« AnteriorContinuar »
very little clay below or around them, while the clay is the changes that climates may have undergone during the largely accumulated in the hollow valleys at the base. last revolutions of the globe. The royal tiger, the same Besides these boulders or erratic blocks, many of which
species that inhabits the tropical regions of India and the appear to have been transported from a considerable
Island of Ceylon, ranges in the Altai over the mountains distance, this drift contains also angular pieces of rocks,
of Kourtchoum and Narvm. It not only shows itself in
our time in the plains of Tartary, but advances on the and these rocks are almost invariably fragments of the north between Schlangnberg and Barnaoul to the latitude prevailing strata in the neighbourhood; and hence they of Berlin and Hamburg (l'ambridge or York). This is unvary in their character with every variation of district. doubtedly a most curious phenomenon, considered simply Thus, in the west of Scotland, as in Gallowayshire, the in reference to the geography of animals, but analogous to fragments are greywacke and porphyry; in Lanark and
| thone in South America, where the jaguar is found w lati
| tnde 43: the lion-puma and the humming-bird to 53", that Edinburghshire they are carboniferous sandstones and
is, to the countries bordering on the straits of Magellan. greenstones; in Forfarshire they are old red sandstone; But in Northern Asia, the southern declivity of the Altai in Aberdeenshire gneiss, mica slates, and granites. In is inhabited at the same time, during summer, by the elk short, it would appear as if this drift had been deposited and the royal tiger, by the rein-deer and the panther-irbis. at the period when the uppermost rocks of the formation Such proximity of large animals inhabiting the existing had been broken up and elevated, by forces from below,
earth,---of foring generally believed to belong to the most to the position which they now hold; hence I have ap.
diverse climates, is one of the best established facts. The plied to this apparent drift the designation of cataclys
elk (Cervus alcı) of the Altai wanders in the marshy fo
rests on the Suzuch and Berouksa, two affluents of the mic.
river Katunia. The rein-deer (Cervus tarandus) is found Another question arises --what is the cause of the wild on the banks of the l'pper Tchoulichman, which falls particular direction which the erratic blocks appear to into the lake Telezk; and probably also on some of the have observed in their progress? This direction, gene
tributaries of the Argout. Now, these places are not more rally speaking, appears to be the same throughout Eu
in a W.S.W. direction from the mountains where the royal rope and North America, that is, from N.W. to S.E.
tiger is seen from time to time than forty to fifty leagues, In estuaries the direction must of course depend
and it probably extends its excursions even farther north.
Skeletons of these animal, belonging to such different types chiefly on that of the river flowing into the sea. Thus, might therefore be found dispersed on the surface of the on the Forth and Tay, already alluded to, we can easily earth, very near to each other, under the influence of conaccount for the transport being in a line from west by
ditions of climate like those of the present earth. Let us north towards the east; but this would not account for
add, that, without the knowledge of the fact mentioned a general European and American line froin N.W. to
here, fossil bones of rein-deer, found side by side with those S.E.
of the royal tiger, might have led to the supposition, that It is probable, then, that this course is due to the
une , one of those great changes in the distribution of clima tidal currents flowing at the period from a northerly to
and its sudden change, had occurred, by which the bones a southerly direction, something in the same way as the of pachydermata, found buried in the frozen soil of Sibegreat Atlantic currents flow at the present day. This ria, have been formerly explained.-Humboldt Asie Cenwould equally account for the direction of the marine as | trale, Tom, i. p. 339-312. for the cataclysmic deposits, if we take also into account as modifying agents the then existing valleys and moun
Gleanings. tain ridges.
SERVING THE PEOPLE. — All who serve the people are As the marine transport of boulders must have taken
poorly paid. To be very usefully employed is to be degradplace at a period anterior to the ultimate and complete ed. A shoemaker is a snob; a tailor is a snip, and the ninth elevation of the present dry laud, it is not necessary to part of a man; a weaver is something worse than a tailor; suppose that the erratic blocks now found on the slopes a ploughman is a bumpkin; a smith a mere bellows blower; of many mountains were borne through the intervening
a carpenter is chips; a sailor (for whom, nevertheless, there valleys and carried over the tops of mountains to be de
prevails a kind of affectionate feeling, as if he were a help
less child,) is Jack Tar; a soldier is a lobster, or jonny raw; posited on their farther sides. We may rather suppose
and a servant, particularly if he be very useful, is a flunkey, that the transport was made before the elevation of the The services of all these classes are indispensable. We lower mountains, and that the erratic blocks preserved could neither be waited upon, defended, lodged or clothed their relative position on the raised surfaces. Thus, in without them; yet they are poorly paid and harshly treatthe case of Mont Blanc and the Jura, we have here in
ed. Magistrates pounce upon them for every indiscretion, the first instance the elevated primary ridge of Mont
and stringent laws hold them to their duty. The harder Blanc, with a gradually sloping declivity of 100 miles,
the occupation, generally, the worse it is paid.- Douglas
Jerrold. over which the granite fragments of the mountain are profusely scattered by the tidal force of the ocean.
