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the moment that his hand was upon his horse, just as I The members of the council had scarcely raised their he was about to mount, the animal violently started back | hands in token of assent, when a great noise was heard several paces, and when he was at last in the saddle, it around them, “The captain! the captain!” cried a solrefused for a time to move, rearing and prancing back dier from the outposts who arrived in haste. “Silence, wards, like that horse which the greatest captain of mo silence!" replied the ushers, driving him back; “ they dern times had mounted as he was about to cross the are holding a council!"_" It is no longer time to hold a Niemen. Many in Zurich at that time thought with the council,” replied the soldier. “Conduct me immediately soldier of the Grand Army when he saw Napoleon on to the captain.”......Our sentinels are falling back," the ground: “ It is a bad omen! a Roman would go cried he with an agitated voice, as he arrived before Golback!" Zwingle having at last mastered his horse, gave dli. “The enemy is there they are advancing through the reins, applied the spur, started forward, and disap the forest with all their forces and with great tumult." peared.
He had not ceased speaking before the sentinels, who At eleven o'cleck the flag was struck, and all who re were in truth retiring on all sides, ran up, and the army mained in the square-about 500 men-began their of the Five Cantons was soon seen climbing the slope of march along with it. The greater part were torn with I felsberg in face of the Granges, and pointing their guns. difficulty from the arms of their families, and walked The leaders of the Waldstettes were examining the posisad and silent, as if they were going to the scaffold in tion, and seeking to discover by what means their army stead of battle. There was no order--no plan; the men could reach that of Zurich. The Zurichers were asking were isolated and scattered, some running before, some themselves the same question. The nature of the ground after the colours, their extreme confusion presenting a prevented the Waldstettes from passing below the confearful appearance, so much so, that those who remain vent, but they could arrive by another quarter. Ulric ed behind-the women, the children, and the old men, Bruder, under-bailiff of Husen in tlie canton of Zurich, filled with gloomy forebodings, beat their breasts as they fixed his anxious look on the beech-wood. “ It is thence saw them pass, and many years after, the remembrance that the enemy will fall upon us!” “ Axes--axes!" of this day of tumult and mourning drew this groan from immediately cried several voices; “let us cut down the Oswald Myconius: “ Whenever I recal to mind, it is as trees!" Goldli, the abbot, and several others were opposif a sword pierced my beart." Zwingle, armed accord. ed to this; “ If we stop up the wood, by throwing down ing to the usage of the chaplains of the Confederation, the trees, we shall ourselves be unable to work our guns rede mournfully behind this distracted multitude. My- | in that direction," said they.-" Well! at least let us conius, when he saw him, was nigh fainting. Zwingle place some arquebusiers in that quarter.”—“ We are disappeared, and Oswald remained behind to weep. already so small a number," replied the captain, “ that
He did not shed tears alone; in all quarters were it will be imprudent to divide the forces.” Neither wisheard lamentations, and every house was changed intodom nor courage were to save Zurich. They once more a house of prayer. In the midst of this universal sor invoked the help of God, and waited in expectation. row, one woman remained silent; her only cry was a At one o'clock the Five Cantons fired the first gun; bitter heart, her only language the mild and suppliant the ball passing over the convent fell below the Granges; eye of faith;---this was Anpa, Zwingle's wife. She had a second passed over the line of battle; a third seen her husband depart—her son, her brother, a great hedge close to the ruins. The Zurichers, seeing the batnumber of intimate friends and near relations, whose tle was begun, replied with courage; but the slowness approaching death she foreboded. But her soul, strong and awkwardness with which the artillery was served in as that of her husband, offered to God the sacrifice of those days prevented any great loss being inflicted on her holiest affections. Gradually the defenders of Zu- | either side. When the enemy perceived this, they orderrich precipitate their march, and the tumult dies away ed their advanced guard to descend from 1felsberg and in the distance.
to reach the Gravges through the meadow; and soon the It was eleven in the merning. The Zurichers soon whole army of the Cantons advanced in this direction, discovered the enemy's army, and cast a sorrowful glance but with difficulty and over bad roads. Some arqueon the small force they were able to oppose to it. Every busiers of Zurich came and announced the disorder of minute the danger increased. All bent their knees, their the Cantons. “ Brave Zurichers," cried Rudi Gallmann, eyes were raised to heaven, and every Zuricher uttered “ if we attack them now, it is all over with them.” At a cry from the bottom of his heart, praying for deliver: these words some of the soldiers prepared to enter the ance from God. As soon as the prayer was ended, they wood on the leit, to fall upon the disheartened Waldstettes. got ready for battle. There was at that time about But Goldli perceiving this movement, cried out;“ Where twelve hundred men under arms.
