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and many of the great characters of the day. His picture of the Sybils, as well as several other of his works are preserved in the College Hall of his native city, Aberdeen.
Alexander, a pupil and brother-in-law to Jameson, was another artist of some note. To these succeeded the elder Scougal, whose style is said to bear a great resemblance to that of Sir Peter Lely. The younger Scougal was almost the only artist in Scotland during the period of the Revolution in 1688. After this period, two foreign artists settled in Scotland, under the patronage of the Duke of Queensberry. These were Nicholas Hude, formerly one of the directors of the French Academy, obliged to fly his country on the repeal of the edict of Nantz, and Sir John Medina, a native of Brussels, some of whose portraits are to be seen in the Hall of the College of Surgeons. After the Union several artists of some note appeared; Aikman, the friend of Allan Ramsay the poet; Alexander, a descendant of the Scottish Vandyke; Allan Ramsay, the son of the poet; Richard Wait and George Marshall, the latter a painter of stilllife; and James Norrie, a landscape painter.
In 1753, two celebrated printers of Glasgow, Robert and Andrew Foulis, had the merit of establishing an academy for the fine arts in their native city, the first of the kind in Britain, for that in Somerset House was not commenced till several years after. This academy, however, as might have been expected, did not in those days receive that public support which alone could have rendered it permanent. It did some service, however, to the arts, during the few years in which it existed; but with the death of its patrons it decayed.
John and Alexander Runciman learned the rudiments of their art from Pavilon, a Frenchman, who had settled in Edinburgh. These brothers afterwards went to Italy, where they farther studied their art, and there John died. Before his death, he is said to have destroyed the greater part of his paintings, with that sensitive feeling towards excellence which characterizes true genius. In 1771 the younger brother, Alexander, returned to Edinburgh; and in this year the board of trustees for the encouragement of manufactures having established an academy of painting, Runciman was 'appointed mas. ter, De la Cour and Pavilon having preceded him in that situation. Contemporary with the Runeimans was Jacob More, a landscape painter of considerable talent, who died in London, in 1793. Brown, Nasmyth, Gavin Hamilton, and David Allan, also flourished at the same period. In 1785, on the death of Runciman, David Allan succeeded to the superintendence of the Trustees' Academy, and continued there till his death in 1797. The next master was Mr John Graham, who was selected, from the merit of his paintings, out of nine or ten other competitors, to fill this office. At this time, the trustees procured for the academy a set of casts from antique statues; and Mr Graham proved an intelligent and enthusiastic instructor. Among his pupils were Sir David Wilkie, Sir William Allan, Patrick Gibson, David Thomson, Alexander Frazer, William Sheriff'; William Lizars and John Burnett, engravers; and William Scoular, sculptor.
As a portrait painter, the late Sir Henry Raeburn was almost unrivalled, and most successful in his art. In boldness and breadth of colouring, in ease and graceful attitude, and in fidelity to nature, he much resembled Sir Joshua Reynolds. The portraits of the late presi. dent of the Scottish Academy, Mr George Watson, were also of a superior order. The landscapes of the Rev. Mr Thomson of Duddingston have all the charms of the best masters; and those of the late Mr A. Nasmyth, in a different style, possess much excellence. In watercolour landscapes H. H. Williams, commonly called Grecian Williams, was unrivalled.
On the death of Mr Graham, Mr Andrew Wilson was appointed master of the academy; to him succeeded Sir William Allan; and on his retirement Mr J. Duncan filled the situation till his untimely death in 1845.
During the last century various attempts were made to form an association of artists in Edinburgh, but without much success. In the year 1729, an association of artists was formed under the title of the Edinburgh School of St Luke, but it did not long flourish. In 1808, a few of the most talented artists clubbed their paintings together, and got up an exhibition. This so far succeeded, and was repeated for a few years. On several occasions, exhibitions were got up by individual artists, and all these tended to foster in the public a growing taste for art. At length, in 1818, a number of noblemen and gentlemen combined to form an association for the encouragement of the fine arts in Scotland,-a considerable sum was subscribed in shares. The first exhibition of this association opened, in the spring of 1819, with a collection of ancient pictures. In 1822, the building called the Royal Institution was commenced by the Board of Trustees, and after its completion, exhibitions of modern paintings were annually held, in the splendid halls of that edifice. To these exhibitions the profession generally were invited to contribute their pictures, the free proceeds of which were to be set apart as a fund for the widows and families of artists.