EDUCATION IN FRANCE AND IN ENGLAND.-Need we ask
if Great Britain possesses institutions like these.- Where Afterwards, at the distance of 50 miles, the secondary
have we a NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION devised by lelimostone mountain of the Jura is elevated, carrying up gislative wisdom, and sustained by legislative liberality? on its heaving sides the granite masses which are now England cannot boast even of its skeleton, or of its shafound resting on its exposed surface, while a hollow val dow. In one place we see the schools of the Church, in ley and the Lake of Geneva lie between.
another the schools of Dissenters, and throughout the That the marine transport of erratic blocks may be
kingdom numerous establishments founded by the piety
and munificence of our forefathers. In Ireland we have a accomplished by the agency of water, we think cannot
national system of education which the nation does not rebe disputed, since we have evident proofs of such now
cognize--denounced by the Established Church, and but in action. That a mixture of clay and water is a still partially accepted by the Roman Catho ics. In Scotland more powerful agent, the above experiments may demon we have a system of parochial schools, paid by the heritors, strate; and the almost universal existence of this clay and controlled by the Establishment; yet ejecting teachers, along with the drifted boulders, renders it more than pro
and rejecting candidates, who refuse to conform to its disbable that this universal juxtaposition had some connec
cipline and worship ;--and everywhere in the three king
doms we have rival seminaries-teaching different truths tion with their transport. The grinding and scratching
-inculcating different principles and educating in politiof the subjacent rocks can also be satisfactorily account cal and religious antagonism, the generous youth who are ed for by this mode of transportation, as well as other to be the future instructors, and lawgivers, and defenders circumstances accompanying the diluvial deposits. of the empire.- Where are our NATIONAL UNIVERSITIES
regulated by Parliamentary statute--strong in the unity GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF THE TIGER, &c.—I shall con
ir doctrine and their discipline-conferring their liclude this account, says Humboldt, of the Altai-Kolyvan, terary honours upon the men that merit them-inviting to or Altai, properly so called, limited on the east by the me their chairs of office the genius and learning of the age, ridians of 880 or 899, by recalling a zoological fact well and seeking no other test but that of fearing God, and worthy of attention. The study of fossil bones has led us honouring the King? Alas! where are they to be found ! to compare the distribution of certain types of forms with Not surely in the two noble institutions which stand in
hoary antiquity and unreformed grandeur on the Cam and country. In the erection of a temple like this, our present the Isis--mighty in intellectual power and glorious memo- patrons and amateurs of science would either occupy an ries-yet rejoicing in ancient and exclusive privilege, and honorary place in the pediment which adorns it, or crown politely shutting their portals against every class but their as ornamental capitals the Corinthian pillars upon which own:- Not in the colleges of the metropolis, chartered by it rests.-North British Review. the State, yet depending on the casual bounty of private munificence: Not in the University of Dublin, admitting to
TRUE HEROISM.— The following affecting anecdote is its offices and its rich Fellowships but a small portion of
given in Marshall's Military Miscellany. the nation : Certainly not in the Universities of Scotland In the year 1795, a serious disturbance broke out in overborne in the metropolis by the incubus of municipal Glasgow among the Breadalbane Fencibles. Several men control;- degraded in the provinces by internal abuse, and having been confined, and threatened with corporal punecclesiastical domination; and impoverished everywhere by ishment, considerable discontent and irritation were excited self-plunder, or national parsimony.-W
among their comrades, which increased to such violence, them, however, if not in the maturity of their fruit, at that when some men were confined in the guard-house, a least in the freshness of their germ, in the IRISH COLLEGES, great proportion of the regiment rushed out, and forcibly those light-towers of knowledge which a wise government released the prisoners. This violation of military discihas erected in a dark land; aud which, we trust, will be pline was not to be passed over, and accordingly measures the harbingers of a Grand Intellectual Reform, conferring were taken to secure the ringleaders, and bring them to the noblest of all political rights--the franchise of a liberal punishment. But so many were equally concerned, that it and religious education upon every subject of the British was difficult to fix on the proper subjects for punishment. empire.
