional critiques upon abstruse subple of a very inferior rank. At that jects; and many of its articles evinced period science and literature, as well as the most profound erudition as well as philosophy, were confined to profes- a high degree of natural talents ; and sional persons, or to those whose its numbers were rendered yet more wealth or rank rendered the cultivation valuable by its constant discussion of of the mind a matter of ordinary rou- subjects of national importance. But tine and necessity,or to those whose in- unfortunately these latter subjects were dividual superiority of intellect render- always discussed in a spirit of party, ed it an object of desire ; the rest of rather than in a tone of philosophy ; the community were satisfied with the and although that party might embrace degree of education necessary for the the most enlarged and enlightened common purposes of life, or for grati- views, although its feelings and sentifying the vacnities oí leisure with works ments were in unison with the princiof fiction or other light amusement. ples of the constitution and with the Reviews at that period were therefore most ennobling principles of our naaddressed to the literary part of the ture, yet the union of literature and community, and related, generally party politics was in itself injudicious,
44 ATKESEIM VOL. 14.