In 18:27, the association was incorporated by royal charter, under the denomination of the Royal Institution for the encouragement of the Fine Arts in Seotland, but no professional artists were included, either as members or associates. For several years the Institution conti. nued to exhibit the works of living artists-an art library was formed, and the suceess of the exhibitions was considerable. In consequence, however, of a feeling among the artists that they were too mach, or rather entirely, excluded from the practical management of the affairs of the Institution, a secession took place, and a new association of artists was formed in 1826, and a rival exhibition opened in the Waterloo Rooms, in 1827. For some years two separate exhibitions of modern paintings took place, till at last the remaining artists left the Institution in 1829, and joined their brethren. In 1838 this body obtained a charter, under the name of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting and Sculpture.
The Royal Institution still exists as a corporation, but it has ceased to have any active duties. It receives an annual sum of L.500 from the Board of Trustees, but this is nominal also, the greater part being paid back to the Trustees, as rent of the premises in the Institution. In 1835 the Royal Institution paid up to the Scottish Academy the sum of L.430, the amount of free balance of the proceeds appropriated to the Artists' Widow's Fund, together with an additional sum of L.100. The art library the Institution retains as its property, but the members of the Scottish Academy have free access to it.
The Scottish Academy consists at present of thirty members, five honorary members, and fourteen associ. ates. Its affairs are conducted by a president, council, and secretary. Besides some valuable pictures and engravings which it possesses, it supports a school for the study of the living model, and has an accumulated fund of from L.5000 to L.6000 for pensions to members and their widows. Among its members it boasts of some of the most esteemed artists of the day. As historical painters, Sir William Allan, Harvey, Lauder, Simson, Scott, Bonar, Shiels. As portrait painters, Watson Gordon, Colvin Smith, Francis Grant, Smellie, Watson, and several others. In landscape, Macculloch, Simson, Hill, Giles, Williams, &c. In sculpture Steel, Joseph Macdonald. In architecture, Hamilton. Nor are many names among its associates less celebrated, as Frazer, Dyce, Eckford, Lauder, Wilson, Macleay, &c. The annual exhibitions of the Academy have been most successful, and afford a pleasing and instructive entertainment to crowds of visitors. With great good feeling and judgment, the Academy has now also thrown open its exhibition, at such hours and on such terms as make it available to the mass of the population, and thus afford an incalculable advantage to the onward progress
of ameliorating the habits and refining the tastes of the Since its origin in 1834, not less than from forty to great mass of society.
fifty thousand pounds have been collected, and the As connected with the prosperity of art in Scotland, greater part expended in the purchase of paintings, and the Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts, in the production and dissemination of engravings. This projected in 1834, well deserves attention. The na- | association has done more to stimulate artists, as well ture of this association is well known, and indeed it has as to diffuse a taste for art, than all the patronage of formed a model for many others throughout Britain, the great and wealthy for the last five hundred years.
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. COALS.- Man being a cooking, clothes-wearing, fire. | than in England, we would be prepared to expect the price using animal, besides an employer of many other of Scotch coals at the pit mouth to be less than in Engnick-packets that it never enters into the head of other land. This, however, during the present year, is not animals to employ, he of course wants something every the case, as the following table of prices will show. This hour, and almost every minute of the day. Beast and table will also show the expense attending the transport of bird, after they have satisfied their simple appetites, sea-borne coals, which nearly doubles their original cost. have leisure to play or sleep, and they take, with uncon
Comparison of English and Scotch Coals.- Jan. 1846. cern, the weather and the seasons as they come: they seem happy with the bright sky, the sun, and shade; nor
English Coals, free on
board ship do they grumble about the dripping showers, the cold wind, or the keen frosty air. Man, however, must be
1st class, 20 class. 1st class 20 class. rolled in his blankets, or in his silks or furs,-must have his coal-fire, his carpetted rooms,—his roast beef and
Cost per ton,
10 0 7 0 9 3 8 3 6 0
Freight to Leith, 2 0 2 6 6 3 6 6 6 his spiced draughts, or his iced-cream or lemonade. We
0 60 60 60 41 0 6 propose from time to time, to give some hints on domes
0 4.0 4.