The soldiers being made sensible of the nature of their But while it is necessary to educate our youth in national Inisconduct, and the consequent punishment, four men institutions, under men of undoubted genius and learning, voluntarily offered themselves to stand trial, and suffer the and with a high yet liberal tone of religious feeling, there sentence of the law, as an atonement for the whole. They is yet another duty which belongs to the state-a duty were accordingly marched to Edinburgh Castle, tried, and which it owes to the world as well as to itself. The arts condemned to be shot. Three of them were, however, and the sciences demand from every government a more afterwards reprieved, and the fourth was shot on Musselthan paternal care. Statute cannot create them by its burgh sands. enactinents: nor can royal patronage allure them by its On the march to Edinburgh a circumstance occurred, favours. They must be the slow growth of institutions the more worthy of notice, as it shows a strong principle of which the state supports, and the sovereign honours. When honour, and fidelity to his word, and to his officer, in a creative genius has completed its apprenticeship in the common Highland soldier; and while it reminds the reader schools, it must develope its energies in the closet for still so strongly of that fine incident in the classical story of higher functions, or it must exhaust them in the ordinary Damon and Pythias, as almost to appear like an inferior routine of professional labour. Hence it becomes the duty imitation of that high act of heroic honour and self-devoof the state to endow national institutions like the Royal
tion, it exemplifies this truth, that a fine sense of what is Institute of France, and the Imperial Academies of Science honourable and sublime in human conduct is not confined at St Petersburg and Berlin, where men of the highest to any particular class of men, but is as inherent to the attainments in science, literature, and the arts, shall be in baseborn peasant as to the nobly born and the nobly bred. corporated, and unite their talents in advancing know. One of the men stated to the officer commanding the party, ledge, and in aiding government in every enterprise where that he knew what his fate would be, but that he had left theoretical or practical skill is required. Such has been business of the utmost importance to a friend, in Glasgow, the policy of almost every nation in Europe but our own. which he wished to transact before his death; that as to The Royal Societies of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin, himself, he was fully prepared to meet his fate; but with have been, to a certain degree, substitutes for the endowed regard to his friend, he could not die in peace unless the institutions of the Continent; while the Geological, the business was settled; and that if the officer would suffer Astronomical, the Linnean, and other societies, supply the him to return to Glasgow, a few hours there would be defects of the parent establishment. But noble as these
sufficient: that he would join him before he reached Edininstitutions are accomplished as are the men that guide
burgh, and then march as a prisoner with the party: the them, and valuable as are the transactions which they pub brave Highlander added, “You have known me since I lish, there is yet a want of unity in their efforts, and, to a was a child; you know my country and kindred; and you certain extent, an antagonism in their pursuits. When the
may believe I shall never bring you to any blame by a noble patrons of science, and its opulent amateurs, stand in breach of the promise I now make, to be with you in full the same rank with its highest functionaries and its most
time to be delivered up to the castle." This was a startling active cultivators, their joint action must be feeble, how proposal to the officer, who was a judicious, humane man, ever common and well-directed be its aim. A heteroge and knew perfectly his risk and responsibility in yielding to neous body is as defective in moral as it is in physical such an extraordinary application. However, his conpower; and there is a reaction among its elements, which fidence was such, that he complied with the request of the tends to corruption or decay. Cabals will arise-incapable prisoner, who returned to Glasgow at night, settled his office-bearers and unqualified members will be elected-a
business, and left the town before daylight, system of favouritism will spring up-the rewards of inven pledge. He took a long circuit to avoid being seen, and tion and discovery will be improperly bestowed-and men being apprehended as a deserter, and sent back to Glasof high principle will retire, in disgust, from an institution gow, as probably his account of his officer's indulgence thus mismanaged and dishonoured,
would not have been credited. In consequence of this If private associations, then, thus characterised, have caution, and the lengthened march through woods, and hitherto failed to accomplish what national institutions over hills, by an unfrequented route, there was no appear. everywhere secure, how unsuitable must they be in the ance of him at the hour appointed. The perplexity of the present day, when science, in its theoretical and practical officer when he reached the neighbourhood of Edinburgh embrace, has grasped all the great interests of the state, may be easily imagined. He moved forward slowly, but and is the only safe guide to their future development, and no soldier appeared ; and unable to delay any longer, he their final sufety. With steam-ships on every sea-with marched up to the castle, when, as he was delivering over steam-power in every farm and factory-with a system of the prisoners, but before any report was given in, Macagriculture leaning upon science as its mainstay-with a martin, the absent soldier, rushed in among his fellownet-work of railways demanding for their perfection the prisoners, pale with anxiety and fatigue, and breathless highest efforts of mechanical skill--the time has doubtless with apprehension of the consequences in which his delay arrived when government should summon to its aid, and
might have involved his benefactor. In whatever light the unite in its service, all the theoretical and practical wisdom conduct of Major Colin Campbell, the officer, may be conof the country. An institution thus composed would not sidered by military men, his confidence in human nature merely combine the living talent which is in active exercise must endear him to the hearts of the humane; and it canaround us: it would concentrate what is scattered, and not but be wished that the Highlandman's magnanimous rouse what ig dormant; and under its fostering wing, as self-devotion had been taken as an atonement for his own the home and the temple of science, we might expect, misconduct, and that of his brother prisoners. It was not without the excitement of a revolution, to nurse a race of
from any additional guilt that the man who suffered was sages, like the Baillys, the Carnots, the Cuviers, and the shot: it was determined that only one should suffer, and Fouriers of another land-men who united the characters | the four were ordered to draw lots, when the fatal chance of the statesman, the hero, and the philosopher, and who, fell upon William Sutherland, who was executed accordin the hour of danger, were the best defenders of their | ingly.
