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are as marry and garrulous as any other beings. In according to their ideas of morality and virtue, and may fact, much of the reported elevation of their character be swayed to almost any purpose that their elders, for appears to be purely imaginary. It must be admitted, such are their magi called, think proper to execute. however, that in latter times they may have greatly de They appear to have no laws, except such as grow out generated, partly from the interruption of their ancient of habitual usages, or such as are sanctioned by common manners, froin association with Europeans; and partly, consent. The execution of their government seems to alas! from adopting their vices.
be vested in the chiefs and warriors, while the grand The tribes in the vicinity of the rocky mountains council of the nation is composed of the medicine counhave been described by Lewis and Clarke, and by Mr cil already mentioned, at which the principal chief preJames, in the account of their travels. They are almost sides. In all their acts of devotion, as also on all occawithout exception addicted to habits of extreme indo sions where their confidence is to be won, or their lence-self-preservation, self-defence, and recreation, friendship to be plighted, the smoking of tobacco seems being their usual inducements to action. The laborious to be invariably regarded as an in viglable token of sinoccupations of the men consist almost exclusively in cerity. They believe in the existence of a supreme hunting, warfare, and tending their horses. Their amuse- being, whom they denominate “master of life," or ments are principally horse-racing, gambling, and sports “good spirit,” but of his attributes their ideas are vague of various kinds. The cultivation of corn and other and confused. They are generally in the habit of offervegetables, the gathering of fruit, cooking, and all other ing in sacrifice a portion of the game first taken in a kinds of domestic drudgery, is the business of the wo- hunting expedition, a. part of the first products of the men, the men deeming it degrading to their dignity to field, and often a small portion of the food provided for be occupied in employments of this kind. Their religion their refreshment. In smoking, they generally direct consists in the observance of a variety of rites and cere the first puff upward, and the second downward to the monies, which they practise with much zeal and ardour. earth; or the first to the rising, and the second to the Their devotional exercises consist in singing, dancing, setting sun, after which they inhale the smoke into their and the performance of various mystical ceremonies, lungs, and puff it out through the postrils for their own which they believe efficacious in healing the sick, frus refreshment. They have some indistinct notions of the trating the designs of their enemies, and in giving suc immortality of the soul, but appear to know no distinccess to any enterprize in which they may be embarked. | tion of heaven or hell, Elysium or Tartarus, as the Among all those tribes and nations, secret associations abode of departed spirits. The arts of civilized life, inor councils are common, the proceedings of which are stead of exciting their emulation, are generally viewed held sacred, and not to be divulged, except when the by the Indians as objects unworthy of their attention. interests of the people are thought to require a disclo This results, as a natural consequence, from their habits sure. To these councils, which they denominate medicine, of indolence. They are aware that much labour is reor rather magic feasts, none are admitted but the prin- quisite in the prosecution of them, and being accustomed cipal men of the nation, or such as have signalized from their infancy to look upon manual labour, of every themselves by their exploits in battle, hunting, stealing description as a drudgery that pertains, exclusively to horses, or in any of the pursuits accounted laudable by the female part of their community, they think it dethe Indians. In these assemblies, the policy of making. grading to the character of men to be employed in them. war or peace, and the manner in which it is to be effected, Hunting, horsemanship, and warfare, are the only avoalso all matters involving the interests of the nation, are cations in which their ambition or sense of honour first discussed. Having thus been the subject of delibe prompts them to engage. Their reluctance to forgive ration in solemn council (for the proceedings of these an injury is proverbial. Injuries are revenged by the feasts are conducted with the greatest solemnity), the injured, and blood for blood is always demanded, if the decision, of whatever nature it may be, is published to deceased has friends who dare retaliate on the destroyer. the people at large by certain members of the council Instances have occurred, where their revenge has beperforming the office of criers. On such occasions the come hereditary, and quarrels have been settled long criers not only proclaim the measures that have been after the parties immediately concerned have become recommended, but explain the reasons of them, and extinct. urge the people zealously to support them. It is also