10 4 0 1 0 481 tic economy,-not, however, so much the economy of the
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 luxurious, as that sort of statistics which may be useful to people in general; and at this particular season of win
12 11/10 5.16 54/15 54 14 24 ter, we cannot do better than begin with that universal Cartage to Edinburgh, 1 61 61 61 61 67 necessary in a northern climate, Coals.
114 511 114 17 11316 114 15 84 These vary much according to the pits from whence they are dug, but are generally divided into three kinds. To the above prices is to be added the coal agent's 1. Caking coals, containing a large proportion of bitumen, commission, making the English coals 18s. and 19s. per which melting with heat, runs into a mass, and burns with ton; the Scotch 12/6 and 13/6. At these prices the a bright glowing heat, leaving a cinder or cake, which is English caals, in consequence of their lasting one-half composed of charcoal and a small quantity of earthy ash, longer, are on the whole the most economical as well as generally tinged red with iron. Coals of this description pleasant to use. Some years ago the prices of Scotch are found in the extensive pits of Northumberland and coals were even higher than the prices here quoted; the Durham, as also in Wales. They are called Newcastle or consequence was that a great number of families took to English coals in Scotland, and are those generally used consuming English coals, until the price of the Scotch in all the districts of Scotland north of the Tay, the fell to from 8s. to 10/6 per ton. boundary of the Scottish coal fields. 2. Open burning, The following will afford an example of the relative or non-caking coals,-the cherry coal of Shropshire, durabilities of the two kinds of coal: The supply of two the common Scotch coal. These have less bitumen than fires, from 10th October 1844, to 10th January 1845, the English coals, do not run into a cake, and burn with required 3 tons Scotch coals. The supply of two fires, much flame, leaving no coke, but a copious white or red from 10th October 1845, to 10th January 1846, requirash, Cannel coal is a variety, containing a large pro ed 2 tons English coals. Scotch coals, therefore, can portion of inflammable gas. . 3. Anthracite: this is a only be more economical than English when their price dull heavy burning coal, composed chiefly of carbon, does not exceed 10s. to lls. per ton. with very little bitumen or gas. It is only fit for the Lighting a Fire,—“ To do this methodically a basket stove, and is found in the lower beds of the Welsh fields. | should be provided with a separate assortment of paper
Scotch coal is in general use in all the middle and and wood shavings. If the paper is put on the bottom southern districts of Scotland; that is, in all those situa- of the grate, as is frequently done, and the wood is in tions within a convenient carriage of the pits from two large pieces, the iron of the grate abstracts the heat whence it is obtained. Habit has rendered its use the so much from the flame, that it will not have streugth most agreeable to the population within those districts; ' to kindle the wood. The better way is to have some but it, in fact, possesses disadvantages which the English choice pieces of inflammable coal, and to lay a few pieces coal has not. It is not so lasting. A ton of English first on the bottom bars, but without covering thein encoals lasts at least a ton and a-half of Scotch. It burns tirely, then lay on the paper or shavings, then the wood, away at once, leaving no coke, but a considerable quan- and on that some pieces of round coal, but no small coal, tity of white or brown dust, which is very unpleasant in when the whole is kindled let it burn up before any more apartments. For certain kinds of culinary use it is less coal is added. (Some use kindling balls made of a comadapted than the bright red coke of a half-burned English position of pitch and saw-dusts, these may be purcoal fire. It must be allowed, however, that the best chased for a small sum, and one is sufficient to light up