Imágenes de páginas

very little clay below or around them, while the clay is the changes that climates may have undergone during the largely accumulated in the hollow valleys at the base. last revolutions of the globe. The royal tiger, the same Besides these boulders or erratic blocks, many of which

species that inhabits the tropical regions of India and the appear to have been transported from a considerable

Island of Ceylon, ranges in the Altai over the mountains distance, this drift contains also angular pieces of rocks,

of Kourtchoum and Narym. It not only shows itself in and these rocks are almost invariably fragments of the

our time in the plains of Tartary, but advances on the

north between Schlangenberg and Barnaoul to the latitude prevailing strata in the neighbourhood; and hence they of Berlin and Hamburg (Cambridge or York). This is un. vary in their character with every variation of district. doubtedly a most curious phenomenon, considered simply Thus, in the west of Scotland, as in Gallowayshire, the

in reference to the geography of animals, but analogous to fragments are greywacke and porphyry; in Lanark and

those in South America, where the jaguar is found to latiEdinburghshire they are carboniferous sandstones and

tude 42"; the lion-puma and the humming-bird to 53", that

is, to the countries bordering on the straits of Magellan. . greenstones; in Forfarshire they are old red sandstone;

But in Northern Asia, the southern declivity of the Altai in Aberdeenshire gneiss, mica slates, and granites. In is inhabited at the same time, during summer, by the elk short, it would appear as if this drift had been deposited and the royal tiger, by the rein-deer and the panther-irbis. at the period when the uppermost rocks of the formation Such proximity of large animals inhabiting the existing had been broken up and elevated, by forces from below,

earth, -of forms generally believed to belong to the most to the position which they now hold; hence I have ap

diverse climates, is one of the best established facts. The plied to this apparent drift the designation of cutaclys

elk (Cervus alcis) of the Altai wanders in the marshy fo

rests on the Sugach and Berouksa, two affluents of the mic.

river Katunia. The rein-deer (Cervus tarandus) is found Another question arises,—what is the cause of the wild on the banks of the Upper Tchoulichman, which falls particular direction which the erratic blocks appear to into the lake Telezk; and probably also on some of the have observed in their progress! This direction, gene

tributaries of the Argout. Now, these places are not more rally speaking, appears to be the same throughout Eu

in a W.8.W. direction from the mountains where the royal rope and North America, that is, from N.W. to S.E.

tiger is seen from time to time than forty to fifty leagues,

and it probably extends its excursions even farther north. In estuaries the direction must of course depend

Skeletons of these animals belonging to such different types chiefly on that of the river flowing into the sea. Thus, might therefore be found dispersed on the surface of the on the Forth and Tay, already alluded to, we can easily earth, very near to each other, under the influence of conaccount for the transport being in a line from west by

ditions of climate like those of the present earth.

Let us north towards the east; but this would not account for

add, that, without the knowledge of the fact mentioned a general European and American line froin N.W. to

here, fossil bones of rein-deer, found side by side with those S.E. It is probable, then, that this course is due to the

of the royal tiger, might have led to the supposition, that

one of those great changes in the distribution of climate, tidal currents flowing at the period from a northerly to and its sudden change, had occurred, by which the bones a southerly direction, something in the same way as the of pachydermata, found buried in the frozen soil of Sibegreat Atlantic currents flow at the present day. This ria, have been formerly explained.-Humboldt Asie Cenwould equally account for the direction of the marine as trale, Tom. I. p. 339-312. for the cataclysmic deposits, if we take also into account as modifying agents the then existing valleys and moun

Gleanings. tain ridges.

SERVING THE PEOPLE.—All who serve the people are As the marine transport of boulders must have taken

poorly paid. To be very usefully employed is to be degradplace at a period anterior to the ultimate and complete ed. A shoemaker is a snob; a tailor is a snip, and the ninth elevation of the present dry laud, it is not necessary to part of a man; a weaver is something worse than a tailor; suppose that the erratic blocks now found on the slopes

a ploughman is a bumpkin; a smith a mere bellows blower; of many mountains were borne through the intervening

a carpenter is chips; a sailor (for whom, nevertheless, there valleys and carried over the tops of mountains to be de

prevails a kind of affectionate feeling, as if he were a help

less child,) is Jack Tar; a soldier is a lobster, or jonny raw;, prosited on their farther sides. We may rather suppose and a servant, particularly if he be very useful, is a flunkey. that the transport was made before the elevation of the The services of all these classes are indispensable. We lower mountains, and that the erratic blocks preserved could neither be waited upon, defended, lodged or clothed their relative position on the raised surfaces. Thus, in without them; yet they are poorly paid and harshly treatthe case of Mont Blanc and the Jura, we have here in ed. Magistrates pounce upon them for every indiscretion, the first instance the elevated primary ridge of Mont