Balance in Balance
BALANCE OF TRADE, FOR AND AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, | The Disruption, a Scottish Tale of Recent Times.
A Scotch novel, introducing the disruption of the Statistical View of the Commerce of the United States, for Scottish Church, and her Majesty's first visit to Scot
the nine months commencing 1st October 1842, and ter land. The hero, James Duncanson, is a divinity student, minating 30th of June 1843; showing the amount of Ex
who jeopardies the temporal support derived from an ports and Imports to and from each foreign country, and
| old aunt, and the hand of Miss Montgomery, by his adthe balance of trade for and against the United States with each of those countries.
herence to non-intrusion principles,--he secures both in the long-run, and settles down a voluntary. The loves
of Robin Affleck and Jean Brown, who are of the Cuddie Value of Value of Countries.
Headrigg and Jenny Dennison school, forın one sub-plot,
and the vagaries of a visionary called Bacon, form ano. dollars. dollars. | dollars. | dollars.
ther. The author has skill in conception, but wants deRussia......... 386,793 742,803 ...
licacy of finish. We would advise him, however, to try Prussia.............
67,762 Sweden and dep..
| again-he evinces power and felicity in dealing with the 210,912
... Denmark and dep. 27,865 485,285) 342,5801
Scottish character, much after the manner of Galt, alHolland and dep. 2,370,884 815,4511 1,555,433
though with little of his pathos. In selecting his subject Belgium ............ 1,970,709 171,695 1,799,014
he has chosen an attractive, but difficult one,-as it reHanse Towns .....) 3,291,932 920,865 2,371,067
quires the utmost skill to clothe contemporary events in England and dep. 46,901,83328,978,582 17,923,253
fictional drapery. France and dep... 12,472,453 7,836,137 4,636,316
653,370898,447 Hayti ................
The British Quarterly Review. No. V. ...
... ! Spain and depen.. 3,953,694 6,980,504 ... ... 3,026,810 The strength of this Review lies in its theological artiPortugal and dep. 168,53471,369 97,165
cles, of which there are several good ones in this number. Italy, Sicily, and
There is an article on Carlyle's Cromwell, entering fairSardinia .......... 920,741 564,228 356,513
ly into the character of this remarkable man, who beTrieste .............. 597,178 72,957
506,221 Turkey.............. 176,479182,854
gins now only, in these latter days, to assume the char142,953 445,399
302,446 acter of a liero. We have here too, Dobbin's argument Mexico............. 1,471,937 2,782,406
1,310,469 against Strauss, followed by an account of the present Central America.. 52,966 132,167
79,201 condition of the German Catholic Church, and the life Venezuela.......... 583,502 1,191,280
607,778 and character of Melanchthon. In science--there is a New Granada ..... 161,953 115,733 46,220
brief summary of the leading principles of meteorology, Brazil ............... 1,792,288) 3,947,658
2,155,370 Argentine Repub. 262,109 793,488
and an article on the law of development in nature.
531,379 Cisalpine Repub.. 295,125 121,753 173.372
Corn and Bullion, the Tariff, and a series of short Chili.................. 1,049,463 857,556 191,907
well-digested minor criticisms on books, make up the Peru .......
135,563 contents of this sober, sedate, but able periodical. S. Amer. generally 98,713 .... 98,713
Indeed there is nothing more wonderful in the present 2,418,958 4,385,566
day, than the large amount of sound, learned, and acute Europe, generally 36,206
36,206 Asia, generally.... 445,637
intelleet employed in the various departments of periodi521,157
75,520 Africa, generally. 303,249 353,274
cal literature, as well as of the equally large amount of W.Ind. generally. 95,537
frivolous, superficial, and trifling. South Seas.......... 77,766 45,845 31,921
Tales from the German. By H. ZSCHOKKE. Second Uncertain Places. ...
