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:cted “ That no man from henceforth shall be charged opposed his Commissions of Lieutenancy; and the coun1) arm himself otherwise than he was wont in the time ties obeyed the one or the other, according as they stood of his progenitors, the kings of England; and that no affected. In many counties and towns, where the people Tian be compelled to go ont of his shire but where ne were divided, mobbish combats and skirmishes ensued. cessity requireth, and sudden coming of strange enemies The forces of the Parliament were at first hardly a into the realm; and then it shall be done as hath been match for those of the king, and were repeatedly, if not used in times past for the strength of the realm.” This invariably, defeated. Cromwell soon discovered the statute is supposed to have put a stop, for a considerable cause of their inferiority as soldiers. “Your troops," time, to the arbitrary and illegal pressing of men for the said he to Hampden, " are most of them old, decayed, army.
serving-men and tapsters, and such kind of fellows; the The pay of a common archer, during the reign of king's forces are composed of gentlemen's younger sons Edward III., was raised to sixpence a-day, equal to and persons of good quality; and do you think that the about five shillings of our money, and double that of an menn spirits of such base and low fellows as ours will artificer. But, in all probability, only a very limited ever be able to encounter gentlemen that have honour portion of the army was paid at this rate, for we find and courage and resolution in them? You must get men that Edward's army before Calais consisted of 31,004, who have the fear of God before ther, and some con:nd yet its pay for sixteen months was only L.127,000, science of what they do,--- men of a spirit that is likely or about five shillings per man per month. Hume con to go as far as gentlemen will go,--or else, I am sure, reives that “ the numerous armies meutioned by histo you will be beaten, as you have hitherto been, in every rians in those times consisted chiefly of ragamuffins who encounter.” On this principle Cromwell acted; he befollowed the camp, and lived by plunder. Soldiers," gan with a troop of horse, enlisting the sons of farmers ways he, “ were then enlisted only for a short time; they and freeholders, and incorporating among these all the lived idle all the rest of the year, and commonly all the most zealous he could find. He soon augmented his rest of their lives; one successful campaign, by pay and troop of horse to a regiment. Thus was formed that plunder, and the ransom of prisoners, was supposed to iron band which charged with such resistless fury at he a small furtune to a man, which was a great allure. Marston and Naseby, at Dunbar and Worcester," that Inent to enter the service."
uoconquered and unconquerable soldiery, for discipline The first standing army in modern Europe was esta and seli-government as yet unrivalled upon earth,to bhished in 1448, by Charles VII. of France, although on whom, though absolutely free from all the brutal vices á very small scale. He ordered each parish to furnish that usually disgrace successful soldiers --religious, sober, an archer, and these soldiers were called franc archers, temperate, -the dust of the most desperate battle was as because they were exempted from taxes. This little the breath of life, and before whom their fiercest and army was raised to restore peace and order at home, not proudest enemies were scattered like chaff before the being intended for foreign aggression. Feudal soldiers wind. received no pay, and could not be prevented from plun In 1660 Charles II. was restored, and in the twelfth dering,--a practice which, having become inveterate or year of his reign military tenures were abolished in Eng('ustomary, rendered them as licentious in peace as in land. The soldiers of the three kingdoms at this time war. Hence Charles, to leave no pretext for free quar exceeded 60,000 men; and, from the scenes with which ters, levied a tax for the purpose of regularly paying his they had been long familiar, it was not supposed that Small standing army.