Much has been published in relation to the high antithe business of the criers, who are generally men of quity of Indian tradition, of that particularly which known valour and approved habits, and are able to en relates to their origin and religion. But from the force their precepts by the examples they have set, to examples afforded by the several nations of Indians harangue the people of their village daily, and exhort resident upon the Mississippi and its waters, but little them to such a course of life as is deemed praiseworthy. prívof is to be had in favour of the position. It is not On such occasions, which are usually selected in the doubted that the immediate objects of their worship have stillness of morning or evening, the crier marches been held in reverence by their predecessors for a long through the village, uttering his exhortation in a loud succession of ages; but in respect to any miraculous voice, and endeavouring to inculcate correct principles dispensat ons of providence of which they have a tradiand sentiments. The young men and children of the tional knowledge, their ideas are at best exceedingly village are directed how to demean themselves, in order vague and confused, and of occurrences recorded in sacred to become useful, and enjoy the esteem of good men, l history they appear to be entirely ignorant, as the deluge, and the favour of the good spirit. In this way, they are &c. The knowledge which they have of their ancestors is incited to wage war, or sue for peace, and to practise ! also very limited, so much so that they can seldom trace back their pedigree more than a few generations, and formly opposing firmness and reserve to the liberties they know so little of the place whence their fathers they are disposed to take. These attributes of the lu. came, that they can only express their ideas upon the dian character manifest themselves not only in the wellsubject, in general terms, stating that they came “ from known stratagems they adopt in warfare, but in the beyond the lakes,—' from the rising or setting sun' management of their domestic concerns, in which rival.
from the north or south.'” In some instances where ships of one kind or another are created ; parties are their term of residence in a place has evidently been of formed, and pretenders arise, claiming privileges that limited duration, they have either lost or conceal their have been withheld from them, and placing themselves knowledge of the country whence their ancestors came, at the head of factions, occasionally withdraw from the and assert that the master of life created and planted parent tribe. Thus new tribes are formed and distri. their fathers on the spot where they their posterity now buted in various directions over the country, with nolive. They have no division of time except by years, thing to mark their genealogy but the resemblance of seasons, moons, and days. Particular periods are dis- their language to that of the parent stock, or of other tinguished by the growth and changes of vegetables, Indians that sprung from the same origin. The chiefs and the migrations and incubations of birds, and other or governors of tribes have their rank and title by inanimals. Their language is of two kinils—a verbal heritance. Yet in order to maintain them and secure and one of signs. The former presents a few varieties, themselves in their pre-eminence they are under the nemarked by radical differences, and a multiplicity of dia cessity of winning over to their interests the principal lects peculiar to individual tribes or nations, descended warriors and most influential men of their tribe, whose from the same original. The latter is a language com countenance and support are often essential to their mon to most if not all of the western Indians; the mo continuance in authority. In conciliating the friendship tions or signs used to express ideas being with some of these, the chief is often compelled to admit them to slight variations the same amongst them all. Nearly participate in the authority with which he is invested, allied to the language of signs is a species of written and to bestow upon them any effects of which they may language which they make use of, consisting of a few be possessed. Thus it often happens that the chiefs are symbolical representations, and of course very limited amongst the poorest of the Indians, having parted with and defective. The figures they make use of have but a their horses, clothes, and trinkets to ensure the farther faint resemblance to the object described, and are rudely patronage of their adherents, or to purchase the friend drawn upon trees, rocks, and other substances, by means ship of those who are disaffected. The situation of of paints, charcoal, and sometimes by carving with a knife principal chief is very frequently usurped during the or other edged tool, and are significant of some move minority of the rightful successor, or wrested from an ment, achievements, or design of the Indians. A variety imbecile incumbent by some ambitious chief or warrior. of figures of this description are to be seen upon the In this case the ascendancy obtained over the nation by cliffs, rocks, and trees, in places held sacred, and fre the usurper is gradual, and depends upon the resources quently resorted to by the Indians, but of their import of his own mind, aided by his reputation for generosity little is known. Many of these symbols are made by and valour. The condition of the savages is a state of the magicians, and are probably of sacred or devotional constant alarm and apprehension. Their security from import.