623 ... ...
Series. London: 1846. Total .......... 34,346,480 64,753,799 30,577,327 10,984,646
An American translation, by Parke Godwin. The first series, “ The Sleep Walker,” partakes of that mysticism so prevalent in German literature. Some of the
other tales are in a soberer strain. Leaves from the Literature.
Journal of a poor Vicar in Wiltshire, is a domestic story History of England, during the Thirty Years' Peace. possessing considerable graphic character, and of which, A new serial from the unwearying pen of Mr Knight,
in a future number we shall perhaps give an abridge
ment. the author-publisher. The title and idea has likely been antithetically suggested by Schiller's Thirty Years' War. Wordsworth has shown that poetry needs not the aid of
Proceedings of Societies. blood and tumult to give it either vivacity or variety,
SHAKSPRARE SOCIETY.--At the last meeting of the counand we are much mistaken if Mr Knight does not also
cil, on Tuesday, some entirely new and very curious docushow that history will be none the less romantic and
Inents were produced, not merely illus
illustrative of our stirring that it does not track the hoof-prints of grim stage, but most especially explanatory of some passages in visaged war. In the small portion of the history to the life of Richard Burbage, who is known to have been which the first part introduces us, we have clear indica the actor of nearly all Shakspeare's heroes in tragedy, partions that Mr Knight does not intend to give a dry
ticularly of Lear, Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, and Richard
the Third. These papers were recently discovered in one chronological narrative, but rather a racy historical
1 of the offices of the Court of Chancery, and were most story, with facts to inform, and incident to enliven, much
kindly communicated to the director of the Shakespeare in the way that one might conceive such a work would Society, who is at this moment printing the biographies of be done were we to have the statistics of Porter, com the twenty-six performers enumerated in the folio of 1623, bined with the rhetoric of Macaulay. The rich mine of as the principal actors in Shakspeare's plays. The discobiographical writing which has been accumulating for very was most opportune, and the work will be ready for the last thirty years, appears to have been laboriously
delivery to the members very shortly. consulted, and we have no doubt a valuable and inter HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND.esting work will be the result.
On the Feeding of Sheep on “Whins and Broom" as a cure
for, and a preventative of “Rot.” Heath's New Gallery of British Engravings,
At the monthly ineeting of this Society, held on WednesNot “new” in the common acceptation of the term, as
day the 4th inst., an interesting paper was read from Mr the title-page itself informs us that the plates are " selec.
Boyd of Innerleithen, Peebleshire, on the planting of whins
and broom for the winter and spring feeding of sheer. tions,” but of course new in their present shape. That
After pointing out the importance which he considered rethey have been good in their time we doubt not, but now
sulted from such a mode of management, whether in rethey give evidence of what in Scotland is called the gard to the condition of the animal, its powers of lamb* worse of the wear.”
ing and rearing, and the state and value of its fleece, the
anthor announced the startling and important fact, if such . But we turn from these to scenes which touch the feelcan be substantiated by future experience, that “whinings and emotions; or which awaken the imagination to feeding, as thus recommended, was not only a specific visions of what has been done and suffered in human life. cure, but a positive preventative of that curse to the store Here we have a domestic tragedy-The distraining for farmers, the rot, when occurring in the early part of the rent of Wilkie—which at one glance tells a tale of deep season. In proof of this, the following case was adduced: distress and mental anguish: How feeble were our concepMr Somner of West Morriston, in Berwickshire, on taking tions of this picture, even from the finest prints of it 80 possession of his farm, found that his flocks (Leicesters and well known. Every group and figure is full of the most Cheviots) were liable to rot, from the nature of the pasture. unequivocal expression, and the details how truthful and Being aware that whin feeding had an effect on this dis calmly managed! Next we turn to a picture of gorgeous ease, he established a nursery of the plant, by means of beauty and surpassing loveliness, Cleopatra on the Cydnus, which, and through the agency of his shepherds in sowing by Ettey, beautiful in conception, rich and mellow, and it, he soon raised a sufficient supply of whins.
chaste in its tone-a picture that would demand, and From the time that the sheep had access to them," the
would well requite hours and hours of study. These two disease disappeared," till the year 1837-38, when a severe
paintings display the mellowed tints of time though new to frost cut them down; “ the rot then reappeared to an
our “ North Countrie." At that corner sits our old boyish alarming extent, till the whins were restored, when it agriin
friend Robinson Crusoe, by Frazer, admirably conceived and
executed. How solemnly the poor care-worn solitary sits at vanished."