they could be retained in a quiescent state. The two A.D. 1485. On the 22d August of this year, the battle Houses were sensible that the reduction of this force of Bosworth was fought, when Henry VII. became King was a work which required the utmost caution. Fair of England. He was crowned upon the 30th of Octo words and fair promises were addressed to the military, ber; " At which day,” says Bacon, “as if the crown both by the king and the Parliament, and the disbanding npon his head had put peril into his thoughts, he did in. of nearly forty regiments was effected without disturbstitute, for the better security of his person, a band of ance. A small part of the military force was, however, fifty archers, under a captain, to attend him, by the retained, namely, Monk's regiment--the Coldstream, arame of Veomen of his Guard; and yet, that it might and a regiment of horse. In 1661 the Life Guards were be thought to be rather a matter of dignity, after the raised, the men being generally gentlemen who had imitation of that he had known abroad, than any matter fought in the civil wars; the same year the Oxford Blues of diffidence appropriate to his own case, he made it to were embodied. To these corps were added, the 1st be understood for an ordinance, not temporary, but to Royal Scots; the 2d, or Queen's; tbe 3d, or Old Buffs, kold in succession for ever after." The body guard was
in 1665, so called from their accoutrements being comregarded at first as a startling innovation, and excited posed of buffalo leather, or, according to other authorisome jealousy and disgust among the people.
ties, from the colour of their facings; the Scotch FusiThe royal army, during the great civil war, consisted liers in 1678, so called from carrying the fusil, invented chiefly of regiments raised by the nobility who espoused in France in 1630; and the 4th, or King's Own, raised the cause of the king, from among their tenants and de in 1680. These regiments formed a force of about 5000 pendants; whereas the Parliamentary forces consisted | men, and, under the name of Guards, they became the principally of stipendiary troops, recruited in the large standing army of Great Britain. Charles was of opinion towns; but it may be presumed that both parties had re that if his father had possessed a small regular force at course to every expedient which promised to be success the begioning of the civil war, he might easily have subful to recruit their respective armies. The Puritans dued the Parliament, and this conviction appears to bave were mostly on the side of the Parliament, because they made him very anxious to keep up a respectable standfound the bishops, by whom they had been persecuted, ing army. on the side of the king. Desiring to live peaceably, they The origin of a permanently embodied military force remained at home, but were plundered by the king's of any number may be dated from the commencement soldiers, which induced many of them to abandon their of this reign. It ought to be stated, however, that Parhabitations; and when their property was consumed, and liament did not sanction the enrolment of the comparatheir lives in continual danger, they passed over by tively large army which Charles kept up, nor did it vote thousands to the garrisons of the Parliament, and be the money required for their maintenance. They were cane soldiers. Charles himself assured his followers embodied by the authority of the Crown only, and were that they should meet with no enemies but traitors, most paid either out of the Civil List, or by diverting money of them Brownists, Anabaptists, and Atheists, who de voted for other purposes. On the 7th February 1674, the sired to destroy both Church and State. To the ordi- Commons resolved that the keeping any standing forces, nance of the Parliament concerning the militia, the king / other than the militia, in the nation, was a grievance..
. At the Restoration there was an act passed, wherein was nonsuited or the suit discontinued. The privilege it is declared, " That all officers and soldiers who were of exemption from penalties for exercising trades in corunder the command of the captain-general of the king's | porate towns has been continued to discharged soldiers, forees. (but who, by the way, had been, for the eighteen their wives, and children, by subsequent acts of Parliayears preceding, in open rebellion against His Majesty ment, tu the 56th Geo. 11. chap. 67. and his royal father), on the 29th of April 1660, aad had In 1744, the army service became so unpopular that not since deserted the service, or refused to take the parliament was obliged to renew an act of 1704, for oathis of supremacy and allegiance, shall be free to exer pressing all able-bodied men into the service. This act cise any handicraft or trade, in manner following: such was very unpopular, and gave a dangerous and arbias had been apprentices might exercise such trades as trary power to the magist, ates and justices of the peace. they were bound to, though they served not out their Many grievous abuses of it are on record, and to such time, with like immunities as if they bad, and all other an extremity did the agents of government pursue it, such trade as they were apt and able for, in the towns that gangs were employed to kidnap persous in a simiand places within the several counties where they were lar way as slaves are abducted from Africa. Some born, and if implicated or indicted for the same, they curious information relating to recruiting we shall permight plead the general issue, and should have double haps find room for in a future number. custs if a verdict passed against the prosecutor, or if he
Me from my mother's bosom my hard lot
LIFE AND GENIUS OF TASSO. In our preceding nambers we gave some account of vinced by this specimen of jurispruderce how useless it the lives of the earliest Italian poets. We now return was to thwart the hereditary passion, permitted him to to that of Tasso, one of the best known, though one of devote himself wholly to literature, which he therefore the most unfortunate of the race.