and stringent laws hold them to their duty. The harder Blanc, with a gradually sloping declivity of 100 miles,

the occupation, generally, the worse it is paid.- Douglas

Jerrold. over which the granite fragments of the mountain are

EDUCATION IN FRANCE AND IN ENGLAND.—Need we ask profusely scattered by the tidal force of the occan,

if Great Britain possesses institutions like these.--Where Afterwards, at the distance of 50 miles, the secondary

have we a NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION devised by lelimestone mountain of the Jura is elevated, carrying up- gislative wisdom, and sustained by legislative liberality? on its heaving sides the granite masses which are now England cannot boast even of its skeleton, or of its sha-' found resting on its exposed surface, while a hollow val. dow. In one place we see the schools of the Church, in ley and the Lake of Geneva lie between.

another the schools of Dissenters, and throughout the That the marine transport of erratic blocks may be

kingdom numerous establishments founded by the piety

and munificence of our forefathers. In Ireland we have a accomplished by the agency of water, we think cannot

national system of education which the nation does not rebe disputed, since we have evident proofs of such now

cognize-denounced by the Established Church, and but in action. That a mixture of clay and water is a still partially accepted by the Roman Catholics. In Scotland more powerful agent, the above experiments may demon- we have a system of parochial schools, paid by the heritors, strate; and the almost universal existence of this clay and controlled by the Establishment; yet ejecting teachers, along with the drifted boulders, renders it more than pro

and rejecting candidates, who refuse to conform to its dis-bable that this universal juxtaposition had some connec

cipline and worship ;-and everywhere in the three king

doms we have rival seminaries—teaching different truths tion with their transport. The grinding and scratching -inculcating different principles—and educating in politiof the subjacent rocks can also be satisfactorily account- cal and religious antagonism, the generous youth who are ed for by this mode of transportation, as well as other to be the future instructors, and lawgivers, and defenders circumstances accompanying the diluvial deposits. of the empire.- Where are our NATIONAL UNIVERSITIES

regulated by Parliamentary statute-strong in the unity GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF THE TIGER, &c.—I shall con- of their doctrine and their discipline-conferring their liclude this account, says Humboldt, of the Altai-Kolyvan, terary honours upon the men that merit them-inviting to or Altai, properly so called, limited on the east by the me- their chairs of office the genius and learning of the age; ridians of 88° or 890, by recalling a zoological fact well

and seeking no other test but that of fearing God, and worthy of attention. The study of fossil bones has led us honouring the King? Alas! where are they to be found ! to compare the distribution of certain types of forms with Not surely in the two noble institutions which stand in

hoary antiquity and unreformed grandeur on the Cam and the Isis-mighty in intellectual power and glorious memo. ries--yet rejoicing in ancient and exclusive privilege, and politely shutting their portals against every class but their own:-Not in the colleges of the metropolis, chartered by the State, yet depending on the casual bounty of private munificence:-Not in the University of Dublin, admitting to its offices and its rich Fellowships but a small portion of the nation : Certainly not in the Universities of Scotlandoverborne in the metropolis by the incubus of munioipal control;— degraded in the provinces by internal abuse, and ecclesiastical domination; and impoverished everywhere by self-plunder, or national parsimony:-We do recognize them, however, if not in the maturity of their fruit, at least in the freshness of their germ, in the Irish COLLEGES, those light-towers of knowledge which a wise government has erected in a dark land; aud which, we trust, will be the harbingers of a Grand Intellectual Reform, conferring the noblest of all political rights--the franchise of a liberal and religious education upon every subject of the British empire.