his dinner board, surrounded by his dog and cats, and parWhen we come to consider the destructive ravages of
rot, and goat, in his goat-skin dress, and cap, and in his this “ most ancient" of the diseases of sheep, and above all,
self-built hut, with its cautiously contrived doorway, lookcall to painful recollection the sweeping destruction of
ing up into the blue sky and distant mountains, hemmed sheep and lambs that took place so recently as the winter
round by the vast ocean which shuts out from him the of 1830-31, when, by Parliamentary report, above two
world! We recollect of old a Crusoe by this same artist, millions were destroyed, it becomes a matter of national
excellent too, but we like the present better. Turn we a litimportance to learn even the approximation to a single
tle aside and another artist, Munro, shows the same Crusoe fact, as to the management of, or encountering a disease so
on his raft, and a calm soft and beautiful sea stretching fatal in its results.
out before him, with an island in the distance, his only In looking over the annals of the natural history of this hope and solace. disease, no defined mode of management, feeding, or treat
A bevy of happy, laughing, rosy-faced urchins, now ment, is any where to be found, and, with the exception of
meets our view-it is Harvey's“ Schule Scaling," and the our very general ideas and information, that a well drained
dominie, a real bona fide dominie of the old school, lagging and healthy pasturage, not overstocked, together with the
behind to take to task some 'urchin delinquent. Nor is occasional exhibition of common salt when the rot threat
that scene in the Greyfriar's Churchyard, by Johnstone, ens, or actually exhibits, we are perfectly in the dark as to
with its group of depressed and disheartened covenanters, those principles on which the disease ought to be treated
under guard of a stern soldier, to be rapidly passed at preand managed.
sent without regret. A deep eastern morning gleam, and It is to be regretted that in the above report no mention stalwart Circassian in the foreground Sir W. Allan, invites is made of the condition and nature of the pasturage when also a passing look of admiration. Hunt the Slipper, by the farm was first entered on; the improvements, if any, Maclise - Peter the Hermit preaching the Crusades, by that were made upon it; the state in which it was when the Scott-the presentation of Samuel to Eli. by Lauder with rot exhibited itself; the nature of the seasons that preceded numerous other historical pieces of no common merit, and accompanied it; and above all, the general manage crowd upon us, and put in claims for future inspection. ment of the flocks pursued by his informant. Without If we turn from these scenes of life and human action. such information, it would be premature to consider the
we have the ever fresh and simple scenes of nature to call therapeutic action of any remedy, or any particular mode
up our fondest sympathies. Behold before you, wide and of management, as possessing specific or even preventative
fully displayed, "a Highland Landscape"-a calm and still powers; but as the recommendation is simple and safe in
lake pouring its waters into a rich lower valley, by a soft its principle, and easy, in the majority of cases, in its ap
gushing rivulet-a range of soft blue mountains fading plication, it is unquestionably worthy of a more careful and
into the distance, and that hazy. soft, vet perfectly airy extensive trial amongst our store farmers.
and mist-clouded sky, which only a Maculloch can depict with all its natural tints and lineaments, Bothwell Castle on the Clyde, by the same pencil, is also a rich and labour
ed scene. Cooper, on the other side, scatters his cattle University and Educational Intelligence.
over a soft-toned, beautiful landscape, with much of the PACHLITIES FOR THE ADMISSION OF YOUNG MEN TO HOLY
art of Cuyp. Sea views, by Williamsriver scenes, by ORDERS. --The University of Durham has made provision
Crawford-Highland mountain scenery, with much of nafor facilitating the admission and shortening the period of
tute in them, by the fair touch of Miss Stoddart, and many residence necessary for obtaining a licence in theology.
other really beautiful selections from the profuse stores of Several rules have been published to this effect.
nature, by various artists, arrest the attention in almost We understand that the Rev. M. Martin, A.M., teacher
every corner. We have said nothing of three pictures by
nerwe are almost afraid to do so—or to confess of mathematics in Madras College, St Andrews, has been
that we see art and fancy, and even beauty in them appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy in Marischall
-but nothing of nature. We know this opinion will be College, Aberdeen.
scouted, but we speak honestly. There is one picture which caught our eye from the first, and now we linger
by it at the last-the Enterkin Leadhills (Harvey). A Fine Arts.