went to study in the university of Bologna; and there, The father of Tasso was of a noble and ancient family at the early age of nineteen, he began his Jerusaleni of Bergamo, in Lombardy. He was himself a poet Delivered; that is to say, he planned it, and wrote three possessed a small property, was hronest and good-hearted, cantos, several of the stanzas of which he retained when bat restless and ambitious, with a tašn for expense be the poem was matured. He quitted Bologna, however, yond his means. Torquato Tassu was the youngest of | in a fit of indignation at being accused of the authorship three children, and was born at Sorrento, Ilth March of a satire; and after visiting some friends at Castlevetro 1514, nine years after the death of Ariosto, who was in and Correggio, returned to Padua on the invitation of timate with his father,
his friend Scipio Gonzaga, afterwards cardinal, who He was very devoutly brought up; and grew so tall, wished him to become a member of an academy he had and became so premature a scholar, that at nine, he instituted, called the Eterei (Ethereals.) Here he tells us, he might have been taken for a boy of twelve. studied his favourite philosopher, Plato, and composed At eleven, in consequence of the misfortunes of his three Discourses on Heroic Poetry, dedicated to his father, who had been exiled with the Prince of Salerno, friend. He now paid a visit to his father in Mantua, he was forced to part from his mother, who remained at where the unsettled man had become secretary to the home to look after a dowry, which she never received. duke, and here, it is said, he fell in love with a young Her brothers deprived her of it; and in two years' time lady of a distinguished family, whose name was Laura she died, Bernardo thought by poison. Twenty-four Peperara; but this did not hinder him from returning to years afterwards her illustrious son, in the midst of his his Paduan studies, in which he spent nearly the whole own misfortunes, remembered with sighs the tears with of the following year. He was then informed that the which the kisses of his poor mother were bathed when
Cardinal of Este, to whom he had dedicated bis Rinalio, she was forced to let him go.
and with whom interest had been made for the purpose,
had appointed him one of his attendants, and that he Took when a child. Alas! though all these years
was expected at Ferrara by the 1st of December. Res I have been used to sorrow, I sigh to think upon the floods of tears
turning to Mantua, in order to prepare for this appointWhich bathed her kisses on that doleful morrow;
ment with his father, he was seized with a dangerous illness, which detained him there nearly a twelvemonth
longer. On his recovery he hastened to Ferrara, and Was it our lot to kaze and to einbrace! Her little stumbliny boy,
arrived in that city on the last day of October 1565, Or like to one doonied to no haven rather,
the first of many years of glory and misery. Followed the footsteps of his wandering father.
The cardinal of Este was the brother of the reigning The little Torquato following, as he says, like another Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso the Second, grandson of the Ascanius, the footsteps of his wandering father, joined Alfonso of Ariosto. It is curious to see the two most Bernardo in Rome. After two years' 'study in that celebrated romantic poets of Italy thrown into unfortucity, partly under an old priest who lived with them,
nate connexion with two princes of the same house and the vicissitudes of the father's lot took away the son the same respective ranks. Tasso's cardinal, however, first to Bergamo, among his relations, and then to though the poet lost his favour, and though very little is Pesaro, in the dutchy of Urbino, where his education known about him, left no such bad reputation behind was associated for nearly two years with that of the him as Ippolito. It was in the service of the duke young prince, afterwards Duke Francesco Maria the that the poet experienced his sufferings. Second (della Rovere), who retained a regard for him This prince, who was haughty, ostentatious, and quarthrough life. In 1559 the boy joined his father in relsome, was, at the time of the stranger's arrival, Venice, where the latter had been appointed secretary rehearsing the slows and tournaments intended to wel. to the Academy; but next year he was withdrawn from come his bride, the sister of the Emperor Maximilian these pleasing varieties of scene by the parental delu the Second. She was his second wife. The first was a sion so cominon in the history of men of letters—the daughter of the rival house of Toscany, which he deteststudy of the law; which Bernardo intended him to pur ed; and the marriage had not been happy. The new sue henceforth in the city of Padua. He accordingly consort arrived in the course of a few weeks, entering arrived in Padua at the age of sixteen and a half, and the city in great pomp; and for a tinte all went happily fulfilled his legal destiny by writing the poem of Rinaldo, with the young poet. He was in a state of ecstacy with which was published in the course of less than two years the beauty and grandeur he beheld around him--obat Venice. The goodnatured and poetic father, con tained the favourable notice of the dukes two sisters * Stories of the Italian Poets. By Leigh Tunt.