But while it is necessary to educate our youth in national institutions, under men of undoubted genius and learning, and with a high yet liberal tone of religious feeling, there is yet another duty which belongs to the state-a duty which it owes to the world as well as to itself. The arts and the sciences demand from every government a more than paternal care. Statute cannot create them by its enactments: nor can royal patronage allure them by its favours. They must be the slow growth of institutions which the state supports, and the sovereign honours. When creative genius has completed its apprenticeship in the schools, it must develope its energies in the closet for still higher functions, or it must exhaust them in the ordinary routine of professional labour. Hence it becomes the duty of the state to endow national institutions like the Royal Institute of France, and the Imperial Academies of Science at St Petersburg and Berlin, where men of the highest attainments in science, literature, and the arts, shall be incorporated, and unite their talents in advancing knowledge, and in aiding Government in every enterprise where theoretical or practical skill is required. Such has been the policy of almost every nation in Europe but our own. The Royal Societies of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin, have been, to a certain degree, substitutes for the endowed institutions of the Continent; while the Geological, the Astronomical, the Linnean, and other societies, supply the defects of the parent establishment. But noble as these institutions are accomplished as are the men that guide them, and valuable as are the transactions which they publish, there is yet a want of unity in their efforts, and, to a certain extent, an antagonism in their pursuits. When the noble patrons of science, and its opulent amateurs, stand in the same rank with its highest functionaries and its most active cultivators, their joint action must be feeble, however common and well-directed be its aim. A heterogeneous body is as defective in moral as it is in physical power; and there is a reaction among its elements, which tends to corruption or decay. Cabals will arise-incapable office-bearers and unqualified members will be elected-a system of favouritism will spring up--the rewards of invention and discovery will be improperly bestowed-and men of high principle will retire, in disgust, from an institution thus mismanaged and dishonoured.

If private associations, then, thus characterised, have hitherto failed to accomplish what national institutions everywhere secure, how unsuitable must they be in the present day, when science, in its theoretical and practical embrace, has grasped all the great interests of the state, and is the only safe guide to their future development, and their final sufety. With steam-ships on every sea-with steam-power in every farm and factory-with a system of agriculture leaning upon science as its mainstay-with a net-work of railways demanding for their perfection the highest efforts of mechanical skill-the time has doubtless arrived when government should summon to its aid, and unite in its service, all the theoretical and practical wisdom of the country. An institution thus composed would not merely combine the living talent which is in active exercise around us: it would concentrate what is scattered, and rouse what is dormant; and under its fostering wing, as the home and the temple of science, we might expect, without the excitement of a revolution, to nurse a race of sages, like the Baillys, the Carnots, the Cuviers, and the Fouriers of another land---men who united the characters of the statesinan, the hero, and the philosopher, and who, in the hour of danger, were the best defenders of their

country. In the erection of a temple like this, our present patrons and amateurs of science would either occupy an honorary place in the pediment which adorns it, or crown as ornamental capitals the Corinthian pillars upon which it rests.----North British Review.

True HEROISM.- The following affecting anecdote is given in Marshall's Military Miscellany.

In the year 1795, a serious disturbance broke out in Glasgow among the Breadalbane Fencibles. Several men having been confined, and threatened with corporal pun. ishment, considerable discontent and irritation were excited among their comrades, which increased to such violence, that when some men were confined in the guard-house, a great proportion of the regiment rushed out, and forcibly released the prisoners. This violation of military discipline was not to be passed over, and accordingly measures were taken to secure the ringleaders, and bring them to punishment. But so many were equally concerned, that it was difficult to fix on the proper subjects for punishment. The soldiers being made sensible of the nature of their misconduct, and the consequent punishment, four men voluntarily offered themselves to stand trial, and suffer the sentence of the law, as an atonernent for the whole. They were accordingly marched to Edinburgh Castle, tried, and condemned to be shot. Three of them were, however, afterwards reprieved, and the fourth was shot on Musselburgh sands.

On the march to Edinburgh a circumstance occurred, the more worthy of notice, as it shows a strong principle of honour, and fidelity to his word, and to his officer, in a common Highland soldier ; and while it reminds the reader so strongly of that fine incident in the classical story of Damon and Pythias, as almost to appear like an inferior imitation of that high act of heroic honour and self-devotion, it exemplifies this truth, that a fine sense of what is honourable and sublime in human conduct is not confined to any particular class of men, but is as inherent to the baseborn peasant as to the nobly born and the nobly bred. One of the men stated to the officer commanding the party, that he knew what his fate would be, but that he had left business of the utmost importance to a friend, in Glasgow, which he wished to transact before his death; that as to himself, he was fully prepared to meet his fate; but with regard to his friend, he could not die in peace unless the business was settled; and that if the officer would suffer him to return to Glasgow, a few hours there would be sufficient; that he would join him before he reached Edinburgh, and then march as a prisoner with the party: the brave Highlander added, “You have known me since I was a child; you know my country and kindred; and you may believe I shall never bring you to any blame by a breach of the promise I now make, to be with you in full time to be delivered up to the castle." This was a startling proposal to the officer, who was a judicious, humane man, and knew perfectly his risk and responsibility in yielding to such an extraordinary application. However, his confidence was such, that he complied with the request of the prisoner, who returned to Glasgow at night, settled his business, and left the town before daylight, to redeem his pledge. He took a long circuit to avoid being seen, and being apprehended as a deserter, and sent back to Glasgow, as probably his account of his officer's indulgence would not have been credited. In consequence of this caution, and the lengthened march through woods, and over hills, by an unfrequented route, there was no appear. ance of him at the hour appointed. The perplexity of the officer when he reached the neighbourhood of Edinburgh may be easily imagined. He moved forward slowly, but no soldier appeared; and unable to delay any longer, he marched up to the castle, when, as he was delivering over the prisoners, but before any report was given in, Macmartin, the absent soldier, rushed in among his fellowprisoners, pale with anxiety and fatigue, and breathless with apprehension of the consequences in which his delay might have in volved his benefactor. In whatever light the conduct of Major Colin Campbell, the officer, may be considered by military men, his confidence in human nature must endear him to the hearts of the humane; and it cannot but be wished that the Highlandman's magnanimous self-devotion had been taken as an atonement for his own misconduct, and that of his brother prisoners. It was not from any additional guilt that the man who suffered was shot: it was determined that only one should suffer, and the four were ordered to draw lots, when the fatal chance fell upon William Sutherland, who was executed accordingly.