piece of actual nature is here, yet touched with a fairy
brush-a long, narrow, sloping, green smooth gorge, runEXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL SCOTTISH ACADEMY.-Thening up a mountain side, with a streamlet winding its torfirst day of the exhibition! What a casting off of this tuous way through it—a few scraggy birches and alders, "mortal coil,” to leave the dull common place, crowded the sun gleaming and lighting up bright green spots here streets, and enter the pillared dome of the Institution! A and there, with groups of sheep feeding in the hollows-fairy scene openg before us. The cherished fancies of dark shelving rocks on the foreground, out of which spring years, the realized visions of the imagination—the labour the tortuous branches of stunted trees-a most difficult and anxious study of weeks and months, are all here dis scene to attempt, yet wrought into a perfect gem. So played in rich and gorgeous arrangement. The eye at much for a general view of one of the richest exhibitions of first glances over the varied hues, and glittering gildings the bye-past twenty years. We hope to enter into fuller with bewilderment, and some time elapses before vision is particulars on a future occasion. robered down to the individual attractions ranged aronnd. First of all, many well-known portraits gaze upon us with
LONDON ACADEMY.-On Tuesday, the 20th inst., a general all the sparkling animation of life. Here are the calm,
assembly of the academicians of the Royal Academy of manly, and truthful forms of Colvin Smith, breathing al
Arts was held in their apartments in Trafalgar-square, most a vital reality, here the somewhat more etherealized
when Thomas Webster, Patrick M'Dowell, and John countenances of Watson Gordon. The expressive linea
Rogers Herbert, Esqrs., were duly elected Royal Academents of Mackenzie, S. Watson, and the soft and sweet
| micians, in the room of Sir Augustus Wall Callcott, Robert forms of Musgrove.
Smirke, and Thomas Phillips, Esqrs., deceased.
News of the week. REID CONCERT.-The Annual Concert in commemoration of the late Colonel Reid, who bequeathed a handsome legacy to the University of Edinburgh, for the purpose of instituting a chair of music, and of holding an annual and puhlic concert, took place on Friday. For the last two years, in consequence of the manner in which this once delightful musical reunion was got up, the attendance was so small as to prove decided failures. This year, however, a new method was adopted to secure a good house. Each of the professors received thirty-five gratis tickets to distribute amongst his friends; and, from the mode of distribution thus adopted, the admission was at a high premium. One worthy professor, feeling that the scheme of the Senatus was anything but consistent with the nature and spirit of Colonel Reid's bequest, divided by lot amongst his students the tickets that fell to his share. If this national festival is to be resolved into an annual chamber concert, for the exclusive benefits of the families and friends of the professors, and at the expense of the interests of the University, it is full time that inquiry be made into the why and because of such prerogatives. The newspaper reports give the usual amount of praise to the performances of the evening, but there appears to have been no unusual stars beyond the ordinary lights of the orchestra.
SUICIDE AT EDINBURGH.-Several cases of suicide hare been consummated, by parties throwing themselves over the parapet of the North Bridge of Edinburgh; and a proposal was made by one of the authorities to erect an iron railing for th: prevention of these catastrophies; but this was found, on several accounts, to be impracticable. In cases of insanity, there is always a tendency in the parties affected to avail themselves of the facilities for suicide which have been taken advantage of by others. The suicides committed by leaping from the London monument are proof of this. If a man be determined to commit suicide, he can "his quietus make with a bare bodkin;" but there is another class, not pre-resolved on self-destruction, in whom the feeling will be called forth by the sight of any peculiar facility, such as a low parapet --a feeling which will receive additional strength by the consideration that others have already gone over that same parapet. The Dean Bridge at Edinburgh is of higher elevation than the North Bridge; and a determined suicide would resort to it as the best place for quietly taking his murderous flight; but suicides are unknown there. Why? Because the people who leap over bridges do so on the spur of the moment, -the high parapet of the Dean does not tempt them,-or if it had a low one, its distance from the centre of crime and misery is such, that cool reflection would be excited before the goal was reached. Two ruffians quarrel in the High Street, or one of them beats his wife--the North Bridge is hard by; and in drunken buffoonery, or in wild despair, a leap from it is spoken of-no interval elapses—the parties are at the spot in a few minutes--and the flight is taken, unless passengers interfere. High parapets on the North Bridge, or on all the bridges of Europe, will not prevent suicides, but it would tend to diminish their number, and that should be enough for sensible men.
ENTERPRISE OF SCOTTISH BOOKSELLERS.- Scottish booksellers have often crossed the border in the shape of “flying stationers,” but now they are planting their standards in the metropolis itself. Messrs Blackie and Fullarton have long had English establishments. More recently Messrs Blackwood opened a branch in London. Mr Collins of Glasgow has done so too, and now Mr Johnstone. the emi nent Edinburgh religious publisher, is about to do the same. We trust these gentlemen will not be long in having their example imitated, as Scottish literature has received but scrimp justice at the hands both of English booksellers and English critics.