and the duke himself-went on with his Jerusalem Deli
I sixb to think of all the prayers and cries
Like to the child of Troy.
vered, which, in spite of the presence of Ariosto's me- | granted; yet it is difficult to say to what shifts improvi. mory, he was resolved to load with praises of the house | dence may not be reduced. of Este; and in this tumult of pride and expectation, he The singer of the house of Este would now, it might beheld the duke, like one of the heroes of his poem, set have been supposed, be happy. He had leisure; he had out to assist the emperor against the Turks at the head money; he had the worldly honours that he was fond of; of three hundred gentlemen, armed at all points, and he occupied himself in perfecting the Jerusalem; and he mantled in various-coloured velvets embroidered with wrote his beautiful pastoral, the Aminta, wbich was per
formed before the duke and his court to the delight of To complete the young poet's happiness, or com the brilliant assembly. The duke's sister Lucrezia, mence his disappointments, he fell in love, notwithstand princess of Urbino, who was a special friend of the ing the goddess he had left in Mantua, with the beauti poet, sent for him to read it to her at Pesaro; and in ful Lucrezia Bendidio, who does not seem, however, to the course of the ensuing carnival it was performed with have loved in return; for she became the wife of a similar applause at the court of her father-in-law. The Macchiavelli. Among his rivals was Guarini, who poet had been as much enchanted by the spectacle afterwards emulated him in pastoral poetry, and who which the audience at Ferrara presented to his eyes, as accused him on this occasion of courting two ladies at the audience with the loves and graces with which be once.
enriched their stage. Guarini's accusation has been supposed to refer to These were the happiest days the poet ever experithe Duke's sister Leonora, whose name has become so enced; but alas! they were, like all happiness, short and romantically mixed up with the poet's biography; but fleeting. It is evident, from all the accounts of bis biothe latest inquiries render it probable that the allusion graphers, that in the extremely sensitive frame of the was to Laura Peperara. The young poet, however, who poet there lurked the disease of insanity-- hence his had not escaped the influence of the free manners of impatience of criticisin- his irritability-his suspicions, Italy, and whose senses and vanity may hitherto have and the unsettled impulse to wandering which continubeen more interested than his heart, rhymed and flat- ally possessed him. His Jerus lem being now finished, tered on all sides of him, not of course omitting the he transmitted it to Rome with a view of its being charms of princesses. In order to win the admiration printed, but here it was “mercilessly criticized for two of the ladies in a body, he sustained for three days, in years by the bigots and hypocrites of the court." He public, after the fashion of the times, Fifty Amorous leit Ferrara and went to Rome, where the kindness Conclusions; that is to say, affirmations on the subject and patronage of Cardinal Ferdinand de' Medici only of love; doubtless to the equal delight of his fair audi excited his suspicions-he soon returned to Ferrara. tors and himself, and the creation of a good deal of At this time his malady seems to have come to a crisis. jealousy and ill-will on the part of such persons of his He had lent an acquaintance the key of his rooms at own sex as had not wit or spirits enough for the display court; aud he suspected this person of opening cabinets of so much logic and love-making.