their enemies and their means of subsistence, are preThe elevated moral virtues of the Indians have often carious and uncertain. The former requiring the ut. been the theme of visionary and speculative declaimers. most vigilance to prevent its infraction, and the latter Mr Tay in the following account reduces them to the being attended with no regular supplies of the necessaries level of ordinary grovelling mortals. Much intrigue, of life. In times of the most profound peace, whether cunning, and artifice are blended with the policy of the at their villages or on a hunting expedition, they are Indians, and judging from their usual practice it is a continually on the alert, lest they should be surprised by favourite and well-approved maxim with them that the their enemies. By day, scouts are constantly kept pa. “ end sanctifies the means.” In an interview with trolling for a considerable distance around them, and by strangers it appears to be their first object to ascertain night sentinels are posted to give notice of the approach their motives and the objects of their visits; and after of strangers. When they engage in a hunt they generregarding them for some time without a show of curio ally abandon their villages,-old men, women, and chil. sity, a variety of interrogatories are proposed in order | dren, joining in the enterprise, through fear of being to satisfy themselves upon these points. This they ap left at home without the strength of their nation to propear to do with the view also of scrutinising into the tect them. When the aged and infirm, however, become character and disposition of their guests. In the course helpless on a march or war excursion, and the transof the conversation they become more and more familiar porting of them is attended with much difficulty, it is and impertinent, till at length their familiarity is suc considered unavoidable and necessary to abandon them ceeded by contempt and insult. Thus from the coldest to their fate. With this view a small grass shelter is reserve, they are in a short time impelled, by curiosity erected for them, in which some food is deposited, toand a propensity to abuse where they are not in some gether with wood and water. When thus abandoned by measure compelled to respect, to the commission of all that is dear to them, their fortitude does not forsake outrages, even without the slightest provocation. This them, and the inflexible passive courage of the Indians kind of treatment however is easily obviated at the com sustains them against despondency. They regard them. mencement of an interview, by resisting every advance selves as entirely useless, and as custom has long led made by the Indians towards familiarity, and by uni- | them to anticipate this mode of death, they attempt not
to remonstrate against the measure, which is in fact fre- have as many wives as he can maintain. Disputes often quently the consequence of their own earnest solicitations. arise on the introduction of a new and young wife into In this situation, the devoted man sings his war songs the family, but after a time the older squaws become reto the Wahconda, narrating the martial exploits of his conciled to the stranger. Marriages are binding on the youth, and finally chaunts his death song. If on the parties only as long as they think proper to live togereturn of the nation he is still living, he is taken by his! ther, and are often contracted for a limited and specified friends to the village, and treated with the usual atten- | time only. The squaws seem susceptible of very strong tion. On their warlike marches they endeavour to attachments. The usual number of children in a family make as great a display of force as practicable, in order is generally from four to six, though sometimes as many to intimidate any lurking enemies. In the selection of as ten. Two children are often suckled at the breast at their food, they choose the most nutritive, without much the same time, the one being sometimes three years of regard to epicurism. In the preservation of their food, age. Child-bearing is an easy process among these, no pains are taken to render it savoury or palatable as well as most savage nations. The infant when their object is solely to secure it against putrefaction. | newly born is of a light, reddish brown colour--it beThey use no spices—very seldom even salt, which arti conies darker as it grows up. Conjugal fidelity is not cle is only prized for its usefulness to their horses. by any means punctually observed, or thought a matter They are fond of sugar and saccharine fruits. The de of moral obligation. Dancing is a common amusement sire for ardent spirits is a taste acquired from their among them, but it is conducted in a grave and decointercourse with Europeans; but they appear to have a rous manner. Gambling, too, is carried on to a perninatural propensity for the fumes of tobacco, which they cious extent. Hunting and war are, however, the two inevitably inhale into the lungs, and eject through the chief excitements. nostrils. They use tobacco in no other way than in smok The Indian tribes are now certainly on the decrease, ing, of which they are exceedingly fond. The Indians some of them rapidly so. Few submit to the restraints of the western states know not the use of the precious of civilization. The Cherokees are, however, an excepmetals; but barter skins for necessaries of life, and for tion. This tribe have begun to cultivate the land, erect trinkets, of which they are fond. As a circulating towns and villages, and have introduced the arts of medium, they use wampum and small shells. Polygamy printing and general education. is common among them, every man being allowed to
THE COMPLAINT OF A FORSAKEN INDIAN WOMAN.