STATISTICS OF PERTH Prison.-These tables, made up by the keeper for the year 1845, afford a gratifying contrast with previous years as to the amount of crime. The number of persons committed in 1843 was 715, which in 1844 fell to 607, and the last year has decreased to 538, whereof 307 were males, and 168 females. No less than 24 of the persons were twice convicted within the year, 6 three times, and 3 four times. The committals for poaching, which in 1843 were as high as 71, were last year so low as 26. The greatest number of prisoners during the year was 92, and the smallest number 40. There were removed for transportation 10, and sent to General Prison 12.Number of criminal prisoners on 26th January 1845, 65; on the 26th January 1846, 32-being a reduction of onehalf.
THE MODERN ATHENIANS.-Modern Athens, as her citi. zens love to designate the northern metropolis, seems for some years past to have become deeply imbued with the spirit which was so remarkabiy prevalent in the glorious city of Minerva of old, when that justly venerated shrine of all that elevates and ennobles human nature was rapidly sinking to a premature decay beneath the galling yoke of the stranger. “The Athenians," says St Paul, "spend their time in nothing else but either to tell or to bear some new thing.” We know of no other theory that will ac. count for the fact, that nearly all the strolling preachers of mesmerism, phrenology, hydropathy, homeopathy, and the other novelties which the fertile brains of German bookworms have poured upon the world, have their home in “ Auld Reekie.” So writes a scribe in the Dublin Journal of Medicine.
THE GREEK TRAGEDY.--Mr Charles Kemble is at present engaged in giving a series of Shakspearian readings at the Manchester Athenæun. The course was interrupted by Mr Kemble having received the commands of her Majesty to read intigone before the court on Tuesday evening.
Mr H. AINSWORTH.--Mr Harrison Ainsworth has resumed the editorship of lin worth's Magazine, which he was understood to have relinquished some months ago, when he entered upon the editorship of Colburn's Ver Monthl.
TEMPERANCE IN NORWAY.—The Swedish government, in order to put a stop to the increasing progress of drunkennens in Norway, has appointed a missionary for each of the four provinces of that kingdom, to travel through them preaching forbearance from strong liquors, and promoting the establishment and extension of temperance societies. Compensation is again offered to all such distillers as sball resign their licences for making brandy, and entirely relinquish their business.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.-Complaints have sometimes been made regarding the slow progress in this country of physical geography, but we are at last making head. Professor Johnston announced at a late meeting of the Agricultural Chemistry Association, that the potato disease was affected both by altitude and latitude, and that he would show this by a coloured map. Mr Murphy's geographical labours will therefore be superseded, as we will now have a Murphy Atlas, without the possessive case.
DR WORDSWORTH.-We regret to announce the death of his gentleman. He was a brother of the poet Wordsworth, and was the author of several esteemed classical works. He was also the predecessor of Dr Whewell in the mastership of Trinity College.
VESUVIUS.—The cone of Mount Vesuvius, say the Neapolitan journals, continues to rise higher and higher, although no eruptions have taken place. Down the whole of the northern side of the Abruzzas, as far as Loretto, shocks of earthquake have been felt.
A CRYSTAL CABINET.-They are at present constructing, on the top of the Royal Observatory in Paris, a study
binet, the walls of which, as well as the ceiling, are of pure crystal. It is in this chamber that the justly celebrated M. Arago will work to watch the march of the stars, planets, and comets, by the assistance of a monster telescope, which is now being made. It is expected that this new transparent observatory will be terminated by the month of July next, and will be a chef d'ouvre of art.
Bonn v. Bogue.- In this case, which was an application on behalf of Mr Bohn, the publisher, for an injunction to restrain Mr Bogue, publisher, from persisting in publishing his edition of the “ Life of Lorenzo de Medici," on the ground of its containing extensive portions of Mr Roscoe's work on the same subject, of which Mr Bohn claims the copyright. His Honour the Vice-Chancellor gave judgment on Thursday. His Honour said that it was confessed in the advertisement to Mr Bogue's edition, that the parts selected were the really valuable parts of Mr Roscoe's work, and certainly wherever they are used, Mr Roscoe's “illustrations” are referred to. Confession, however, said his Honour, may be a proof of honesty at the time it is made, but it neither excuses nor justifies. He thought it was an extraordinary case. Where slight alterations from the illustrations had been made, nothing for the better had been done, but something for the worse. His Honour then noted a passage which bore out that observation. He should, therefore, certainly grant the injunction. The defendant had taken material and valuable parts of the plaintiff's work, and knew of it. An action should be brought; but the question whether the defendant should admit the plaintiff's title was reserved for a future day.