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BALANCE OF TRADE, FOR AND AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, | The Disruption, a Scottish Tale of Recent Times.

A Scotch novel, introducing the disruption of the Statistical View of the Commerce of the United States, for Scottish Church, and her Majesty's first visit to Scotthe nine months commencing 1st October 1842, and ter

land. The hero, James Duncanson, is a divinity student, minating 30th of June 1843; showing the amount of Ex

who jeopardies the temporal support derived from an ports and Imports to and from each foreign country, and the balance of trade for and against the United States

old aunt, and the hand of Miss Montgomery, by his adwith each of those countries.

herence to non-intrusion principles,-he secures both in the long-run, and settles down a voluntary. The loves

of Robin Affleck and Jean Brown, who are of the Cuddie Exports. Iru ports.

against United States. United States. Headrigg and Jenny Dennison school, forin one sub-plot,

and the vagaries of a visionary called Bacon, form ano. dollars. dollars. dollars. dollars.

ther. The author has skill in conception, but wants deRussia... 386,7931 742,803


licacy of finish. We would advise him, however, to try Prussia.... 240,369

240,369 Sweden and dep.. 67,762 278,674)


again-he evinces power and felicity in dealing with the Denmark and dep. 27,865 485,285 342,580

Scottish character, much after the manner of Galt, alHolland and dep. 2,370,884 815,451 1,555,433

though with little of his pathos. In selecting his subject Belgium ... 1,970,709 171,695 1,799,014

he has chosen an attractive, but difficult one,-as it reHanse Towns 3,291,932 920,865 2,371,067

quires the utmost skill to clothe contemporary events in England and dep. 46,901,83328,978,58217,923,253

fictional drapery. France and dep... 12,472,453 7,836,137 4,636,316 Hayti 653,370 898,447

245,077 The British Quarterly Review. No. v. Spain and depen.. 3,953,694 6,980,504

3,026,810 The strength of this Review lies in its theological artiPortugal and dep. 168,534 71,369 97,165

cles, of which there are several good ones in this number. Italy, Sicily, and

There is an article on Carlyle's Cromwell, entering fairSardinia 920,741 564,228 356,513

ly into the character of this remarkable man, who beTrieste

597,178 72,957 506,221 Turkey.. 176,479 182,854

6,375 gins now only, in these latter days, to assume the charTexas. 142,953 445,399

302,446 acter of a hero. We have here too, Dobbin's argument Mexico.. 1,471,937 2,782,406

1,310,469 against Strauss, followed by an account of the present Central America.. 52,966 132,167)

79,201 condition of the German Catholic Church, and the life Venezuela... 583,502 1,191,280

607,778 and character of Melanchthon. In science--there is a New Granada. 161,953 115,733 46,220

brief summary of the leading principles of meteorology, Brazil 1,792,288 3,947,658

2,155,370 Argentine Repub. 262,109 793,488


and an article on the law of development in nature. Cisalpine Repub.. 295,125 121,753 173,372

Corn and Bullion, the Tariff, and a series of short Chili. 1,049,463 857,556 191,907

well-digested minor criticisms on books, make up the Peru


135,563 contents of this sober, sedate, but able periodical. S. Amer. generally 98,713


Indeed there is nothing more wonderful in the present China.

2,418,958 4,385,566 1,966,608 day, than the large amount of sound, learned, and acute Europe, generally 36,206


intelleet employed in the various departments of periodiAsia, generally.... 521,157 445,637 75,520 Africa, generally. 303,249 353,274


cal literature, as well as of the equally large amount of W.Ind. generally. 95,537)


frivolous, superficial, and trifling., South Seas.... 77,766 45,845 31,921

Tales from the German. By H. ZSCHOKKE. Second Uncertain Places.