When a Northern Indian, from sickness, is unable to continue his journey with his companions, he is left behind, covered over with deer.'
skins, and is supplied with water, food, and fuel, if the situation of the place will afford it. He is informed of the track which his companions intend to pursue, and if he be unable to follow, or overtake them, he perishes alone in the desert; unless he should have the good fortune to fall in with some other tribes of Indians. The females are equally, or still more, exposed to the same fate.]
Before I see another day,
Through his whole body something ran,
Alas! ye might have dragged me on
THE PRINCIPLES OF BEAUTY IN COLOURING.
By D. R. Hay. To the system of man, so admirably adjusted to ex- | passive principle of shade into the same number, so that ternal things, all nature is either “ beauty to the eye or the niedial gray arising from their joint influence, will music to the ear” Mr Hay justly remarks that the be, to each of these principles or powers, as 90, that is in perception of beauty in colours, is one of the earliest the ratio of 1 to 2, because they mutually neutralize each developments in childhood. How soon does even the other; and the following are the proportions in which infant indicate the delight arising from the stimulus of light and shade will be found to be combined in the pribright and beautiful colours! This pleasure is doubly mary elements of colour: increased in the boy, who pauses even amid his heedless
Relation to Medial Power rambles, struck with the waving corn fields, studded
as a Clour.
15 with their red poppies, their blue bonnets, or their ox
30 eye daisies,-it even fills the soul of the poet, who
30 dreams of his “ waving daffodils," or gazes on the “ deep blue sky," or the gorgeously tinted clouds of a summer
. 90 eve. But it is the object of the author of this philoso
They may here, however, be reduced to their lowest phical treatise to extend our views beyond the simple
denominations, as the higher are only useful in reducing perception of benuty, and to enquire into the laws which
colours to tints and shades; these numbers areregulate our sensations of it. There are harmonic laws throughout all nature. “ There is,” says a writer here quoted, “ harmony of numbers—in the force of gravity, Red, . --in the planetary movements --in the laws of heat, light, electricity, and chemical affinity,–in the fornis of animals and plants,-in the perceptions of the mind.
Neutral gray, We think modern science will soon show that the mys. Red, it will be observed, is the most perfect colour, ticism of Pythagoras wa• mystical only to the unlettered. from its having an equal relation to light and shade, the and that it was a system of philosophy founded on the two principles being exhibited in it in the same ratio then existing mathematics, which latter seem to have as in neutral gray, but in a different and more vigorous comprised more of the philosophy of numbers, than our mode. In yellow, the active principle being to the paspresent.” Our author proposes a new definition of col. sive, as 3 to 1, and in blue, as I to 3; these colours, our, differing from the common notion of the materiality when united in green, exhibit the two principles acting of the particles of light. “ Light,” says he, “ may be as in red, in equal ratios,-thus constituting green the considered as an active, and darkness a passive prin- most perfect of compounded colours. The secondary ciple, in the economy of nature and colour an interme colours are orange, green, and purple, and are produced diate phenomenon arising from their joint influence.” by the pairing of the primaries.” It is usual to consider colour as an inherent quality Mr Hay, by an ingenious modification of the analytical in light, and to suppose that every coloured body ab experiment of Sir Isaac Newton, which consisted in separsorbs a certain class of its rays, and reflects or transmits ating, by a prism, a white ray of light into seven colours, the remainder; but it appears to me that colour is more succeeded in recombining the primary colours, so as to probably the result of certain modes in which the oppo form the usual compound ones. Thus, by a second site principles of motion and rest, or force and resistance, prism, he made the blue ray to fall upon the red, and a operate in the production and modification of light, and purple was produced,- the blue falling on the yellow that each colour is mutually related to these active and produced a green; and a mingling of the red and yellow passive principles."