are you going-do you not know that we have agreed At noon the trumpet of the Five Cantons sounded not not to separate?” He then ordered the skirmishers to far from the advanced posts. Goldli, having collected be recalled, so that the wood remained entirely open to the members of the two councils who happened to be the enemy. They were satisfied with discharging a few with the army, as well as the commissioned and non random shots from time to time to prevent the Cantons commissioned officers, and having ranged them in a cir from establishing themselves there. The firing of the cle, ordered the secretary Rheinhard to read the declar artillery continued until three o'clock, and announced ation of which the Sautier of Lucerne was the bearer. | far and wide, even to Bremgarten and Zurich, that the After the reading, Goldli opened a council of war. “ We battle had begun. are few in number, and the forces of our adversaries are In the meanwhile the great banner of Zurich and all great,” said Landolt, bailiff of Marpac,“ but I will here those who surrounded it, among whom was Zwingle, await the enemy in the name of God.” “Wait!" cried came advancing in disorder towards the Albis. For a the captain of the halberdiers, Rodolph Zigler; “ impos year past the gaiety of the reformer had entirely disapsible! let us rather take advantage of the ditch that cuts peared: he was grave, melancholy, easily moved, having the road to effect our retreat, and let us everywhere a weight on his heart that seemed to crush it. Often raise a levee en masse." This was in truth the only would he throw himself weeping at the feet of his Master, means of safety. But Rudi Gallmann, considering every and seek in prayer the strength of which he stood in need. step backwards as an act of cowardice, cried out, stamp No one had ever observed in him any irritation; on the ing his feet forcibly on the earth, ard casting a fiery contrary, he had received with mildness the counsels that glance around him, “ Here-here shall be my grave!" had been offered, and had remained tenderly attached to -“ It is now too late to retire with honour,” said other men whose convictions were not the same as his own. officers. “ This day is in the hands of God. Let us He was now advancing mournfully along the road to suffer whatever he lays upon us." It was put to the | Cappel; and John Maaler of Winterthour, who was ridvote.
| ing a few paces behind him, heard his groans and sighs, intermingled with fervent prayers. If any one spoke to ! A citizen of Zurich, one Leonard Bourkhard, who was him, he was found firm and strong in the peace that pro- ill disposed towards the reformer, said to him in a harsh ceeds from faith; but he did not conceal his conviction tone, “ Well, Master Ulric, what do you say about this that he should never see his family or church again. business? Are the radishes salt enough? Who will Thus advanced the forces of Zurich. A woful march! eat them now?” “I," replied Zwingle, " and many a resembling rather a funeral procession than an army go brave man who is here in the hands of God: for we are ing to battle.
his in life and in death.” “ And I too—I will help to As they approached they saw express after express eat them," resumed Bourkhard immediately, ashamed galloping along the road from Cappel, begging the of his brutality,_“I will risk my life for them.” And Zurichers to hasten to the defence of their brothers. he did so, and many others with him, adds the chronicle.