Series. London: 1846. Total. 84,346,480 64,753,799 30,577,327 10,984,646

An American translation, by Parke Godwin. The first series, “ The Sleep Walker,” partakes of that mysticism so prevalent in German literature. Some of the

other tales are in a soberer strain. Leaves from the Literature.

Journal of a poor Vicar in Wiltshire, is a domestic story History of England, during the Thirty Years' Peace. possessing considerable graphic character, and of which, A new serial from the unwearying pen of Mr Knight,

in a future number we shall perhaps give an abridge

ment. the author-publisher. The title and idea has likely been antithetically suggested by Schiller's Thirty Years' War. Wordsworth has shown that poetry needs not the aid of

Proceedings of Societies. blood and tumult to give it either vivacity or variety,and we are much mistaken if Mr Knight does not also

SHAKSPEARE SOCIETY.--At the last meeting of the counshow that history will be none the less romantic and

cil, on Tuesday, some entirely new and very curious docu

ments were produced, not merely illustrative of our early stirring that it does not track the hoof-prints of grim- stage, but most especially explanatory of some passages in visaged war. In the small portion of the history to the life of Richard Burbage, who is known to have been which the first part introduces us, we have clear indica- the actor of nearly all Shakspeare's heroes in tragedy, par, tions that Mr Knight does not intend to give a dry

ticularly of Lear, Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, and Richard chronological narrative, but rather a racy historical

the Third. These papers were recently discovered in one story, with facts to inform, and incident to enliven, much

of the offices of the Court of Chancery, and were most

kindly communicated to the director of the Shakespeare in the way that one might conceive such a work would

Society, who is at this moment printing the biographies of be done were we to have the statistics of Porter, com- the twenty-six performers enumerated in the folio of 1623, bined with the rhetoric of Macaulay. The rich mine of as the principal actors in Shakspeare's plays. The discobiographical writing which has been accumulating for very was most opportune, and the work will be ready for the last thirty years, appears to have been laboriously

delivery to the members very shortly. consulted, and we have no doubt a valuable and inter- HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND.“ esting work will be the result.

On the Feeding of Sheep on “ Whins and Broom" as a cure

for, and a preventative of “ Rot." Heath's New Gallery of British Engravings.

At the monthly ineeting of this Society, held on WednesNot “new” in the common acceptation of the term, as

day the 4th inst., an interesting paper was read from Mr the title-page itself informs us that the plates are “selec

Boyd of Innerleithen, Peebleshire, on the planting of whins tions,” but of course new in their present shape. That

and broom for the winter and spring feeding of sheer.

After pointing out the importance which he considered rethey have been good in their time we doubt not, but now

sulted from such a mode of management, whether in rethey give evidence of what in Scotland is called the

gard to the condition of the animal, its powers of lamb" worse of the wear.”

ing and rearing, and the state and value of its fleece, the

author announced the startling and important fact, if such can be substantiated by future experience, that “whin feeding, as thus recommended, was not only a specific cure, but a positive preventative' of that curse to the store farmers, the rot, when occurring in the early part of the season. In proof of this, the following case was adduced: Mr Somner of West Morriston, in Berwickshire, on taking possession of his farm, found that his flocks (Leicesters and Cheviots) were liable to rot, from the nature of the pasture. Being aware that whin feeding had an effect on this dis. ease, he established a nursery of the plant, by means of which, and through the agency of his shepherds in sowing it, he soon raised a sufficient supply of whins.

From the time that the sheep had access to them, "the disease disappeared,” till the year 1837-38, when a severe frost cut them down; “the rot then reappeared to an alarming extent, till the whins were restored, when it agriin vanished.”

When we come to consider the destructive ravages of this “most ancient" of the diseases of sheep, and above all, call to painful recollection the sweeping destruction of sheep and lambs that took place so recently as the winter of 1830-31, when, by Parliamentary report, above two millions were destroyed, it becomes a matter of national importance to learn even the approximation to a single fact, as to the management of, or encountering a disease so fatal in its results.

In looking over the annals of the natural history of this disease, no defined mode of management, feeding, or treatment, is any where to be found, and, with the exception of our very general ideas and information, that a well drained and healthy pasturage, not overstocked, together with the occasional exhibition of common salt when the rot threatens, or actually exhibits, we are perfectly in the dark as to those principles on which the disease ought to be treated and managed

It is to be regretted that in the above report no mention is maile of the condition and nature of the pasturage when the farm was first entered on; the improvements, if any, that were made upon it; the state in which it was when the rot exhibited itself; the nature of the seasons that preceded and accompanied it; and above all, the general management of the flocks pursued by his informant. Without such information, it would be premature to consider the therapeutic action of any remedy, or any particular mode of management, as possessing specific or even preventative powers; but as the recommendation is simple and safe in its principle, and easy, in the majority of cases, in its application, it is unquestionably worthy of a more careful and extensive trial amongst our store farmers.

