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baunts of the vilest of animals. The state of mat- | mals, of one portion of a species raging in fury ters in the present day is certainly an improvement against the other. Incessant internal wars not upon this. If our artizans and labourers toil and only interrupted industry, but destroyed the most sweat now, it is in leading railroads over the face vigorous and most important lives. Neglecting of the country, in ameliorating the soil, and in their own country, also, whose boundaries were as improving our manufactures; by all and each of yet by far too ample for their use or pleasure, they which means they are ultimately benefiting them wasted their time, their heart's blood, and their selves, and bringing within the reach of the hum treasures, in making inroads upon the country of blest those necessaries, and comforts, and refine their neighbours. Let us reflect on the years ments of life, which, when properly used, are so wasted on the French wars--the wars and exteressential to happiness.

minations of the English against the Scotch, and It would be curious to compare, had we fully the no less absurd wars in Ireland-while in the the means, the state of Britain now with what it mean time the mass of the people, the most help. was at the beginning of the Christian era; and still less portion, were dragging out a wretched and more curious and instructive, to trace the succes precarious existence at home,--and we shall at sive changes, and the successive struggles, which | once perceive the enormous amount of all this the nation has undergone in its upward progress. human folly. What shall we say, too, of those Eighteen hundred years have produced a vast “ holy wars” in Palestine, which, like the delusive change, both on the face of the country, and on dream of the somnambulist, impelled our chiefs the manners of the people. When the Romans and people to wander into foreign countries, and first visited us, they found us little better than waste their energies in a most unchristian contest. what Captain Cook found the Tahitians in the last Then too what a drawback on the progress of century. The whole centre of England was one civilization were our political struggles! The asdense forest of wood, in which roamed the wild sumption and pertinacious retention of power by boar, the wolf, and straggling herds of wild cattle the strong against the weak,--the tyranny of our and deer. Patches around the sea-coasts were in sovereigns, the ambition of our nobles, and the tillage, and mud towns were scattered over the mistaken and selfish illiberality which would dimore cleared and cultivated parts of the island. vert rule into any other channel than the welfare But Scotland and Ireland were yet in a state of , and happiness of the community at large ! complete natural wildness, and their inhabitants In later times the war of faction has also had a met the visit of the strange Romans with that sa retarding effect on the progress of good measures, vage gaze, and threatening aspect, which charac not to be easily calculated. The ambition of statesterise the rude and uninformed mind. Then the men,--the exclusiveness of sects and parties,—the population of Britain must have been a mere selfish thirst for power, and the still more debasing handful, compared to its present twenty-seven thirst for gain, alienated the higher from the lower millions, for we universally find, that in propor- ranks, and produced that fear and distrust on the tion as the country is savage and uncultivated, so one hand, and that just resentment, though too is the small amount of its inhabitants. Though often that lawless retaliation and insubordination, war to the knife was the watch word of our fore on the other, which will inevitably arise even fathers against their powerful invaders, yet there l among the most subdued nations, far more so among is no doubt but the aggressions of the Romans into the indomitable spirits of Britons. Yet, with all western Europe, and especially Britain, were the | these drawbacks, how pleasing it is to contemplate first means of enlightenment to its inhabitants. the best aspects of civilization in the present conIt opened up a new world, as it were, to their iso dition of Britain. The moral influence of law and lated and benighted minds. Then, in process of justice tacitly and universally acknowledged, time, and long after the terror of the Roman name the security of property,-personal liberty in the had died away, came other visitors, bearing the fullest sense of the terin,-liberty of thought-of banner of the cross, and a gentler and more per- speech—of the press-of religious opinions, and of suasive mode of civilization. With these came the conscience. How has order, decency, and pualso knowledge of domestic arts-knowledge of rity of manners increased under these favourable tillage and gardening, and of weaving garments, circumstances? And how great has been the relax. and commerce, and so the face of the country was ed rigour of the laws, and the increase of measures gradually cleared of its dense forests ; towns and tending to the amelioration of society? The time is cities began to cluster about our shores, and the not long past since the capital punishments of even adventurous bark to spread its white sail, and one year amounted to five and six hundred victims. -peed to foreign shores, to bring home new modes | --now an execution is a rare occurrence indeed, and and farther improvements. All this, however, was is always heard of with feelings of extreme comthe work of many years, 'with many retardations. miseration and regret. Chief of all was that wild propensity for war and! Then as to the physical comforts of society, how battle-that strange enmity of man against man, / great has been the change for the better. It is true a thing scarcely known among the inferior ani- | we have still a large proportion of population yet