At Adliswil, having passed the bridge under which It was four o'clock; the sun was sinking rapidly; the flow the impetuous waters of the Sihl, and traversed the Waldstettes did not advance, and the Zurichers began village through the midst of women, children, and old to think that the attack would be put off till the morrow. men, who, standing before their cottages, looked with In fact, the chiefs of the Five Cantons seeing the great sadness on this disorderly troop, they began to ascend banner of Zurich arrive, the night near at hand, and the the Albis. They were about half-way from Cappel when impossibility of crossing under the fire of the Zurichers, the first cannonshot was heard. They stop, they listen: the marsh and the ditch that separated the combatants, a second, a third succeeds ..... There is no longer any were looking for a place in which their troops might doubt. The glory, the very existence of the republic are pass the night. “If, at this moment, any mediators had endangered, and they are not present to defend it! The appeared," says Bullinger, " their proposals would have blood curdles in their veins. On a sudden they arouse, been accepted.” and each one begins to run to the support of his brothers. The soldiers, observing the hesitation of their chiefs, But the road over the Albis was much steeper than it is began to murmur loudly. “ The big ones abandon us," in our days. The badly-harnessed artillery could not said one. “ The captains fear to bite the fox's tail," said ascend it; the old men, the citizens, little habituated to another. “ Not to attack them," cried they all, “ is to marching, and covered with heavy armour, advanced ruin our cause.” During this time a daring man was with difficulty; and yet they formed the greater portion preparing the skilful maneuvre that was to decide the of the troops. They were seen stopping one after ano fate of the day. A warrior of Uri, John Jauch, forther, panting and exhausted, along the sides of the road merly bailiff of Sargans, a good marksman and experinear the thickets and ravines of the Albis, leaning against enced soldier, having taken a few men with him, moved a beech or an ash tree, and looking with dispirited eyes towards the right of the army of the Five Cantons, crept to the summit of the mountain covered with thick pines. into the midst of the clump of beech trees that, by form
They resume their march, however; the horsemen anding a semicircle to the east, unite the hill of Ifelsberg to the most intrepid of the foot-soldiers hasten onwards, that of the Granges, found the wood empty, arrived to and having reached the “ Beech Tree,” on the top of the within a few paces of the Zurichers, and there, hidden mountain, halt to take council.
behind the trees, remarked unperceived the smallness of What a prospect then extended before their eyes! their numbers, and their want of caution. Then, stealZarich, the lake and its smiling shores—those orchards, thily retiring, he went to the chiefs at the very moment those fertile fields, those vine-clad hills almost the whole the discontent was on the point of bursting out. “Now of the canton, Alas! soon, perhaps, to be devastated by is the time to attack the enemy," cried he. “Dear gosthe Forest-bands.
sip," replied Troquer, captain-in-chief of Uri, “ you do Scarcely had these noble-minded men begun to deli not mean to say that we should set to work at so late an berate, when fresh messengers from Cappel appear be hour; besides, the men are preparing their quarters, fore them, and exclaim, “ Hasten forward!" At these and everybody knows what it cost our fathers at Naples words many of the Zurichers prepared to gallop towards and Marignan for having commenced the attack a little the enemy. Toning, the captain of the arquebusiers, before night. And then it is Innocents' day, and our stopt them. “My good friends,” cried he to them, ancestors have never given battle on a feast day."" against such great forces what can we do alone? Let “ Don't think about the Innocents of the calendar,' reus wait here until our people are assembled, and then plied Jauch,“ but let us rather remember the innocents let us fall upon the enemy with the whole army." “ Yes, that we have left in our cottages.” Gaspard Goldli of if we had an army," bitterly replied the captain-general, Zurich, brother of the commander of the Granges, addwho, in despair of saving the republic, thought only of ed his entreaties to those of the warrior of Uri. “We dying with glory; " but we have only a banner and no must either beat the Zurichers to-night,” said he,“ or soldiers.” “ How can we stay calmly upon these heights,” | be beaten by them to-morrow. Take your choice.” said Zwingle, while we hear the shots that are fired at All was unavailing; the chiefs were inflexible, and the our fellow-citizens? In the name of God I will march army prepared to take up its quarters. Then the wartowards our warriors, prepared to die in order to save rior of Uri, understanding like his fellow-countryman them.” “ And I too,” added the aged banneret Schwei Tell that great evils require great remedies, drew his zer. “ As for you,” continued he, turning with a con sword and cried: “Let all true confederates follow me.” temptuous look towards Toning, "wait till you are a Then hastily leaping to his saddle, he spurred his horse little recovered.” “I am quite as much refreshed as into the forest; and immediately arquebusiers, soldiers you," replied Toning, the colour mantling on his face, from the Adige, and many other warriors of the Five " and you shall soon see whether I cannot fight.” All Cantons, especially from Unterwalden-in all about 300 hastened their steps towards the field of battle.