qualities of Scotch coal make a very cheerful and power a fire in a few minutes.)” Open fires diffuse their ful winter fire, and that the disadvantages are attacha warmth by radiating heat. We should, therefore, ble chiefly to the inferior sort. We are not exactly prevent the front of the fire from being clogged with aware of the comparative expense of working the Scotch unburnt coals while the combustion is going on in the and English coal mines, but we should suppose that centre; the front should be of a glowing red, since that many of the English mines, being deeper than the Scotch, is the condition in which the fire throws out most would thus be more expensive in working. The risk at radiant heat. To promote this, brick-balls are sometending the English mines is certainly greater than the times put into the centre of the fire, but they require Scotch, as in the latter there is little or none of that some management, as they are apt to choke up the cenfire-damp so precarious in the former. On the supposi- tre, and exclude air. Fires are stronger when they tion that collier's wages should be cheaper in Scotland | burn against brick, than when iron is used
POETRY Poems by Thomas Hood. 2 Vols.--- THE STAR OF ATTEGHEI, &c. By FRANCES BROWN. In these prosaic days it is something to meet with genuine poetry, and in the above volumes we are confident our readers will find sentiments pure and elevating, and such as will awaken old feeling and dispose the mind to the spiritual act of appreciating beauty. Thomas Hood lives in the world's eye too much as a punster, and painfully conscious of this, the collection of his serious poems was made at his dying request. Frances Brown is a blind poetess, and perhaps the best female poet now living. A brief but touching autobiography is given in her preface, which want of space compels us to postpone. Meanwhile we select a flower from each of the vases.
A RETROSPECTIVe Review. By T. Hood.
All things I lov'd are alter'd so,
Nor does it ease my heart to know
That change resides in me!
0, for the garb that mark'd the boy,
The trousers made of corduroy,
Well ink'd with black and red;
The crownless hat, ne'er deeni'd an ill-
It only let the sunshine still
Repose upon my head!
0, for the ribband round the neck!
The careless dog's-ears apt to deck
My book and collar both!
How can this formal man be styled
Merely an Alexandrine child,
· A boy of larger growth?
() for the lessons learn'd by heart!
Ay, though the very birch's smart
Should mark those hours again;
I'd “ kiss the rod,” and be resign'd
Beneath the stroke, and even find
Some sugar in the cane!"
The Arabian Nights rebears'd in bed!
The Fairy Tales in school-time read,
By stealth, 'twixt verb and noun?
The angel form that always walk'd
In all my dreams, and look'd and talk'd
Exactly like Miss Brown!
The omne bene—Christmas come!
The prize of merit, won for home-
Merit had prizes then!
But now I write for days and days,
For fame-a deal of empty praise,
Without the silver pen!
Then home, sweet home! the crowded coach--
The joyous shout-the loud approach-
The winding horns like rams'!
The meeting sweet that made me thrill,
The sweetmeats almost sweeter still,
No“ satis" to the "jams!"
The STARS OF Night. By F. Brown. Whence are your glorious goings forth,
And where are they, who learned from you Ye children of the sky,
The fates of coming time,-
Ere yet the pyramids arose
Amid their desert clime !
Yet still in wilds and deserts far,
Ye bless the watcher's sight,-
And shine where bark hath never been,
0, lonely stars of night!
Much have ye seen of human tears--
Of human hope and love,
And fearful deeds of darkness, too,- . . Hath lost its ancient glow;
Ye witnesses above!
Say, will that blackening record live
For ever in your sight,
Watching for judgment on the earth,--
O, sleepless stars of night!
How glorious was your song, that rose
With the first morning's dawn!
And still, amid our summer sky,
• Its echo lingers on:-
Though ye have shone on many a grave,
Since Eden's early blight,
Ye tell of hope and glory, still, -
....! . 0, deathless stars of night!