containing his papers. Remonstrating with him one In 1569, the death of his father, who had been made day in the court of the palace, either on that or some governor of Ostiglia by the Duke of Mantua, cost the other account, the man gave him the lie. He received loving son a fit of illness; but the continuation of his in return a blow on the face, and is said by Tasso to Jerusalem, an Oration spoken at the opening of the have brought a set of his kinsmen to assassinate him, Ferrarese academy, the marriage of Leonora's sister all of whom the heroical poet immediately put to fight. Lucrezia with the Prince of Urbino, and the society of At one time he suspected the duke of jealousy respectLeonora herself, who led the retired life of a person in ing the dedication of his poem, and at another, of a delicate health, and was fond of the company of men of wish to burn it. Ile suspected his servants. lle beletters, helped to divert him from melancholy recollec came suspicious of the truth of his friend Gonzaga. He tions; and a journey to France, at the close of the year doubted even whether some praises addressed to him by following, took him into scenes that were not only totally Orazio Ariosto, the nephew of the great poet, which one new, but otherwise highly interesting to the singer of would have thought would have been to him a consumGodfrey of Boulogne. The occasion of it was a visit of mation of bliss, were not intended to mystify and hurt the cardinal, his master, to the court of his relative, him. At length be fancied that his persecutors had acCharles the Ninth. It is supposed that his eminence cused him of heresy to the inquisition; and, as he had went to confer with the king on matters relative to the gone through the metaphysical doubts, common with disputes which not long afterwards occasioned the de most men of reflection respecting points of faith, and testable massacre of St Bartholomew.
the mysteries of creation, he feared ibat some indiscreet Tasso was introduced to the French king as the poet words had escaped him, giving colour to the charge. of a French hero and of a Catholic victory; and his He thus beheld enemies all around him. He dreaded reception was so favourable (particularly as the wretch stabbing and poison; and one day, in some paroxysm of ed Charles, the victim of bis mother's bigotry, had him rage or horror, how occasioned it is not known, ran self no mean poetic feeling), that, with a rash mixture with a knite or dagger at one of the servants of the of simplicity and self-reliance (respect makes me un Duchess of Urbino, in her own chamber. willing to call it self-importance), the poet expressed an Alfonso upon this, apparently in the mildest and impolitic amount of astonishment at the favour shown most reasonable manner, directed that he should be at court to the Hugonots, little suspecting the horrible confined to his apartments, and put into the hands of design it covered. He shortly afterwards broke with the physician. These unfortunate events took place in his master, the cardinal; and it is supposed that this the summer of 1577, and in the poet's thirty-third year. unseasonable escape of zeal was the cause. He himself Tasso showed so much affliction at this treatment, appears to have thought so. Perhaps the cardinal only and at the same time bure it so patiently, that the duke wanted to get the imprudent poet back to Italy; for, on took him to his beautiful country-seat of Belriguardo; Tasso's return to Ferrara, he was not only received into where, in one of his accounts of the matter, the poet the service of the duke with a salary of some fifteen says that he treated him as a brother; but in another, golden scudi a-month, but told that he was exempted he accuses him of having taken pains to make him crifrom any particular duty, and might attend in peace to minate himself, and confess certain matters, real or his studies. Balzac affirms, that while Tasso was at supposed, the nature of which is a puzzle with posterity. the court of France, he was so poor as to Leg a crown Some are of opinion (and this is the prevailing one), from a friend; and that, when he left it, he had the same that he was found guilty of being in love with the .coat on his back that he came in. The assertions of a Princess Leonora, perhaps of being loved by herself. professed wit and hyperbolist are not to be taken for | Others think the love out of the question, and that the duke was concerned at nothing but his endeavouring to rest of his steps to Ferrara. Love may have been transfer his services and his poetic reputation into the among these reasons--probably was; though it does not hands of the Medici. Others see in the duke's conduct follow that the passion must have been for a princess. nothing but that of a good master interesting himself in The poet now, therefore, petitioned to that effect; and the welfare of an afflicted servant.