produced an orange colour. Would this definition not have been more precise by The next section of the work treats of the “contrast stating colour to be “ an intermediate phenomenon aris or opposition of colours," and the following explains a ing from certain modifications of the active force on the new “ system of chromatic harmony." This ingenious passive or percipient organ? If light be the active 'theory exhibits the combinations of the primary and seprinciple, darkness is simply a negation of this principle; condary colours, as obeying certain definite arrangenor can it be well conceived of a passive principle exer ments, which can be expressed by numbers,—but withcising any part in a joint influence; neither can we see out more space and the requisite diagrams, we could not the strict logical propriety of Goethe's theory of colour attempt to explain it here, and must refer to the treatise being the result of the blendings of light and darkness.” itself. We are disposed to believe that in all the five special The last section contains a practical application of senses, there is first of all an external force or stimulus, the modes in which the principles of beauty are developwhich, acting with certain modifications on the percipi. ed in colour. Here there are many appropriate and ent, (the organ, and through the organ the mind,) gives novel retoarks, thus: In the colouring of the animal and rise to the various degrees and intensities of sensations, vegetable productions of nature, red occurs but rarely in colour being one.
a state of pure intensity, and always in comparatively Mr Hay appears to have established, very conclusive. small quantities. Its effect in works of art is gorgeous ly, that yellow, red, and blue, are the primary elements and powerful, and on all occasions its predominance is of all colour, and that the mixture of two or three, in expressive of ostentation and grandeur. Its contrasting various definite proportions, gives rise to all the various 'colour, green, is of an opposite character, being more modifications of colour.
soft and agreeable to the eye than any other decided “ White and black being only the representatives of colour. Green is, consequently, nature's favourite colight and darkness, cannot be reckoned colours, but | lour, prevailing to a far greater extent in the clothing of merely their modifiers, in reducing them by their at the earth's surface than any other; but it seldom appears tenuating and subducive qualities, to tints and shades in the vegetable kingdom in its most intense purity, its respectively.” Mr Hay, in explanation of his theory, | various tones being generally of a subdued and mellow thus proceeds: “ The relations that yellow, red, and blue character. bear to light and darkness, and the mode in which those The volume, besides its intrinsic merits, which are relations opérate throughout the calorific circle, may be great, presents to the bibliomaniac, the recommendashown in the following manner. Let us suppose the tion of great beauty and tasteful desigu, both internally active principle of light divided into 180 parts, and the and externally.
EXPERIMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE TRANSPORT OF ERRATIC
BOULDERS. By William RHIND. (Read before the Wernerian Society, January 1845). In order to ascertain the relative forces of simple tion, and have been extensively so in foriner eras, we water, and of a thick mixture of clay and water in trans think can be made abundantly evident. That, in the porting heavy bodies, the following experiments were | present day, large masses of stones are continually beinstituted:
ing transported from one situation to another by fluviaInto a dry wooden trough, one foot in breadth, and tile and oceanic forces, cannot escape the most casual half a foot in depth, and open at the end, I placed stones observer. The beds of our rivers and the beaches of our of various sizes, from a few ounces in weight to several sea shores, especially estuary shores, afford daily proofs pounds. I then took a quantity of water, and poured it of this circumstance. Thus at Newhaven, on the shores suddenly into the trough at the upper end. By this cur of the Forth, large round masses of the peculiar greenrent, all the smaller stones were swept down, and a few stone of Cramond Island are found in great numbers, of the middle-sized, while the larger stones remained in the distance of transport being about two miles. Masses their original positions, or were but slightly moved. I of reddish porphyry are also found in the same locality, then took the same quantity of water and mixed with it | which must have been transported at least 20 to 31 a quantity of clay, so as to form a semiliquid mass. miles from the westward. Having replaced the stones in the trough as before, I The same phenomena are observable on the Firth of now poured into it the mixture of clay. This mixture Tay. There, especially on the southern shore, where descended at a much slower rate than the water, but it the current of the river and the receding sea tides join bore along with it all the stones, even the largest
with great velocity, masses of rock of various sizes are A similar experiment was made with a mixture of si in continual motion. This is easily proved, because, at liceous sand. This substance did not form such a tena. intervals of several miles, there are well marked por: cious mass as the clay; it more easily separated on com phyries, traps, and red sandstone, all differing from each ing in contact with the larger stones, and though all the other, yet all found huddled together towards the termistones were more or less moved, only the smaller ques nation of the estuary. Not only are these masses rolled were carried altogether out of the trough.