in a very degraded state; but this arises more from most cooling and refreshing fruits,--the most beauthe past than from the present state of matters; tiful and fragrant flowers, are now more plentifully their amelioration, we hope, is in a greatly progres within the reach of the ordinary tradesman and sive state, though the dreams of the visionary alone | mechanic, than they were to kings and princes, or could expect to banish poverty, and suffering, and the wealthy nobility of former days. . vice, entirely from human society.

It is the same with clothing. The time was How often, in past times, did famines so prevail, when the coarsest woollen garments were the only that the supply of food, even of the most wretched coverings which the common people possessed, kind, was not to be procured on any conditions | nay, even vestments of horse hair and rude iron whatever. We have only to go back into the last sandals must have been worn at remote periods, century to obtain instances of this kind. In the for several such vestments have been dug out of summer of 1743, in consequence of the failure of our peat bogs both in England and Ireland. A the previous harvest, thousands of destitute beings century ago, in Scotland, almost the whole clothing wandered among the fields in search of whatever of the people was manufactured at home, and by could satiate the famishing demands of hunger, the hands of their families; this was all very good devouring sorrel and other wild plants, and the employment, but the coarse and scanty supply leaves and stems of the yet unfilled pease and beans. would ill accord with modern taste; besides, the Many perished from absolute want, and more from toil of those labours absorbed all the time and consequent disease and debility. The year 1782 energies which should have been bestowed on numwas also a memorable one in Scotland, and was berless other domestic comforts and arrangements. long known afterwards as the “ frosty har’st.” Hence their houses and cottages were mean and The sufferings of the people during the succeeding dirty, and every thing that tended to domestic winter and summer were extreme. Thousands of comforts deficient. Glass was often awanting in the wretched beings wandered the country in all di window of the cottage as well as in that of the rections, glad, if, on arriving at country houses, baron's castle; fuel was by no means so good or they could obtain a cupful of gruel, or of boiled abundant as now, nor were those arrangements greens, in which had been sprinkled a small por for light, warmth, and comfort, in our dwellings, tion of meal, to satiate the cravings of hunger. It so much as heard of. is related of a charitable family, whose mansion Then the roads and modes of conveyance were was situated in one of the northern counties, and in a most wretched condition. Carriage roads who kept a daily supply of soup ready to relieve through many districts there were none, and horsethe crowds of wandering beggars, that the lane back by narrow paths, and over dale and mounleading to this mansion was not unfrequently tain, and through bog and quagmire, was the only strewed with the dead bodies of those unfortunate choice to the traveller. Labourers and artizans beings who had sunk exhausted before they could were compelled to remain stationary, whether gain the hospitable threshold for relief. A recur work was to be procured in their particular locarence of such scenes as these could now scarcely lity or not; or if they did go in search of it, days be contemplated in Britain; even the most disas and weeks were consumed in fatiguing travel betrous cases that now occur are so met by the in fore they could accomplish their object. Now, the creased improvements in agriculture, that an abso | railway waggon will convey the workman any lute deficiency of food, of some kind or another, is number of miles to his destination, at a cost less not likely to happen. Besides, the facilities of impor than the wear of his shoes would have been to tation are now so great, that all quarters of the walk the half of the distance. The princes and world are accessible to our ships and steamers, and nobles of the land, with their retinues of horses, unless Providence should see meet to visit the and servants, and coaches, did not make their whole earth with disastrous seasons, the mere defi- journeys with half so much comfort as a mason, or ciency of one part can be promptly supplied from a carpenter, or a rude Irish hodinan now can do, the excess of another.