Alfonso wrote again, and said he might come, but only From a convent, where he had been placed at his on condition of his again undergoing the ducal course of own request, the poor distracted poet, , looking upon medicine; adding, that if he did not, he was to be finally every one with suspicion, at last made his escape. expelled his highness's territories.
He selected the loneliest ways he could find, and di He was graciously received--too graciously, it would reeted his course to the kingdom of Naples, where his seem, for his equanimity; for it gave him such a flow of sister lived. He was afraid of pursuit; he probably had spirits, that the duke appears to have thought it neceslittle money; and considering his ill health and his dread sary to repress them. The unhappy poet, at this, began of the inquisition, it is pitiable to think what he may to have some of his old suspicions; and the unaccountahave endured while picking his long way through the ble detention of his papers confirmed them. He made back states of the Church, and over the mountains of an effort to keep the suspicions down, but it was by Abruzzo, as far as the Gulf of Naples. For better means, unfortunately, of drowning them in wine and security, he exchanged clothes with a shepherd; and as jollity; and this gave him such a fit of sickness as had he feared even his sister at first, from doubting whether nearly been his death. He recovered, only to make a she still loved him, his interview with her was in all its fresh stir about his papers, and a still greater one about circumstances painfully dramatic. Cornelia Tasso, now his poems in general, which, though his Jerusalem was a widow, with two sons, was still residing at Sorrento, yet only known in manuscript, and not even his A minta where the poet, casting his eyes around him as he pro published, he believed ought to occupy the attention of ceeded towards the house, must have beheld with singu mankind. People at Ferrara, therefore, not foreseeing lar feelings of wretchedness the lovely spots in which the respect that posterity would entertain for the poet, he had been a happy little boy. He did not announce and having no great desire perhaps to encourage a man himself at once. He brought letters, he said, from the who claimed to be a rival of their countryman Ariosto, lady's brother; and it is affecting to think, that whether now began to consider their Neapolitan guest not merely his sister might or might not have retained otherwise | an ingenious and pitiable, but an overweening and tireany personal recollection of him since that time (for he some enthusiast. The court, however, still seemed to be had not seen her in the interval), his disguise was com interested in its panegyrist, though Tasso feared that pleted by the alterations which sorrow had made in his Alfonso meant to burn his Jerusalem. Alfonso, on the appearance. For, at all events, she did not know him. other hand, is supposed to have feared that he would She saw in him nothing but a haggard stranger who burn it himself, and the ducal praises with it. The was acquainted with the writer of the letters, and to papers, at all events, apparently including the only fair whom they referred for particulars of the risk which her copy of the poem, were constantly withheld; and Tasso, brother ran, unless she could afford him her protection. | in a new fit of despair, again quitted FerraraThese particulars were given by the stranger with all He again takes a wandering fit, and again returns, the pathos of the real man, and the loving sister fainted but his extravagance becomes so great that the duke, away. On her recovery, the visitor said what he could who really seems to have acted a kind and considerate to reassure her, and then by degrees discovered himself. part, was at last obliged to send him to a place of conCornelia welcoined him in the tenderest manner. She finement, the Hospital of St Aune. Here the poet lived did all that he desired; and gave out to her friends that seven long years. the gentleman was a cousin from Bergamo, who had Tasso enabled himself to endure his imprisonment come to Naples on family affairs.