But we turn from these to scenes which touch the feelings and emotions; or which awaken the imagination to visions of what has been done and suffered in human life.

Here we have a domestic tragedy-The distraining for rent of Wilkie—which at one glance tells a tale of deep distress and mental anguish: How feeble were our conceptions of this picture, even from the finest prints of it so well known. Every group and figure is full of the most unequivocal expression, and the details how truthful and calmly managed! Next we turn to a picture of gorgeous beauty and surpassing loveliness, Cleopatra on the Cydnus, by Ettey, beautiful in conception, rich and mellow, and chaste in its tone-a picture that would demand, and would well requite hours and hours of study. These two paintings display the mellowed tints of time though new to our “ North Countrie." At that corner sits our old boyish friend Robinson Crusoe, by Frazer, admirably conceived and executed. How solemnly the poor care-worn solitary sits at his dinner board, surrounded by his dog and cats, and parrot, and goat, in his goat-skin dress, and cap, and in his self-built hut, with its cautiously contrived doorway, look. ing up into the blue sky and distant mountains, hemmed round by the vast ocean which shuts out from him the world! We recollect of old a Crusoe by this same artist, excellent too, but we like the prezent better. Turn we a little aside and another artist, Munro, shows the same Crusoe on his raft, and a calm soft and beautiful sea stretching out before him, with an island in the distance, his only hope and solace.

A bevy of happy, laughing, rosy-faced urchins, now meets our view-it is Harvey's “Schule Scaling," and the dominie, a real bona fide dominie of the old school, lagging behind to take to task some 'urchin delinquent. Nor is that scene in the Greyfriar's Churchyard, by Johnstone, with its group of depressed and disheartened covenanters, under guard of a stern soldier, to be rapidly passed at present without regret. A deep eastern morning gleam, and stalwart Circassian in the foreground Sir W. Allan, invites also a passing look of admiration. Hunt the Slipper, by Maclise — Peter the Hermit preaching the Crusades, by Scott-the presentation of Samuel to Eli, by Lauder-with numerous other historical pieces of no common merit, crowd upon us, and put in claims for future inspection.

If we turn from these scenes of life and human action, we have the ever fresh and simple scenes of nature to call up our fondest sympathies. Behold before you, wide and fully displayed, "a Highland Landscape”-a calm and still lake pouring its waters into a rich lower valley, by a soft gushing rivulet-a range of soft blue mountains fading into the distance, and that hazy, soft, yet perfectly airy and mist-clouded sky, which only a Maculloch can depict with all its natural tints and lineaments, Bothwell Castle on the Clyde, by the same pencil, is also a rich and laboured scene. Cooper, on the other side, scatters his cattle over a soft-toned, beautiful landscape, with much of the art of Cuyp. Sea views, by Williams-river scenes, by Crawford-Highland mountain scenery, with much of nature in them, by the fair touch of Miss Stoddart, and many other really beautiful selections from the profuse stores of nature, by various artists, arrest the attention in almost every corner. We have said nothing of three pictures by Turner--we are almost afraid to do so—or to confess that we see art and fancy, and even beauty in them --but nothing of nature. We know this opinion will be scouted, but we speak honestly. There is one picture which caught our eye from the first, and now we linger by it at the last-the Enterkin Leadhills (Harvey). A piece of actual nature is here, yet touched with a fairy brush--a long, narrow, sloping, green smooth gorge, running up a mountain side, with a streamlet winding its tortuous way through it-a few scraggy birches and alders, the sun gleaming and lighting up bright green spots here and there, with groups of sheep feeding in the hollows dark shelving rocks on the foreground, out of which spring the tortuous branches of stunted trees-a most difficult scene to attempt, yet wrought into a perfect gem. So much for a general view of one of the richest exhibitions of the bye-past twenty years. We 'hope to enter into fuller particulars on a future occasion.

LONDON ACADEMY.-On Tuesday, the 10th inst., a general assembly of the academicians of the Royal Academy of Arts was held in their apartments in Trafalgar-square, when Thomas Webster, Patrick M‘Dowell, and John Rogers Herbert, Esqrs., were duly elected Royal Academicians, in the room of Sir Augustus Wall Callcott, Robert Smirke, and Thomas Phillips, Esqrs., deceased.