with a smooth railway laid for him, a steam-enIn former times, before the introduction of greengine puffing and blowing, and bounding along crops in our agriculture, as the turnip, potato, and

almost with the speed of thought-a relay of the artificial grasses, the practice was to kill all the anxious and careful attendants at every stagemat cattle and sheep destined for the winter supply, in the end of his journey no care about putting up, or autumn, and thus salt food, with a very scanty feeding horses, or any other solicitude and all supply of vegetables, was the general fare of the this for the sum of one or two shillings for forty people. This is a system which was in practice not or fifty miles—a sum equal to about one half of more than a century ago; and contrast it with the one day's labour. If he wishes to communicate daily supply of beef and other meats now, and the with his wife and family in a distant part of the abundant use of all kinds of the most wholesome country, the same extensive arrangements will and nutritious vegetables. Every region in the carry his letter with the utmost punctuality for globe is now ransacked for supplying our tables, the sum of one penny; or if he wishes to remit the our fields, our gardens, and our conservatories. The smallest portion of his well-earned savings, a few pence more will transmit it with equal certainty. ! true to himself, and keep prudence, justice, and Well then may the meanest and poorest of the rectitude before his eyes, none can meddle with bim, community boast of modern civilization, in respect or make him afraid. If he is industrious, sober, and that it has done good to the poor as well as to the prudent, with his thirty to sixty pounds a-vear, the rich. Happy if the poor man would only lay produce of his daily labour, he has within his this to heart, and consider it well. Much has been reach all the essential enjoyments of life, and in such done, and much now remains with him. Let him away and with such accompaniments as the artizans hold fast firmly what he has got. If he will be but, and labourers, and yeomen of old never dreamt of.

THE MORAL AND POLITICAL CONDITION OF PERC. Pers, Reiseskizzen aus den Jahren, 1838-1842. (Sketches of Travels in Pers, in the years 1838 to 1842, byJJ. Von Tschadi.)

There are few historical events more remarkable with wonderful rapidity during his short residence in than the different fortunes and character of the colonies the country. In one of these, Gama Ta, who had rebeltounded in the new world by the nations of northern led against Santa Cruz the president, and taken posses. and southern Europe, by the people of the Teutonie and sion of Lima, raised great contributions from the na. Pomaie races. With all his faults the Anglo-American | tives, at the same time that be excited their hatred is a being apparently of a higher order, in civil and so against foreigners. This worthy governor stuek up cial life, in morals and religion, than the inhabitants of biils in the streets, one of thers in these terms_“The the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies. This has foreigners are the enemies of your freedom, and wish to been deeply impressed on our minds by the picture of recall Santa Cruz; free your soil from these miscreants, the moral condition of Peru, presented by the work and repeat in Peru a Bartholomes night, or the Sicilian named at the head of this article. The author of it is vespers." The strangers had however provided themwell known to the scientific world by his researches into selves with arms, and were resolved to sell their lives the Fauna of Peru, in his work on that subject, and the dear; whilst the government, frightened by the guns of present volume will make him no less known to the the English men-of-war which blockaded the harbour, did great mass of the reading public. The portion already not venture to ring the bells, the appointed signal for published contains his observations on the Chiloe commencing the scene of murder; and in a few weeks islands. Valparaiso and the coast of Pero, particularly Santa Cruz entered the town amidst the shouts of the the capital Lima, which, as the author well observes," in same populace who had raised arches of triumph for his its rapid growth, in the fall bloom of its history, in opponent. His good fortune however was but shortpower, luxury, mercantile and political importance, and lived. On the 20th January 1839, he was defeated by at the same time in its inward corruption, represents another rebel, in a battle in which three thousand fell, perfectly so many cities of the Spanish colonies, which, though the whole armies on both sides did not exceed with no proper moral element of existence, have sprung twelve or thirteen thousand men. Santa Cruz escaped up, like tropical plants, in luxurious fulness, but soon on board an English ship, but made several unsuccesssinking under their own worthlessness, have fallen a ful attempts to recover his authority. In one of these, prey to slow disease.” Leaving, at least for the pre- in 1844, he was seized in the Cordilleras, and is now a went, the more descriptive parts of the book, its pietures | prisoner in Chili of places, and observations on natural history, let us | These constant revolutions and tumults are ascribed glean a few remarks on the political and moral condi- by Tschudi to the faithlessness and avarice of the Perution of t' e people. The land in these respects may be vian officers. No sooner has one of them attained the well compared to one of those marshes in which, under rank of general, giving him the disposal of fifteen hanthe fostering warmth of a tropical sun, a richness of ve- dred or two thousand troops, than he fancies himself getable life springs up, fair to outward view, and adorn- entitled to overthrow the president, and set himself in ed with large and fragrant flowers, but concealing his place. True patriotism is out of the question in a masses of corruption hideous to behold, and producing land inhabited by an almost endless variety of races, pestilence and death.