men, rushed into the wood after him. At this sight The descent is rapid; they plunge into the woods, Jauch no longer doubts of the victory of the Waldstetpass through the village of Husen, and at length arrive tes. He dismounts and falls upon his knees, “ for,” says near the Granges. It was three o'clock when the ban- | Tschudi, “he was a man who feared God." All his ner crossed the narrow bridge that led thither; and there followers do the same, and together invoke the aid of were so few soldiers round it that every one trembled as God, of his holy mother, and of all the heavenly host. he beheld this venerated standard thus exposed to the They then advance; but soon the warrior of Uri, wishattacks of so formidable an enemy. The army of the ing to expose no one but himself, halts his troops, and Cantons was at that moment deploying before the eyes glides from tree to tree to the verge of the wood. Obof the new-comers. Zwingle gazed upon this terrible serving that the enemy was as incautious as ever, he spectacle. Behold, then, these phalanxes of soldiers !-- rejoins his arquebusiers, leads them stealthily forward, a few minutes more, and the labours of eleven years will and posts them silently behind the trees of the forest, be destroyed perhaps for ever!
enjoining them to take their aim so as not to miss their
men. During this time the chiefs of the Five Cantons, foreseeing that this rash man was about to bring on the action, decided against their will, and collected their soldiers around the banners.
The most distinguished men of Zurich fell one af. ter another, under the blows of the Waldstettes ; but the death of one individual far surpassed all others. Zwingle was at the post of danger, the helmet on his head, the sword hanging at his side, the battleaxe in his hand. Scarcely had the action begun, when, stooping to console a dying man, says J. J. Hottinger, a stone hurled by the vigorous arm of a Waldstette struck him on the bead and closed his lips. Yet Zwingle arose,
when two other blows, which struck him successively on the leg, threw him down again. Twice more he stands up again; but a fourth time he receives a thrust from a lance, he staggers, and sinking beneath so many wounds, falls on his knees. Does not the darkness that is spread. ing around him announce a still thicker darkness that is about to cover the Church? Zwingle turns away from such sad thoughts; once more he uplifts that head which had been so bold, and gazing with calm eye upon the trickling blood, exclaims, " What evil is this? They can indeed kill the body, but they cannot kill the soul!" These were his last words.
SCIENCE. FORMATION OF CHLOROPHYLE, THE GREEN colouring matter in the skin of fruits is produced from COLOURING MATTER OF PLANTS.
the pure green chlorophyle. Light is essential to the
| production of this green matter, but light can only proIt has been long known that the green matter of
duce it when there is sufficient material at hand whence plants when subjected to the influence of the sun's rays
it can be formed anew from new substances as often as gives off oxygen. But according to Mulder* this soli
the existing quantity is decomposed by the same influtary fact has not been hitherto brought into connection
ence of light, so that as soon as this stock is consumed, with that frequent change of materials which takes
the green colouring matter is itself decomposed, and place in plants, and of which it is merely the final result.
other compounds not coloured green are formed from it It is clear that this oxygen must originate in one or
and remain. Asparagus, potatoes, young growing leaves, more substances existing either in the places where the
all become green whenever they are exposed to light. oxygen is separated, or in some other part of the plant,
Hence there must be a substance generally diffused and that its being given off from the green parts must
through plants that causes the production of chlorophyle be the consequence of the formation of substances poor
-a substance present even where no green colour is in oxygen, from others rich in this element, since it is
perceived, and in parts not exposed to light, since whatby such a change of substances only that oxygen can be
ever part of a plant we expose to light it will become disengaged from plants. Now it will be found that
green, provided it be a part which ought naturally to be plants do contain substances poor in oxygen. There is
deprived of light. This happens not only on the sura substance almost universally diffused through plants
face, but beneath it as far as light can penetrate through called chlorophyle, viridine, or chromule. It is this that
the earth. gives the green colour to the leaves and other parts of
Many plants have leaves either speckled or spotted, plants, and since the green parts give off oxygen this
or of a colour entirely different from green, others are substance occupies the very place where this excretion
not coloured at all. From this it may be concluded that is performed. It is worthy of remark too, that young
in such plants or parts of plants the materials are wantleaves have a much lighter green colour than those
ing, from which chlorophyle is produced. We may ocwhich are older, showing that the quantity of chlorophyle
casionally rem.ark in summer, one single spot of an enincreases with the age of the leaves. This green matter
tirely green leaf coloured red by the sucking of insects, is rich in oxygen, and the leaves give off oxygen not be
the same effect is caused by bail storms, and is thus cause they are green, but whilst they are becoming
caused by this partial wounding of the leaf. The green green. When green leaves are digested with ether the
matter present at the place is decomposed by the light, liquid becomes green. If the solution be then evapor