University and Educational Intelligence.

PACHLITIES FOR THE ADMISSION OF YOUNG MEN TO HOLY ORDERS.-- The University of Durham has made provision for facilitating the admission and shortening the period of residence necessary for obtaining a licence in theology. Several rules have been published to this effect.

We understand that the Rev. M. Martin, A.M., teacher of mathematics in Madras College, St Andrews, has been appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy in Marischall College, Aberdeen.

Fine Arts. EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL SCOTTISH ACADEMY.-The first day of the exhibition! What a casting off of this "mortal coil,” to leave the dull common place, crowded streets, and enter the pillared dome of the Institution! A fairy scene opens before us. The cherished fancies of years, the realized visions of the imagination—the labour and anxious study of weeks and months, are all here displayed in rich and gorgeous arrangement.

The eye at first glances over the varied hues, and glittering gildings with bewilderment, and some time elapses before vision is sobered down to the individual attractions ranged around. First of all, many well-known portraits gaze upon us with all the sparkling animation of life. Here are the calm, manly, and truthful forms of Colvin Smith, breathing almost a vital reality, here the somewhat more etherealized countenances of Watson Gordon. The expressive lineaments of Mackenzie, s. Watson, and the soft and sweet forms of Musgrove.

News of the voteek.

THE MODERN ATHENIANS.—Modern Athens, as her citi. REID CONCERT.-The Annual Concert in commemoration

zens love to designate the northern metropolis, seems for of the late Colonel Reid, who bequeathed a handsome legacy

some years past to have become deeply imbued with the to the University of Edinburgh, for the purpose of insti

spirit which was so remarkabiy prevalent in the glorious tuting a chair of music, and of holding an annual and pub

city of Minerva of old, when that justly venerated shrine lic concert, took place on Friday. For the last two years,

of all that elevates and ennobles human nature was rapidly in consequence of the manner in which this once delightful

sinking to a premature decay beneath the galling yoke of musical reunion was got up, the attendance was so small as

the stranger. “The Athenians," says St Paul, “spend to prove decided failures. This year, however, a new me

their time in nothing else but either to tell or to hear some thod was adopted to secure a good house. Each of the

new thing." We know of no other theory that will acprofessors received thirty-five gratis tickets to distribute

count for the fact, that nearly all the strolling preachers of amongst his friends; and, from the mode of distribution

mesmerism, phrenology, hydropathy, homeopathy, and the

other novelties which the fertile brains of German bookthus adopted, the admission was at a high premium. One worthy professor, feeling that the scheme of the Senatus

worms have poured upon the world, have their home in

"Auld Reekie." So writes a scribe in the Dublin Journal was anything but consistent with the nature and spirit of Colonel Reid's bequest, divided by lot amongst his students

of Medicine. the tickets that fell to his share. If this national festival

THE GREEK TRAGEDY.-Mr Charles Kemble is at preis to be resolved into an annual chamber concert, for the

sent engaged in giving a series of Shakspearian readings at exclusive benefits of the families and friends of the profes

the Manchester Athenæum. The course was interrupted sors, and at the expense of the interests of the University,

by Mr Kemble having received the commands of her Mait is full time that inquiry be made into the why and be

jesty to read Antigone before the court on Tuesday evening. cause of such prerogatives. The newspaper reports give

MR H, AINSWORTH.-Mr Harrison Ainsworth has rethe usual amount of praise to the performances of the even- sumed the editorship of Ainsworth's Magazine, which he ing, but there appears to have been no unusual stars beyond was understood to have relinquished some months ago, the ordinary lights of the orchestra.

when he entered upon the editorship of Colburn's Nero SUICIDE AT EDINBURGH.-Several cases of suicide have Monthly. been consummated, by parties throwing themselves over TEMPERANCE IN NORWAY.—The Swedish government, the parapet of the North Bridge of Edinburgh ; and in order to put a stop to the increasing progress of druna proposal was made by one of the authorities to erect kenness in Norway, has appointed a missionary for each of an iron railing for the prevention of these catastro- the four provinces of that kingdom, to travel through them phies; but this was found, on several accounts, to be im- preaching forbearance from strong liquors, and promoting practicable. In cases of insanity, there is always a ten- the establishment and extension of temperance societies. dency in the parties affected to avail themselves of the Compensation is again offered to all such distillers as shall facilities for suicide which have been taken advantage of by resign their licences for making brandy, and entirely relinothers. The suicides committed by leaping from the Lon- quish their business. don monument are proof of this. If a man be determined PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.-Complaints have sometimes been to commit suicide, he can "his quietus make with a bare