and hybrid mixtures of men, of numberless shades of The author arrived at Valparaiso at the time when colour; and whose rulers consist of upstarts who have Chili had just declared war against Peru, and had a inherited like a curse, from their ancestors who congood opportunity of seeing how these modern republics, quered the country, the love of plunder, and of cheap carry on hostilities. Into the miserable details our though unjust gain. These usurpers and ring-leaders know readers would not thank us to conduct them, differing that, willingly or unwillingly, they must soon give place as they do only in the more or less darkness of the to another; and consequently raise contributions and altransactions. " Like characters," says the author, low their soldiers to destroy and plunder, that they may, " produce like actions. Treachery is the terrible by however violent and unjust methods, collect the watchword which breaks down all the barriers of social largest amount of wealth during their short dominion. order. Ambition, avarice, immorality, are the elements Their actions are never based on any nobler motive, in the character of the men who have raised themselves and even the heroism which cannot be denied to some, to the conduct of affairs by violence.” With such lead. may always be traced back to the impure impulse of the ers, revolutions are of almost daily occurrence, and most shameless avarice. The defence of the fortress Tschudi describes several which succeeded each other Callao, under the command of Rodil, against Lord Cochrane's squadron by sea, and the patriot army of Bartho- | the major had shot six of the soldiers, and punished lomew Salom by land, is very famous. Rodil defended eighteen with from one to three hundred blows with a it for nearly a year and a half. At last the garrison broad thong of tapir-skin, so that several died under was supporting life almost entirely on the flesh of dogs, the infliction. The rest must instantly mount on horseasses, rats, and putrid fish, thrown out by the sea. To back and follow the squadron. Nine days long they had this was added a terrible nervous fever, which fell with continued their journey under the most terrible torsuch severity on the noble families who had taken re tures, and had even crossed the Cordilleras. Several fuge in the citadel with their jewels, that of four thou obstinately refused to have their wounds dressed, and sand who had fled there only about two hundred surviv- had to be compelled by force. One entreated me, with ed the siege. The garrison often sought to surrender, loud groans, to do nothing to promote his cure, as he but Rodil, endowed with remarkable coolness and pre was anxiously looking for death. Before the sick were sence of mind, suppressed these mutinies, and punished at all recovered, the leader commanded them to march. the guilty with iron severity. Such heroism, such en The consequence of this inhumanity might easily have durance, seem worthy of the highest praise, had the been foreseen: before eight days the squadron numbered motives which led Rodil to this protracted but useless scarcely sixty men!" defence, been pure and noble. But he carried on dur In a country devastated by civil war, conducted in ing the siege a traffic which does little honour to his such a spirit, it would be too much to expect that popheart or character. He had laid up in store a quantity ulation should increase. On the contrary, it is rapidly of provisions, which he sold to the wealthy families, al declining, and in the capital, since 1826, the deaths each most for their weight in gold, as in the circumstances year exceeded the persons born by about 650. To this their riches were of no use to them. For a fowl he must be added the banishments, voluntary expatriations, made them pay three or four ounces of gold (L.9 to L.12), and epidemics, which are a natural consequence of deand received a similar price for bread and other neces fective police regulations, and the prevailing want of saries. As soon as his store was sold and consumed, cleanliness in the city. In the disorderly and lawless Rudil surrendered the fortress, concluded an honour condition of the country, any increase from abroad rarely able capitulation (on 19th February 1826), and sailed occurs. Last of all, a deep-rooted demoralization confor Spain loaded with immense wealth.