no new portion is formed, and generally this part asated, and the residue digested with alcohol, a large
sumes the same colour which the whole leaf will take on quantity of a white fatty substance is deposited after
in autumn. From this we learn that the autumnal cooling, the green colouring matter being held in solu
change is a chemical one entirely without the intervention. Chlorophyle then consists of two substances of
tion of any function of the plant. The colour of leaves a pure green colouring matter, and of wax. We find
which are not green, is either such as is general to the similar mixtures of a waxy fat with colouring matters
whole plant or partial. Thus in many plants the under in other exterior parts of plants besides the leaves. It
surface of the leaves are variously coloured or marked abounds in the skin of fruits, especially coloured fruits:
with spots. The yellow colour is frequently met with in at first this skin is green, then it gradually turns red or
variegated striped and spotted leaves, as in the Ilex aquibrown Digested in ether such skins yield a large
folinnathe A ucuba Japonica. The Celtis australis has quantity of waxy substance, varying in colour according
green leaves with yellow stripes on the nerves of the to the fruit, being grey when obtained from apples, and
leaf, and so has the Carduus marinus. Such spots if of a beautiful orange colour when got from the berries
they bave been formerly green are in the condition of of the mountain ash. Senebier found that the red and
the yellow leaves in autumn, or if they have never been yellow parts of plants give off no oxygen when subjected
green there must have been from the commencement of to the light of the sun, this being done by the green
their growth a want of the material through which they parts only. The formation of wax in the skin of fruits
could have become green. For this reason many of has its origin from the time when the fruits were green.
these leaves which either have yellow stripes or are The wax then formed is left behind, after the green
otherwise coloured yellow, become entirely green by colouring matter of unripe fruits has been changed dur
better cultivation. An interchange similar to that ing ripening. If we add to this that, in the leaves
which is perceived between yellow and green is found which have changed their colour in autumn, a fatty sub
| also between red and green; in this case, however, two stance is abundantly found similar to that which exists different colouring matters must exist. These diversiin the skins of fruits, and in the green leaves--that
ties, the cause of which is always connected with that of leaves which become red in autumn belong to plants
the change of colour in autumn, may be thus explained: having red fruits, and that such plants as have yellow
The green colouring matter which exists everywhere is leaves in autumn bear mostly fruits of a yellowish
decomposed by light in the changed spots, and gives colour, there can be no doubt that the red and yellow rise to a red colour, the green not being restored. This * Chemistry of Vegetable and Animal Physiology, Part II.
| is also the case in the purple beech, (F. sylvatica purpu
rea) on which together with the chlorophyle a red colouring matter exists, produced by light, the green diminishing in quantity the longer the leaves are subjected to the action of light. The white lily when young is of a green colour. The sea-green colour of botanists (glaucus) arises from a thin layer of wax spread externally over the green leaves. For the same reason, grasses when covered with dew appear sea green. The small drops of water of which dew consists, and which are not distinguished by the eye, make the chlorophyle appear glaucus. Grapes, plums, and other fruits, especially that of the Myrica ceriferu contain a large portion of this excreted wax.
From the chemical experiments of Berzelius it appears, that the pure green colouring matter of leaves is readily decomposed into three different substances, one yellow, another blue, and a third black--that according to the proportion of these three mixed with the green one, a different kind of green must be produced, therefore the leaves must be of different shades of green from the different proportions of these three colouring matters. It is well known to painters that every variety of green may be prepared from blue, yellow, or black. According to Berzelius, the quantity of pure chlorophyle in leaves is exceedingly small, being not more than dyed cotton contains of colouring matter. This same chemist infers that the colouring matter as it becomes green absorbs oxygen, and that it either loses oxygen or takes up hydrogen, when it becomes colourless. Hugo Mohl is of opinion that the sap of plants is never green, but always either colourless or red,—when it seems to be green under the microscope this is owing to a little chlorophyle reflecting green light. Mulder concludes, that white chlorophyle becomes green by obtaining oxygen during the conversion of starch into wax.
The MagnetIO TELEGRAPH IN AMERICA.-In the course of a year from this time, there is reason to believe that the most distant sections of the Union will be connected by magnetic telegraphs. The Newark Daily Advertiser says that Messrs Stephens & Thomas, of Belleville, New Jersey, have undertaken a great proportion of the contracts for furnishing copper wire for the various lines of the magnetic telegraph now in progress in this country. Subjoined is a list of the lines they have already or nearly completed, with the number of miles of telegraph, the routes, it should be noted, not being in all cases the most direct :
New York to Philadelphia................. 150 miles.