made regarding the slow progress in this country of physibodkin;" but there is another class, not pre-resolved on cal geography, but we are at last making head. Professor self-destruction, in whom the feeling will be called forth Johnston announced at a late meeting of the Agricultural by the sight of any peculiar facility, such as a low parapet Chemistry Association, that the potato disease was affected ---a feeling which will receive additional strength by the both by altitude and latitude, and that he would show this consideration that others have already gone over that same

by a coloured map. Mr Murphy's geographical labours parapet. The Dean Bridge at Edinburgh is of higher ele- will therefore be superseded, as we will now have a Mur. vation than the North Bridge; and a determined suicide phy Atlas, without the possessive case. would resort to it as the best place for quietly taking his DR WORDSWORTH.-We regret to announce the death of murderous flight; but suicides are unknown there. Why? this gentleman. He was a brother of the poet Wordsworth, Because the people who leap over bridges do so on the spur and was the author of several esteemed classical works. of the moment,-the high parapet of the Dean does not He was also the predecessor of Dr Whewell in the mastertempt them,-or if it had a low one, its distance from the ship of Trinity College. centre of crime and misery is such, that cool reflection would be excited before the goal was reached. Two

VESUVIUS.—The cone of Mount Vesuvius, say the Nearuffians quarrel in the High Street, or one of them beats though no eruptions have taken place. Down the whole

politan journals, continues to rise higher and higher, alhis wife--the North Bridge is hard by; and in drunken buf- of the northern side of the Abruzzas, as far as Loretto, foonery, or in wild despair, a leap from it is spoken of—no

shocks of earthquake have been felt. interval elapses--the parties are at the spot in a few minutes--and the flight is taken, unless passengers interfere.

A CRYSTAL CABINET.-They are at present constructing, High parapets on the North Bridge, or on all the bridges

on the top of the Royal Observatory in Paris, a study of Europe, will not prevent suicides, but it would tend to

cabinet, the walls of which, as well as the ceiling, are of diminish their number, and that should be enough for sen

pure crystal. It is in this chamber that the justly celesible men.

brated M. Arago will work to watch the march of the ENTERPRISE OF SCOTTISH BOOKSELLERS. Scottish book- stars, planets, and comets, by the assistance of a monster sellers have often crossed the border in the shape of "fly

telescope, which is now being made. It is expected that ing stationers,” but now they are planting their standards

this new transparent observatory will be terminated by the in the metropolis itself. Messrs Blackie and Fullarton have

month of July next, and will be a chef d'ouvre of art. long had English establishments. More recently Messrs Bonn v. Boque.-In this case, which was an application Blackwood opened a branch in London. Mr Collins of on behalf of Mr Bohn, the publisher, for an injunction to Glasgow has done so too, and now Mr Johnstone, the emi- restrain Mr Bogue, publisher, from persisting in publishing nent Edinburgh religious publisher, is about to do the same. his edition of the Life of Lorenzo de Medici," on the We trust these gentlemen will not be long in having their ground of its containing extensive portions of Mr Roscoe's example imitated, as Scottish literature has received but work on the same subject, of which Mr Bohn claims the scrimp justice at the hands both of English booksellers and copyright. His Honour the Vice-Chancellor gave judgEnglish critics.

ment on Thursday. His Honour said that it was confessed STATISTICS OF Pertu Prison.--These tables, made up in the advertisement to Mr Bogue's edition, that the parts by the keeper for the year 1845, afford a gratifying contrast selected were the really valuable parts of Mr Roscoe's with previous years as to the amount of crime. The num- work, and certainly wherever they are used, Mr Roscoe's ber of persons committed in 1843 was 715, which in 1844 “illustrations” are referred to. Confession, however, said fell to 607, and the last year has decreased to 538, where- his Honour, may be a proof of honesty at the time it is of 307 were males, and 168 females. No less than 24 of made, but it neither excuses nor justifies. He thought it the persons were twice convicted within the year, 6 three was an extraordinary case. Where slight alterations from times, and 3 four times. The committals for poaching, the illustrations had been made, nothing for the better which in 1843 were as high as 71, were last year so low had been done, but something for the worse. His Honour as 26. The greatest number of prisoners during the year then noted a passage which bore out that observation. He was 92, and the smallest number 40. There were removed should, therefore, certainly grant the injunction. The defor transportation 10, and sent to General Prison 12.- fendant had taken material and valuable parts of the plainNumber of criminal prisoners on 26th January 1845, 65; tiff's work, and knew of it. An action should be brought; on the 26th January 1846, 32-being a reduction of one- but the question whether the defendant should admit the half.

plaintiff's title was reserved for a future day.

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