from maximum to minimum temperature 35°. Silent
lightnings on the evenings of the 25th and 30th. Three METEOROLOGICAL REPORT FOR 1845. large clusters of spots were seen passing the sun's disc on
the 13th. On the 14th a comet appeared in the northern The following Meteorological Report for the past year hemisphere, but, from the effulgence of our evenings, was was laid before the last meeting of St Andrews Literary | invisible in our high latitude. Highest mean temperaand Philosophical Society, by Mr Tennant, schoolmaster, ture 12th-691°; lowest 28th-454°; minimum, by night Dunino:
register, 28th-39°; maximum 12th and 13th-74o. Mean January was mild and tranquil to the 25th-distant and
temperature 57.33. feeble displays of the northern aurora on the evenings of July. This month was wild and irregular. On the 1st, the 7th and 9th-silent lightnings on the evening of the heavy cold rain from S.E. On the 2d, rapid rise of baro11th. On the 25th a heavy gale from south-west: it swept meter in 15 hours of .550. On the 3d, heavy chilly showers over the western and central parts of England and Scot from 8.E. On the 4th, high wild gale from s.w. From land. Again on the 26th a fierce and violent gale from the 11th to the 15th, chilly, with showers from the n.w. N.W., introducing a low and wintry temperature. On the points-from thence to the end, harsh and unkindly winds 27th heavy, calm, snow-showers from east. On the night from N.E. and E. Our few gleams of hot temperature of the 30th thermometer dropt to 7° minimum. Mean during this month were suddenly checked by cold precipitemperature of that day 171°: the greatest degree of cold tations. Minimum temperature of the nights of 15th, since 16th February 1838. During the month the winds 16th, 28th-42'. On the 19th, three large spots were seen greatly preponderated from the western points. On the on the eastern side of the sun.--Highest mean tempera28th three large spots were seen crossing the sun's equator. ture, 8th-61°; lowest, 1st–51.2°; minimum, by night re
-Highest mean temperature 5th-47%; lowest 30—171°; gister, 15th-42°; maximum, ith and 8th-68o. Mean minimum, by night register, 30th-7°; maximum 5th-490 temperature, 55.83. Mean temperature 35.51.
August. This month resembled its predecessor. The February.-Frost and thaw alternately prevailed. Light 1st, 2d, and 3d, showery; 5th and 6th, clear--from thence precipitations, and calmness of atmosphere. On the even to the 22d, exceeding low temperature, accompanied with ing of the 5th great luminosity in the north, followed by ungenial precipitation from the n.w. and harsh winds. greater pressure and lower temperature. Again on the Minimum t.mperature of the 15th and 16th-44°; and evening of the 24th a fine display of the northern aurora, 21st-41° with cold rime. The barometric wave, up to in like manner followed by high barometric curve and the 27th, denoted a season full of instability and inclemenfrost. In England, and on the Continent, severe frost cy. On the 31st, the barometer rose to 30.150,--the highshut up their rivers during the month. On the 24th a est during the summer solstice. In England, 30th-30.100. large spot was seen passing the sun's western disc. On the evening of the 29th, a bright luminous band stretchHighest mean temperature 17th-39°; lowest 7th-2410; ed across the heavens from N.E. to s.w. In the remote minimum, by night register, 6th and 7th-20°; maximum north a faint display of the n. aurora inanifested itself. 13th-45". Mean temperature 33.17.
This phenomenon was followed by a high barometric and March. This month possessed more of the sternness of thermometric wave to the end. Mean temperature of the winter than any of its predecessors-heavy, wild masses of 30th-64.1°; maximum–70°; the hottest day during the cumuli-cloud shot upwards froin the east to the 16th with solstice. A slight earthquake at Crieff on the 7th. fierce snow showers, violent snow squall on afternoon of Highest mean temperature, 30th-641°; lowest 20th---50°; the 14th, partially shutting the roads in hilly districts.