150 New York to Boston..
.. 240 #
1,107 The wire averages about 17,000 lbs. to a hundred miles, 80 that these contracts will amount to about 188,190 lbs. of copper wire. Messrs Stephens & Thomas have also just entered into a contract for furnishing the wire for the Atlantic, Lake, and Mississippi Telegraph Company, which has recently been organized for connecting the Atlantic States and the Mississippi Valley, including the Ohio and Lake country. The route between the Atlantic and the Ohio will constitute the first section; that between the Ohio and the lakes (at Detroit) the second section; that between Wheeling and Cincinnati the third section; and so onward in the prolongation of these and other lines to the Mississippi at St Louis and elsewhere, which continuations will be divided into sections of proper extent; including, in the south-westerly branch, Frankfort, Louisville, Evansville, Kaskaskia, &c.; and in the north-westerly route, St Joseph's, Chicago, Milwaulkie, Dubuque, Burlington, Quincy, &c.; while central sections will, in due time, be continued between Columbus, Indianapolis, and Springfield, thence to St Louis, so as to include state capitals as far as practicable in connection with the commercial cities.-Lexington True American.
OBSERVERS AT GREENWICH OBSERVATORY.-The number of persons regularly employed in the magnetical and mete
orological department, in 1843, was four. The order of observations is arranged every week, and usually proceeds on the following principle :--The head of the department takes one complete day's observations in each week; the remainder of the observations is equally divided between the three other assistants. In order to give reasonable security that the assistants have really been present at the time at which their observations profess to have been made, there is provided an instrument, denominated the watchman's clock. It consists of a pendulum clock, which has no hands, but of which the dial-plate turns round; this dialplate has a number of radial pins, fixed in its circumference, each of which can be pressed downwards (being held by the friction of a spring only) without disturbing the others. A lever is attached to the clock-frame, in such a position that, by means of a cord which passes from the lever through a hole in the clock-case to its outside, the lever can be made to press down that pin which happens to be uppermost, and no other. The clock-case and lockframe are securely locked up. Thus the only power which an assistant possesses over the clock is that of pulling the cord, and thereby depressing one pin; the dial-plates then turn away, carrying that pin in its depressed state, and thus retains for about eleven hours the register of every time at which the assistant has pulled the cord. About one hour before returning to the same time (semi-diurnal reckoning), the bases of the pins begin to run upon a spiral inclined plane, by which they are forced up to their normal position before coming to that point at which the lever can act upon them. It is the duty of each assistant, upon making the prescribed observations, to pull the cord of the watchman's clock; and it is the duty of the first assistant to examine the face of the clock every morning, and to enter in a book an account of the pins which he finds depressed. It is presumed that great security is thus given against irregularity, as regards the time of the observations.--From Magnetical and Meteorological Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.
BIELA'S COMET, which has a period of six years and about eight months, has been observed recently both in England and on the Continent. On Monday evening Professor Forbes read to the Royal Society a letter from Professor Challis (of Cambridge, we believe), announcing the singular fact that the comet is a binary or double comet. It exhibits two nuclei. separated by a space, which is at present about 140 seconds, but seems subject to change. It is believed that no other instance of a binary comet is on record.—Scotsman.
GEOLOGY.--A letter from Gottingen announces that M. Koch, a geologist of that city, has just discovered in the United States, in the State of Alabama, at a depth of 111 feet below the surface of the ground, the complete skeleton of an antediluvian serpent, 114 French feet (121 feet 6 inches English) long, the vertebræ of which are from 24 to 30 inches high, and 18 in circumference. M. Koch is of opinion that the animal must have lived in the sea, and that it was carnivorous. He proposes to give it the name of archihydra.