sumes the vitals of the population. From 1st January The Peruvian infantry, consisting chiefly of Indians to the 30th October 1841, of 1682 children born in from the mountains, is very good; the men being as Lima, no fewer than 860 were illegitimate; 495 were ready and obedient as cool and courageous. As long as exposed dead. Tschudi himself saw the vultures tearing the officers maintain the contest, they may depend on up and dragging about well-frequented streets, the half their soldiers; but when they retire, the troops throw corrupted bodies of children. It is no wonder, theredown their arms, and run off. A bold chief, with brave fore, that the population of Lima, which amounted to and faithful officers, may, however, almost depend on 87,000 in 1810, should, in 1842, be estimated at only victory, even in apparently the most desperate circum 53,000; when the whole beautiful land, extending from stances. The cavalry has exactly the opposite charac

the third to the twenty-second degree south latitude, and ter, the officers remaining firm, whilst the troops fly. which at the time of the Spanish conquest had an immense It consists for the most part of negroes, and though a population, now numbers only 1,400,000 inhabitants. few of them, with the sword of justice over their heads, And what a singular mixture of inhabitants! Besides may defend their lives and liberty with the utmost des the white Creoles, mostly descendants of the Spaniards, peration, yet the generality are no less cowardly than besides the Negroes, the Indians, the Mulattos, the Mescruel. The officers treat their men with great severity, tizos, there are some score of other varieties distinguishand in time of war even punish them at their pleasure. ed,-Chinos, Zambos, Cuarteros, and Quinteros. The Hence many of the soldiers do not wait for death in varieties are indeed almost innumerable. The colour of battle, but perish by their own hand. Thus, in the the skin is no test of parentage, but the hair of the fecampaign against the Bolivians, in 1842, more than male seldom deceives. Many mulatto women rival the twenty men threw themselves from the hanging bridge fairest Europeans in the pure white tint of their comof Oropa into the raging river, after calling to their plexions, and the regularity of their features, but carry leader, in a mocking tone, “ Adios, capitan.” Tschudi about with them an undoubted mark of their pedigree, himself saw how on the march, those who could not move in the woolly-hair scarce a finger-length long. With onward were coolly shot dead. The sick were forced such a party-coloured population, scarcely any community to follow the army till they sunk down, or tied to a mule of feeling, or a shadow of patriotism and nationality can and driven forward under the burning sun. The fol arise. And as the colours mix or separate from each lowing anecdote will give a truer idea of this inhuman other, so also do the characters of those who bear them. conduct than any general language. “ The major of One is almost frightened to observe how, with his colour a troop of light-horse asked me on my arrival at Parma, and form of countenance, man seems born to virtue or during the campaign of 1843, to take charge of his sick crime, to the capacity or incapacity for intellectual edufor a few days. Of 120 men forming this detachment, cation, to strength, weakness, or almost total want of sixty-eight lay sick with scarlet fever, in a dark damp character. Such remarkable facts seem almost fitted to hole, and fourteen were so called “Castigados' (Chas shake our firm belief in the freedom of the will, and the tized). What a sight did the latter present! Their accountability of man. backs seemed almost stripped of flesh, and covered with The white Creoles, forming about a third of the poputhe most hideous wounds. In consequence of a meeting lation of Lima, are described by Tschudi, as slender,

tall, with pale skins and dark black hair. The men look great mildness, and, on the whole, much like menial weak and worn-out, their physiognomy noble, but de. servants in Europe. He even goes 'so far as to affirm formed by marks of passionate sensuality. Both cor that the reason why there are so many bad slaves in poreally and mentally they are far inferior to the Span Lima, lies wholly in their too mild treatment, since this iards. They are effeminate, idle, fond of delicacies, and class can only be fashioned into anything orderly by the given up to gambling with perfect infatuation. The most merciless severity. Much better than the native ladies participate in this love of play, the chief cause of or Creole-negroes are those imported from Africa, named the many unhappy marriages in Lima, and the ruin of Bosales. Yet these, especially when of royal race, most families. They do not want talent, but grow up always retain a certain pride. Tschudi mentions a negro almost wild, without instruction or education; and the princess, who could not be compelled to any menial serignorance of even the better informed almost surpasses vice by the harshest beatings, always affirming that she belief. Peru at one time possessed a minister of war, had been accustomed to be served, and not to serve who knew neither the extent nor population of the others. She sat for hours on the ground, with a dark country, and obstinately maintained that Portugal formed fixed gaze, muttering in the peculiar Bosale tone, the eastern boundary of Peru, and that one could travel “ Yo clavita, yo clarita," (for yo esclavita, I a slave ") thither by land. Another respectable gentleman, high then sprung up suddenly and ran with her head against in office and esteemed very learned, once entertained the the wall till she fell down senseless. At last they intraveller with a full account of how Frederick the Great trusted her with the charge of the children of the family, drove Napoleon out of Russia. Those who affirm that which duty she performed with truly affecting tender. nations must be kept in ignorance in order to make them ness and fidelity. The free negroes are described as the happy, are truly not so far wrong, after all; for what veritable pests and plagues of the country. Almost all men wished for in vain in Europe-Frederick the Great the highway robbers on the coast of Peru are free neopposed to Napoleon, a spectacle more for gods than men groes. If they have any colouring of education, if they existed in the fancy of an ignorant Peruvian.