minimum, by night register, 21st-410; maximum, 29th During this month the frost over all northern and western
and 30th-70°. Mean temperature, 55.51. Europe was exceedingly severe and rigorous. Cold at
September.- This month, up to the 8th, was pleasant and Paris on the 14th 16°, average of the month there 30". In
delightful, with high barometric wave. From thence a the east of Ireland on the 13th 10°. At Hamburg on the gradual subsidence of barometer took place over our island 14th 2° above zero. In Holland equally intense. In to the 17th, followed with dense masses of cumuli from Dunino, lowest 19°; minimum temperature ranging repeat s.w, to n.w., and heavy precipitations, and much silent edly from 19 to 22°; mean of the 20th 27°: the coldest of lightning. On the 2d, a violent eruption of Mount Hecla the month. During this frost the sky assumed an exceed
in Iceland burst forth, enveloping a tract of country (by ingly light blue colour. This severe close of the winter last accounts of the middle of October) of three miles in solstice gave way on the 21st to thaw, and high, mild At breadth. A thick shower of pumice and volcanic dust was lantic winds, elevating the temperature on the 220 to 481o. wafted toward the isles of Shetland, Orkney, and the In England this rapid rush of high temperature was at mainland of Scotland, covering the vegetation. This was tended by thunder and lightning. Slight shock of an the most severe eruption since the memorable and destrucearthquake at Campsie on the 9th.- Highest mean tem
tive one in 1784.--Highest mean temperature, 9th-60°; perature 22d-481°; lowest 20th-27°; minimum, by night lowest, 23d-41!"; minimum, by night register, 220—30°; register, 14th and 19th-19°; maximum 27th–54. Mean maximum, 1st-70°. Mean temperature, 50.58. temperature 35.61.
October. This month was blustering and tempestuous April was variable and diversified to the 16th. Tempe to the 21st. Heavy fall of rain on the 3d, and high wind rature rose on the 17th 6°, accompanied by a balmy and from the s.E., the greatest fall during the year-1.80 inches mild atmosphere to the 231-soft and mild precipitations in 24 hours. From the 7th to the 12th, low barometric from the south-western points to the end. From the 8th curve; simultaneous therewith a long and destructive to the 14th deep barometric curve.---Highest mean tem storm swept over the north seas and the northern islands perature 21st–53°; lowest 3d—381°; minimum, by night of Scotland, causing many serious shipwrecks. This gale register, 11th and 15th-29°; maximum 21st-61o. Mean was unfelt in our latitude. On the 16th, 18th, 20th, and temperature 44.20.
26th, heavy dry gales from n.w. to s.w., particularly May to the 10th was distinguished by cold hail showers
violent on the 20th. During this excessively moist and and current of wind from n.w. to N.E.; from thence to the
rainy autumn, from the 14th September to the 15th Octoend a long easterly wind, with chilly showers: indeed,
ber, 7.62 in. of rain fell. On the 18th and 24th, several during this vernal month, there were no kindly Atlantic clusters of spots were seen crossing the sun's orb. On the influences, but ungenial and harsh winds from the North
22d, a comet appeared in the constellation Cancer, visible Sea. On the 7th several clusters of spots were seen cross by the eye. On the 13th and 29th, shocks of an earthing the sun's disc. From the 11th to the end of the month
quake were felt at Comrie.- Highest mean temperature, high barometric wave.---Highest mean temperature 16th
14th-55°; lowest, 5th-381°; minimum, by night register, -57°; lowest 9th-424°; minimum, by night register, 3d-
4th-32°; maximum, 14th-60°. Mean temperature, 35°; maximum 16th-66. Mean temperature 48.
46.43. June. This month to the 8th was accompanied by a November.---The chief characteristic of this month was high mild gale from sw. and low barometric wave. On great mildness and humidity of atmosphere. From the 1st the 12th the temperature rose to 69.1°: the highest thermo to the 6th serene, fine autumnal season, and high baromemetric wave since the 12th June 1826: but tnis high wave trical curve; from thence to the 15th, light s.E. winds, with gradually subsided on the 14th in England, France, and showers; from thence to the 22d, deep barometrical wave, Holland, and never again rose so high during the summer the lowest curve, by diagram, during this year; low and solstice. Calm and equable to the 21st. Heavy gale with irregular oscillations to the end, with a succession of high much rain from x.E. on the 28th with low thermometric Atlantic gales on the 17th, 19th, 20th, 26th. At 7 P.m. in curve-45° mean of that day. Minimum temperature the evening of the 17th great luminosity in the northern 39°, western Grampians being covered with snow. Mean heavens, followed by a lower temperature and fall of barorange of temperature from the 12th to the 28th 24°. Range! meter of .19 in 12 hours. From the 20th to the 22d thun1841...
der with violent squalls in the south of England. On the undulations of barometer-at its commencement by heavy 11th and 15th several severe shocks of an earthquake were precipitations, then a constant succession of long and felt at Smyrna, in Asia Minor.--Highest mean tempera powerful Atlantic winds from Mw. to s.w., with a total abture, 8th and 26th-49°; lowest, 24th-31°; minimum, sence of easterly gales, and of dense and continued cloudi24th-25o; maximum, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th-52o. Mean ness of atmosphere. temperature, 41.44.