TRANSPORTING FORCE AND DILUVIUM.—Now that we are sustained by the reasoning of mathematicians, who show us that with sudden vertical elevations, each not exceeding 58 feet in the case of an ocean of 300 or 400 feet in depth (and might not corresponding depressions produce the same!), bodies of water have the power of hurling on enormous blocks, sand and gravel to vast distances, and over considerable inequalities, we are relieved from one of the great difficulties opposed to the rational explanation of the position of a very large proportion of this drifted matter. Under the influence of such powerful causes of translation, the moistened masses of drift would operate like the moraines of glaciers, and abrade, score, and polish rocks, producing grooves and striæ in given directions. At the same time, in the axis of northern Scandinavia and Lapland, arctic glaciers undoubtedly existed; and from these would float away icebergs, transporting large and angular blocks, such as chiefly occupy the surface of the accumulations of drift, to enormous distances from their native beds without losing their original outline.-Murchison.
News of the cuteek.
LUTHER.--Great preparations are making in Germany LITERARY PENSIONS.-Frazer's Magazine claims credit
for the three hundredth anniversary of Luther's death, for the governments of Sir Robert Peel and Lord Melbourne,
which falls on the 18th of this month. for their pensions to the following parties:
CONTINENTAL TRAVELLING.-Intercourse between Eng Mr Southey... L.300 Thomas Hood's widow L.100
land and the Continent in 1843 and 1845:-Mr Wordsworth.. 300 Thomas Moore .. 300
1813, Boulogne 56,803 passengers. 1845, 70,809 Mrs Somerville . . . 300 Lady Morgan. ..
28,744 300 James Montgomery, 150 John Banim . . . .
Calais 19,079 Mr Pond's widow. . 200 Sir D. Brewster..
Dieppe Professor Airey's widow 300 Colonel Gurwood ..
... 11,761 200 Antwerp 9,677
... 6,680 Professor Faraday , 300 | Dr M'Clerie's widow Mr Tytler . . . . 200 | Miss Mitford . . . 100 Alfred Tennyson.
Total, 200 Dr Dalton
. . . . 150 Lady Shee ....
- Railway Herald. 200
ATLAS OF THE ANCIENT AND MODERN WORLD.--A series We really cannot echo the praise of Frazer--for the
of maps are in progress, which exhibit considerable novelty, number of pensions is small, and some of the sums paltry and are so obviously useful that one marvels at the idea not objections not applicable to other pensions of the civil list.
having been hitherto suggested and practically worked out. Besides, are the amounts placed opposite to Southey and The new feature consists in the introduction on the one map Wordsworth absolute pensions, or are their salaries as poet of the ancient, middle age, and modern names of places-laureates included ? Southey, Gurwood, and Dalton are
so that the student of geography and the reader of history all dead; who have got pensions in their stead? No one shall obtain at one view that information which he has but Professor Forbes of Edinburgh, that we have heard of.
been accustomed to seek, by much labour and loss of time, DR DIBDIN.-- We regret to hear of the hopeless state of in three different channels--two of them being seldom of health of this literary veteran, whose bibliographical and easy access. lrt-C'nion. other works acquired so large a share of public attention. (This is not a new idea-Messrs Johnston's National Atlas At the time when the old-book rage was at the highest, contains the ancient and modern names of places in Greece; Dr D. led the battle-van; and his splendid editions and en and throughout the whole work the British as well as nathusiastic example contributed much to the effect, when tional names of the principal places are given. ] the Roxburghe Club and the Roxburghe sale made so much MORE ABOCT “MILDNESS OF THE SEASON.”-The phrase noise in the world. The Doctor has, we hear, been twice
"the mildness of the season" has become quite fashionable; affected with apoplectic seizures; and being now in his 70th and the newspapers abound with notices of flowers bloo year, it can hardly be expected that nature can sufficiently
ing--fruit trees in blossom--the cuckoo's welcome notes rally against so fearful an adversary, so as to restore the resounding through the woods--and all the other attendsufferer to an active or even much of conscious life.
ants on the dawn of spring. One editor holds in his hand, Literary Gazette.
while writing, a nosegay culled from the garden of a friend, EDINBURGH MORTALITY BILL.- Arrangements are being
containing specimens of flowers at least a month earlier entered into for the publication of a regular mortality bill
than usual. Amongst these are the single and the double for Edinburgh.