are able to read and write, they are only so much the The Limenas, or ladies of Lima, are far superior to more refined rascals. In this view there is probably a the men, both in mind and body. They are distinguish good deal of prejudice, as the author declares his opined by an acute penetrating understanding, a clear judg. ion that the negro can never attain a high social rank, ment, and very accurate views of the different relations even by the most careful education, in consequence of of life, and like the ladies of Seville for quick and pointed the form of his skull approaching too near that of the answers. They greatly surpass the men in courage and lower animals. This low and degrading view of one of firmness of character. Their ambition, their inclination the large families of the human race, is, we believe, conto and skill in intrigues, their presence of mind in try- tradicted by sound anatomy, and should not be received ing moments, fit them remarkably for conducting con till proved by a wider range of facts and more extended spiracies and revolutions, in which, however, they look experience than has yet been brought to bear on the more to their own advantage than the welfare of the subject. It is too much to expect any race to rise all state. When Gomarra, in the year 1834, was driven at once from the condition of slaves to that of refined with his troops out of Lima, under a shower of stones freemen; and in a land where the whites are themselves so from the populace, and stood lamenting and uncertain degraded, there can be no surprise at the character of the what to do on the Plaza Mayor, his wife, Dona Francisca poor negro, to whom the coarsest sensuality forms the Subyaga ran up to him, pulled the sword from his side, centre point on which his whole being, thoughts, and acplaced herself at the head of the troops, commanded a tions turn; who is only free as by chance, and only acts as well-arranged retreat, and thus saved her husband and a freeman because he must, not because he wishes it. the remains of the army. Domestic industry, economy, The hybrid or mixed races, according to Tschudi, have and matrimonial fidelity, are not among the virtues of in general the faults without the virtues of their ances. the Limenas; they are excessively fond of dress, and tors; the Mestizo descended from the Indian and white alike skilled in the intrigues of politics and love. But s being an honourable exception. He describes them as when once their passions have cooled, and beauty de- mild, compassionate, easily excitable, benevolent, yet cayed, they turn to religion and become “ Beatas,” go fickle, and not courageous. They show a great prefertwo or three times a-day to the church, confess as often ence for the society of the whites, but cannot endure the in the week, fast, pray, lament, and receive the visits of Indians. This is more especially true in the interior of their confessor, whom they treat to all manner of deli the country, where they form whole villages. He gives cacies. Along with devotion, talking scandal, tale-bear- the mulattos credit at least for their skill in mechanical ing, and raising bad reports on their neighbours, are their works, their remarkable power of apprehension, and principal employments; so that, as Tschudi assures us, their extraordinary talent for imitation. Some of them these Beatas are a more dangerous race than even the have also wonderful memories, and attending all serstreet-robbers.

mons, public meetings, and university disputations, reThe Indians in Lima, who are mostly shopkeepers and peat the speeches in a most ludicrous manner, and with mechanics, are described as active, industrious, honour the most extravagant gesticulations. The Chinos, sprung able, but vain and dirty. They are far inferior in men from the Indian and Negro race, are small and dwarftal capacity to the Creoles, for whom they entertain a ish, with ugly features: they are malicious, rancorous, fear that nothing can remove. Among the negroes, who false, blood-thirsty, and very revengeful. The most form about a fifth part of the population, there are about miserable race are, however, the Zambos, in whom all 4800 slaves, who, as Tschudi remarks, are treated with I kind of wickedness has reached its highest degree of

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