along the bottom, but we have seen them actually lifted A mixture of clay and siliceous sand had much the up and rolled one over the other. Now, if these masses saine transporting powers as the clay; and nearly the can be lifted, even a few feet or yards, there are no lisame was the case with a mixture of common black mits to their transportation, but the limits of the transmould. When the clayey paste was made very thick, porting power, stones of several pounds weight placed upon it, floated It appears to me that there can be traced, both in this on the top, sinking about one half or less; when the neighbourhood and in many localities in Scotland, two dismass was more diluted with water, the stones sunk lower, tinct and totally different deposits of drift and erratic according to their size.
boulders. One of these we shall call marine, the other The clayey mass which had issued from the trough, cataclysmic. The former consists of round masses of presented the following appearance, after the conclusion stone, almost all water-worn, of various sizes, down to of the above experiments:-At the part next the lower small gravel, generally mixed with siliceous sand, someend of the trough, several of the larger stones were seen times with mud, and rarely with clay. The other connearly bare, and stuck fast in the mud and soil, the clay sists of clay, or till mixed or interstratified with clayhaving been washed from around them, in consequence sand, and interspersed with numerous angular fragments of water having been repeatedly poured into the trough. of rocks, as also with round boulder masses. of various A section of the central portion of clay exhibited many sizes. of the stones imbedded in the mass, at various depths A good specimen of both these divisions, the one suand in an irregular manner. The lighter particles of perimposed on the other, is seen in the sections of the clay, and a considerable part of the sand were deposited line of the Trinity and Edinburgh Railway, and on the farther off, and contained few pebbles.
sections of the North British line to the east of EdinOn the whole, this miniature drift had very much the burgh. The lower or marine bed consists of a darkappearance which the diluvial clay presents in the neigh bluish clay or mud, with round boulders interspersed, bourhood of Edinburgh and various other localities, and composed of various greenstones and porphyries, the tended to suggest the idea that similar agencies on a whole presenting an appearance exactly similar to the large scale had produced the latter.
mud bottom of the present Firth. The upper mass again The average specific gravity of granite, greenstone, consists of a light clay mixed with sand, in which there or other similar rocks, is about three tiines greater than are few large boulders, but a considerable number of that of water. Masses of such rocks, then, will weigh sandstone fragunents, almost all angular and not waterabout a third less in water than in the air; but when worn. considering the moving power of water, we must also The marine or lower diluvial beds are to be seen in take into account the accumulated impetus which waves many localit es in Scotland, such as on the Argyleshire and rapid currents bear upon large masses of stone,-a coast, in many of the valleys leading up from the sea force in maụy instances similar to that of a mill run upon into the mountain passes, and in part of Inverness-shire, a water wheel.
In the whole lower portion of Morayshire, the subsoil is It is consistent with experience that simple water, and composed of this marine gravel. In several situations, especially salt water, which is specifically heavier than it still retains the form of long parallel heaps or ridges fresh, may, under certain circumstances, move large of water-worn stones and sandy gravel, just as it had masses of stone. But when to water we add clay and silex, been accumulated by the tidal waves and currents. In so as to form a tenacious mass, we then have a moving other places it is covered by reddish clay till, a bluish power of nearly the same specific gravity, as the stones clay and recent soil. to be moved; and when this semifluid maşs rushes down The upper or cataclysmic beds are almost of universal declivities, or passes in currents of many hundreds of occurrence. They consist, as already stated, of clay and feet in thickness along narrow gorges and valleys, the sand of various depths. Erratic blocks of various sizes impetus and accumulated weight of the mass will be are found imbedded in the clay, and frequently lie bare sufficient to carry along with it the largest fragments of and exposed on the surface,-a quantity of the clay aprock, such as those generally known as erratic rocks. pearing to have been washed away. Sometimes large
That both these modes of transport are now in opera- | masses of stones rest on the slope of a mountain, with