Mean temp.--autumnal solstice, 1844...42.36 deg...rain 6.96 December.-During this month alternate thaw and frost
1845.. 42.01 deg... do. 10.30 prevailed, attended with deep and rapid oscillations of the Barometric curve, .124 lower than autumnal solstice 1844. barometer; morning of the 19th a fall of .75 in 12 hours; It will be observed of this past year, 1845, that the aveon the 22d a sudden plunge of .74 in 12 hours. A dry and rage mean temperature of July was lower by 1.179 than clear atmosphere prevailed during the month. Strong and | that of July, 1844, and the mean minimum less by 1.339 dry gales on the 1st, 11th, 14th, 20th, 21st, and 27th, from | than that of 1844; the one being 49.650, the other 48.32N.n.w. to s.w. From 6 a.m. to 12, in the evening of the 3d, and that the summer solstice was in all its collected dethe most brilliant display of the northern lights took place monstrations colder than any since 1839. This, however, of all during the year, enduring until midnight. This was the coldness indicated by the thermometer merely; phenomenon was attended by a rise of barometer and lower there appeared to observers a chilliness, languor, and deadtemperature, and shortly followed by sudden fall of baro ness of atmosphere, distinguishable principally by feeling meter and thaw. Much silent lightning in the east on the and sensation, and not perhaps at all intluencing the therevening of the 6th, and to sw. on the evening of the 26th. mometer, which at last manifested and verified itself in its ---Highest mean temperature, 14th-43.0: lowest, 18th. pernicious effects on some of the crops, particularly that of 271°; minimum, 18th-230; maximum, 14th, 26th, 29th, potatoes, in this and many other countries subjected to the 30th-470. Mean temperature 35.38.
ungenial influence of this prevalent atmospheric insalubriDuring the past year thunder was heard in this latitude ty. It was the ungenial character of the latter end of June, only four times-twice in July and twice in August-and and of all July-together with the heavy rains of the latvery feebly.
ter end of September and all October—that affected field During the year 1844 the thermometer stood at and be produce. The quantity of rain that fell between the 14th low 320 66 times, and in the past year, 1845, 87 times. of September and 15th of October was no less than 7.62
in. In 1799 the quantity of rain that fell in August was GENERAL REMARKS.
7.20 in.--an excess which was the principal cause of the Throughout the various solstices of this year (1815) there
crop-failure of that disastrous year. seemed to be an irregularity and disturbance in atmosphe Mean temperature--summer solstice, 1838.........54.04° rial phenomena. Winter solstice was calm and lightly
1839.........53.24 frosty until the 25th January; from that period to the 22d
....58.26 March winter set in with a rigour and intensity of cold
...55.56 more severe than has been felt in Europe since the last
1842 .57.22 parallel season of 1838, still deepening as the solstice pro
1844.........55.30 This frost was more intense in England and on the Con
1845.........54.62 tinent than in our British Isles; the river Seine at Paris
1845. was frozen on the 14th March-cold, 16o. The breaking up
July ......... ..3.23
2.65...... ...2.93 and disruption of this long-protracted frost was the cause August ............7.20.
.4.61. of much national calamity to the Continental cities by the September........3.15.
....3.87 overflooding of rivers and accumulation of ice.
October ........... 2.88.
.6.80.... Mean range of barometric wave for the year, 1.220; November ........2.89...
..3.15..............3.42 mean range of thermometric wave, 180, barometric extreme, 1.64; thermometric extreme, 30".