with composition. He supported it with his poetry and For a little while, the affection of his sister, and the his poem, and what, alas! he had been too proud of beauty and freshness of Sorrento, rendered the mind of during his liberty, the praises of his admirers. His Tasso more easy; but his restlessness returned. He genius brought him gifts from princes, and some money feared he had mortally offended the Duke of Ferrara; from the booksellers: it supported him even against and, with his wonted fluctuation of purpose, he now his critics. During his confinement the Jerusalem Deli, wished to be restored to his presence for the very rea vered was first published; though, to his grief, from a son he had run away from it. He did not know with surreptitious and mutilated copy. But it was followed what vengeance he might be pursued. He wrote to the by a storm of applause; and if this was succeeded by as duke; but received no answer. The Duchess of Urbino great a storm of objection and controversy, still the was equally silent. Leonora alone responded, but with healthier part of his faculties were roused, and he exasno encouragement. These appearances only made him | perated his critics and astonished the world by showing the more anxious to dare or to propitiate his doom; and how coolly and learnedly the poor, wild, imprisoned he accordingly determined to put himself in the duke's genius could discuss the most intricate questions of hands. His sister entreated him in vain to alter his re poetry and philosophy. The disputes excited by his solution. He quitted her before the autumn was over; poem are generally supposed to have done him harm; and, proceeding to Rome, went directly to the house of but the conclusion appears to be ill founded. They the duke's agent there, who, in concert with the Fer diverted his thoughts, and made him conscious of his rarese ambassador, gave his master advice of the cir- powers and his fame. I doubt whether he would have cumstance. Gonzaga, however, and another good friend, been better for entire approbation; it would have put Cardinal Albano, doubted whether it would be wise in him in a state of elevation, unfit for what he had to enthe poet to return to Ferrara under any circumstances. dure. He had found his pen his great solace, and he They counselled him to be satisfied with being pardoned never employed it so well. It would be incredible what at a distance, and with having his papers and other a heap of things he wrote in this complicated torment things returned to him; and the two friends immediately of imprisonment, sickness, and “physic,” if habit and wrote to the duke requesting as much. The duke ap mental activity had not been sufficient to account for parently acquiesced in all that was desired; but he said much greater wonders. His letters to his friends and that the illness of his sister, the Duchess of Urbino, de others would make a good-sized volume; those to his layed the procuration of the papers, which, it seems, critics, another; sonnets and odes, a third; and his dia. were chiefly in her hands. The upshot was, that the logues after the manner of Plato, two more. Perhaps a papers did not come; and Tasso, with a mixture of rage good half of all he wrote was written in this hospital of and fear, and perhaps for more reasons than he has St Anne; and he studied as well as composed, and had told, became uncontrollably desirous of retracing the to read all that was written at the time, pro and con, in the discussions about his Jerusalem, which, in the latest but still haunted by the visions and excitements of a edition of his works, amount to three out of six volumes disordered intellect. His friend and biographer, Manso, octavo! Many of the (ccasions, however, of his poems, relates a scene which he witnessed with him, in which as well as letters, are most painful to think of, their ob he was evidently labouring under the curious, but not ject having been to exchange praise for money. And it uncommon, impression of viewiug spectral illusions. At is distressing, in the letters, to see his other little wants, last, worn out, he died in the monastery of St Onofrio, and the fluctuations and moods of his mind. Now he is on 25th April 1575, just at the time when, after the cusangry about some books not restored, or some gift pro- tom of the age, he was to have been crowned with laurel inised and delayed. Now he is in want of some books to in the capitol - when the pope had also granted him a be lent him; now of some praise to comfort him; now of pension, and he had received, after a tedious lawsuite a little fresh linen. He is very thankful for visits, for his mother's patrimony. Poor illustrious Tasso! weak respectful letters, for "sweetmeats;" and greatly puzzled enough to warrant pity from his inferiors-great enough to know what to do with the bad sonnets and panegyrics to overshadow in death his once-fancied superiors. that are sent him. They were sometimes too much Manso has left a minute account of his friend's person even for the allowed ultra courtesjes of Italian acknow- and manners. He was tall, even among the tall; had a ledgment. Ilis compliments to most people are varied pale complexion, sumken cheeks, lightish brown hair, with astonishing grace and ingenuity, lniş accounts of ! head bald at the top, large. blue eyes, square forehead, his condition often sufficient to bring the tears into the big nose inclining towards the mouth, lips pale and this, manliest eyes.