wallflower; the single red, the single blue, and the double DONATION TO THE MONTROSE LIBRARY.-Joseph Hume,
red hipetica; the single white primrose, the polyanthus, Esq., M.P., last week presented to this Library the follow
the pansy, the aconite, and the snowdrop. Another tells ing eight vols. of public reports, viz.,-Debates on the case
us of a garden where, a few days ago, gooseberries, perof the Rajah of Sattara; Scottish Political Martyrs; Rajah
fectly formed, were gathered, and strawberries might be Sattara Debate; Statistical data, 2d No.; Parliamentary
seen both in full bloom and fruit. Children in their gamReport of Lighthouses; Parliamentary Report on the Pris ng
bols already gather with great delight the red and white of Scotland; Parliamentary Report on the tidal harbours.
daisy. All this is at the beginning of February; but this is [The works presented look like the honourable member's
not all. An English paper informs us that a boy in the duplicates--but their presentation suggests that members
service of Mr Joseph Allen, farmer, of Shirland, whilst gaof parliament might do their constituents an important ser thering turnips in a field last week, found under the leaves vice by sending them their copies of public papers, which
of a large turnip a yellowhammer's nest, in which were members themselves too often treat like waste paper.]
three newly-laid eggs; the farmer, to convince himself, NEW LIBRARY.-A library has been opened for the use
broke one, and found, to his gratification, that they were of the men of the London Fire Brigade. It already con
indeed new. We have ourselves seen the blue-bottle fly tains 233 works of established reputation, which are much
humıning about, and a bat was observed, a few evenings read by the men.
since, apparently in search of prey, and as full of life and PUBLIC WALKS.-The Liverpool corporation has agreed vigour as at midsummer. Sprigs of heather are frequently to give upwards of £80,000 for the Newsham estate of 200 met with in full bloom, and the purple heath seems never acres, contiguous to the Zoological Gardens, for a public to have fully lost its lovely hue, till a new race of blossoms park. The purchase of other grounds, so as to surround was expanded. Here and there, a favourite “Maillie” has these picturesque gardens, is talked of.
been dropping a lamb—not the least wonderful of these New York THEATRES AND AMUSEMENTS.- At a very mo prodigies--as a new-year's gift to its owner; and the woolly derate calculation, the receipts of the four theatres now in tribe generally have had a more pleasant winter's wanderactive operation in this city, last week exceeded 11,000 dol ing on our moors and mountains than for many years past. lars; whilst the musical entertainments collectively real A fresh gooseberry tart is expected from the garden of ised at least 3200 dollars, making a total for the week of Col. Montgomerie of Annick Lodge, before the end of the not more than 15,000 dollars !! It is really discreditable present month, from two bushes on which the fruit is at to our city that four theatres, two circuses, and concert present swelling as it might be two months hence. Finally, balls almost nightly, can command a patronage amounting no later than Tuesday last, Mr Auld, Doonbrae Cottage, to some 30,000 dollars per week, and that not one regular left at our office a moss rose, the head of which is perfectly course of lectures of any description can obtain sufficient formed, and the stalk clothed with mossy prickles, as in encouragement to warrant the undertaking.--True Sun. the month of May. Vegetation is thus proceeding with a
[Similar complaints might be made on this side of the rapidity quite unusual, and buds and blossoms are bursting Atlantic. Dr Johnson explained the secret of theatrical everywhere into life. Some apprehensien prevails, howsuccess to be, that the audiences were pleased without the ever, respecting all this unseasonable luxuriance. Eipdenecessity of making any effort of their own. “ Lectures," mic diseases are ever most prevalent with such rapid altermore or less, require some effort on the part of the hear-| nations of cold and heat, as we are experiencing. The ers. Shortening the hours of business would be a correct field-work of the farmer has also been seriously impeded. ive so far, as jaded minds always prefer amusement to in The rain which has fallen has rendered the ground so wet, formation. )
that he can neither cart his manure nor sow his seed; and MILITARY MEDAL.-Mr Wyon, the engraver to the Mint,
thus, while the amateur gardener may be rejoicing, the has just completed the die for the medal to be distributed necessary operations of the agriculturist are far behind. to the officers and soldiers who have served in China during
Should frost come upon us now, not only will all these the late war. The die has been successful, and prepara
flowers, having “ wasted their sweetness on the desert air," tions are making for striking the medals, of which 18.000 be nipt and die, and the little snowdrop again be left in soare commanded. They are to be made all of silver; no dif
litary purity, but the more important labours of the field ference being made between those presented to the officers
may be retarded to a degree, the danger of which is incaland those given to the men.
culable.- A yr Advertiser.