18.06 Mean temperature-winter solstice, 1844...36.16...rain 5.62 MEAN TEMPERATURE,
Ratx. 1845...34.11... „ 5.95
1844. 1843 1838...32.92
January......37.14.......35.51-Defect, 1.63 2.10......2.84 Barometric curve, 1.50 higher than winter solstice 1844.
February ....32.41......33.17-Excess, .76 1.84......1.34 · Spring solstice was unkindly and inconstant. No genial March........37.98......35.61-Defect, 2.37 2.51......1.97 Atlantic influences prevailed: in place thereof cold and in
April.........47.50.......44.20 Do. 3.30 .63......1.51 clement precipitations from the eastern points. Towards
May......... 49.91......48.00 Do. 1.91 .52......1.74 the close of this solstice thermometric wave rose on the
June......... 55.01......57.33—Excess, 2.32 4.46......3.73 12th June to 691° mean; in Holland, on the 13th, 87°, the
| July..........57.00......55.33—Defect, 1.17 3.04..... 2.93 earliest invasion of tropical heat since the 12th June 1826; August 54.97. 55.51 _Excess. 54 3.20. 3.27 but this brief period of high temperature quickly subsided September. 52.26...... 50.58Defect, 1.68 2.42......2.87 to a more than wonted chilliness.
October.....45.58...... 46.43-Excess, .85 1.80......4.63 Mean temp.--vernal solstice, 1844...49.27 deg... rain. 5.10 in.
November..42.53......41.41-Defect, 1.094.04......3.42 1845...48.10 do.... do. 6.05 do.
December..34.48......35.38-Excess, .38 1.57......1.32 Barometric curve, .239 lower than vernal solstice 1844.
Summer solstice was distinguished by great obscurity of Mean......45.57 41.91–Defect, .68 28.13 32.51 sky, and by a temperature uncommonly low and chilly; precipitations were ungenerous, the atmosphere being ex
Summer Solstice. ceedingly saturated with moisture. The prevailing cur
West wind over the east, . 2.60 West wind over the cast, . 9.00 rents were, as last summer, from the north-west. From South over the north, .
North and south equal, , 0.00 the low temperature of the solstice, electrical phenomena
Three west over three east, - 1.85 Tbrce west over three cast, - 128
Autumnnt Solstice. were rare, feeble, and isolated.
East wind over the west . 7.00 East over the west
1300 About the 19th of August this extremely damp and
North and south equal, = 0.00 North and south equal clouded solstice gave way, over Europe, to greater clearness
Thrue west over thr'e tast, - 1.02 Three west over three east, 3.15 and purity of sky. Its termination was attended by elec POLISHED ROCKS ON ARTHUR SEAT.-Certain polished tric whirlwinds and waterspouts in some of the western rocks, with grooves and scratches like those ascribed to kingdoms of Europe, introducing a clemency which lasted glacier action, have been long known on Salisbury Crags. to the 8th September.
The grooves run to the north of east from the top of the It may be remarked that, whilst all the shores and in ridge down towards the valley between it and Arthur Seat. land regions of western Europe were obscured by an un- In forming the new road round the latter hill, some curious commonly dark and moist atmosphere, the regions within examples of the same phenomenon are now exposed, to the Arctic Circle, and the countries bordering on the which we would call the attention of our geological readers. northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, to about 45° | They are seen in the small valley, or rather hollow-terrace, north latitude, were enjoying a more than usually fine and formed between the top of Sampson's Ribs and the main gerene summer. Portugal only suffered in her vines from body of Arthur Seat. This valley is only about an hundred cold, but Greece and Italy enjoyed their usual richness of yards long, and its western or lower side not above forty temperature.
feet high, yet it seems to have determined the direction of Mean temp.- summer solstice, 1844...55.30 deg...rain 9.63 these furrows, which run south-east by compass, and thus
1845...54.62 deg... do. 10.03 along the side of the hill, not down the declivity. They Barometric curve, .008 higher than summer solstice 1844. | also appear to be curved lines, as if formed by some body The autumnal solstice was marked by deep and rapid | moving south, and pressed against the side of the hill. We