white teeth, delicate wbite hands, long arms, broad A playful address to a cat, to lend him her eyes to chest and shoulders, legs rather strong than fleshy, aud write by during some hour in which he happened to be the body altogether better proportioned than in good without a light (for it does not appear to have been de condition; the result, nevertheless, being an aspect of nied hiin), niay be taken as more probable evidence of a manly beauty and expression, particularly in the counmind relieved at the moment, though the necessity for tenance, the dignity of which warked him for an extrathe relief may have been very sad. But the style in ordinary person, even to those who did not know him. which be generally alludes to his situation is far differ His slemeanour was grave and deliberate; he laughed ent. He continually begs his correspondents to pity seldom, and though his tongue was prompt, his delivery him, to pray for him, to attribute his errors to infirmity. was slow; and he was accustomed to repeat his last He complains of impaired memory, and acknowledges words. He was expert in all manly exercises, but not that he has become subject to the deliriums formerly equally graceful; and the same defect attended his attributed to him by the enemies that had helped to otherwise striking eloquence in public assemblies. His produce them.
putting to flight the assassins in Ferrara gave him such At length, in 1586, at the entreaty of the Prince of a reputation for courage, that there went about in his Mantua, Tasso was permitted to leave his place of honour a popular couplet:confinement, and go to reside at the court of Mantua.
For the sword as well as pen Here he lived, caressed and respected by his father's
Tasso is the man of men. former friends, but unfortunately the same diseased He was a little eater, but not averse to wine, particuladly pride, and suspicion, and restlessness, again seized him, such as combined piquancy with sweetness; and he and instigated other wanderings, a sufficient proof of the always dressed in black. real cause of his former confinement. From Mantua he | Manso's account is still more particular, and yet it went to Naples, in the vicinity of which he resided for does not tell all; for Tasso himself informs us that he some time in comparative tranquillity, bat quitted it stammered, and was near-sighted; and a Neapolitan also for Rome. He now wandered about from place to writer who knew him adds to the near-siglatedness,sonie place, soothed by the attentions of friends and patrons, visible defect in the eyes.
THE AMERICAN INDIANS. It is conjectured that at one period about 2,000,000 towards the far west, on the Mississippi, and on the of Indians were scattered over the vast continent of shores of the great continent, are reported not to be of North America, and now their numbers are not sup such exact symmetry. The features of the Sioux are posed to exceed 200,000. On the settlement of the repulsive. The Killamucks, Clatsops, Chinooks, and British in the States, the tribes on those territories neighbouring tribes, are of diminutive stature, ill sluapwere gradually driven to the westward. The Narrag. ed, and their general appearance by no means preposhausetts inhabited Rhode Island; the tribes of the sessing. They have broad, thick, flat feet, tlrick ankles, Massachussetts, the Pantuckets, and the Pokanokets, crooked legs, ascribed to squatting on the calves or were scattered over New England; the Mohawks and the heels, and the too tight bandages, or strings of beads, on five nations inhabited the state of New York; the the ankles, especially of the females. The colour of Creeks, the Yamassees and Cherokees, possessed Virgi their skin is rather lighter than that of the Indians of nia, the Carolinas, and Georgia; the Shawanees and the Missouri. Their lips are thick,-mouth wide and Delawares the Ohio territory. Towards the far west large,-nose of moderate size, wide and fleshy, at the are the Killamucks, Clatsops, Chinooks, and Cathla base, with wide nostrils,—the colour of the eyes is black, 10acks. Some of the ancient tribes are now blended brown, and yellow. The forehead of all the tribes west together, and many are totally extinct.
of the rocky mountains is flattened by art--it appears, The general characteristics of the North American therefore, peculiarly flat and wide. To the east, howIndian are a reddish copper colour of the skin- ever, this practice is unknown. The hair of both sexes features regular-hair dark, long, and rather thin is parted at the top of the head, and falls loosely and the forehead rather retreating--the crown of the uncurled behind the ears. occiput elevated--the form is muscular, rarely fat. The general character of the American Indian is that The eastern and middle tribes have well-proportioned of a sedate and grave stoicism. Washington Irvine bodies-- many have the Roman and aquiline nose, and shrewdly remarks, however, that this character is only auch of the regularity of features of a European. Those | maintained before strangers, and that when alone they