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The mob, the rabble, the ignoble vulgar, the from the country for want of employment, and for people, the masses, the third estate, are all terms want of sustenance, are forced into our huge and graduating from the lowest estimate up to some- overgrown cities, then the magnified evils become thing of consideration. They are terms which apparent, and some remedial means is forced upon have been used in all ages, generally significant of the consideration of the community. However contempt or inferiority, for with such feelings selfishly we may resist the fact, yet there can be have the few in all times been accustomed to look no doubt that the poor, the ignorant, and even down upon the many. In these times, however, | the vicious, are the children of the community; the masses have acquired power,—they are push and as children they should be treated—not spurning themselves into notice, and from being the ed, or neglected, or persecuted, or starved, through third estate, they bid fair to become the second, or selfish niggardliness, but educated, protected, enfirst. With their growing power they have also couraged, fed, and wiled by the gentlest means demanded attention. No man high in office now, from their erroneous courses, or, if irreclaimable,

-no statesman, judge on the bench, or magistrate guarded and prohibited either from injuring themin his chair, would use such expressions as were selves, or society around them. common on some remarkable occasions in former We have said that the masses are beginning to times. The great gulf between the two is some demand something of this kind for themselves what broken. A distant dignity and reserve on now; and how is this demand responded to? In the one hand-a fawning submission, or surly and some quarters the idea of bringing back the "good rancorous defiance on the other, are equally laid old times” is prevalent. In fancy they call up thie aside, and man meets man upon somewhat more ad merry Christmas gambols—the plum-puddings, vantageous terms,-that of a mutual wish to regard the roasted beeves, the tankards of ale, the games each other as beings of the same species. Yet still of bowls and skittles; and say, or even sing in how little does one half of the world know or care sundry songs, O! if we had but the good old days about the other. In our crowded cities how total again, when the jolly-faced, laughing peasantry is the separation between one class of men and the ate, and drank, and danced, and sang, obedient, other. While in a low and obscure alley the noto submissive, and happy! rious Burke was committing unheard-of crimes,

Vain wish, those times were never,--airy dreams which made all Europe shudder with horror and astonishment, at a few yards distance men were

Imposed a gay delirium for a truth." going about their ordinary employments,-within No, no; any man who coolly and calmly investia few hundred paces the courts of justice were gates into the true condition of former times, will sitting in solemn deliberation, and around, the gay find that all this is mere foolery. There never was and fashionable were flitting in ever-joyous maze. a time in which the average mass of the people If we take one of those high domiciles, or lunds, were better fed, or more regularly fed, than the for which the northern metropolis is conspicuous, present; or, at all events, a time in which tlie it will form even now, but would have done so means of good feeding are within the reach of all the better in past times, an epitome of the world. In able-bodied, the industrious, and the prudent. Not the middle and lower stories live the families of but that there are great, and oftentimes much industry, sobriety, and of comfortable and social poverty, and suspension of a demand for labour; domestic virtues in the garrets above live the but such has been in all times, and in the good old sons of dull penury, and hopeless and long-pro times too, when thousands of beggars wandered tracted poverty-while below are the dens of over the country, besieged the gates of monasteries, drunkenness, squalid misery, and every species of and felt themselves happy if they got a crust to hardened wickedness. How many thousands of eat, or a bone to gnaw. No, no,—the mere feeding the gay and opulent walk or drive out every day of the masses, like so many stalled oxen, will not -how many glide through the crowded streets, do. We hear so much of puddings, and joints, and intent on business or pleasure, and day after day cans of ale, and brown stout, from sentimental return home, ignorant that a thousand sighs of writers, daily, weekly, and monthly, that one misery have breathed across their paths, or that would think such fare was the very essence of all they have been in the immediate neighbourhood of

good—the long-sought elixir of moral virtue and the abodes of vice and misery, more frightful than happiness. Far be it from us to think that a the dens of the tiger or hyena.

starving man, ragged, and shivering in the breeze, But such things cannot be long hid. The spots and with an empty stomach, can in the first place of misery, when scattered over a wide space, may be effectually addressed or cheered but through escape detection; but when an overflowing popula- the medium of the starved sensations; but there is tion, such as that of Britain, accumulates—when something more than addressing the animal sensathe great mass of the people, driven as it were tions,—than even cultivating the intellect and the THE TORCH, NO. ix.

FEB. 28, 1846.

Sat for the picture, and the poet's band,
Imparting substance to an empty shade,

taste,—there must be a gaining of the heart also, I have fees. I think that by the principle of doing before the seeds of moral rectitude will spring up | all the good for them, you do a partial and ephem

eral good. I might enlist, perhaps, a sufficiently and flourish.

effective body of auxiliaries to give me annual subWe have glanced at the scenes of vice which

scriptions to pay a salary for the schoolmaster, as may be, and in reality are, enacting every day also to defray the whole expense of the architectural and every night within a few yards of the homes apparatus, including both a church and school. I of domestic peace and propriety; we could also

might be able, I say, to do all that; and yet I would

not be able to ensure their continuance. No doubt sketch some of those intellectual dens, if they

the church and the schonls would stand for a cenmay so be called, where delusive ideas for the

tury; but I would not be able to ensure their conmind are regularly doled out day after day, in all tinuance for years, not having the means to defray the various forms of cheap pamphlet or volume the whole maintenance of the schoolmaster and of where vice in all its tortuous forms is so gilded up

the minister, or the current annual expenses of the as to look like virtue and heroism, and where the

concern. Accordingly, I am most anxious to en

list the people in the cause, that they may take a most delusive doctrines, and the most self-sufficient

share in the matter, and calling upon them to assist dogmas, are presented to evoke the supremacy of by their weekly payments is the very means calcureason. Some years ago, in one of our largest ma lated to effect that end, and by so doing you effect nufacturing towns, an individual happened to go

a permanent good on the part of the population. into one of those emporiums to make a small pur

There was enthusiasın,--and a most beneficial

enthusiasm it was,-among the higher classes on chase. It was a Saturday night, and a crowd of

the sile of Lancasterian educatin twenty-five years working men and women were there, for the pur ayo; and very handsome subscriptions were obtainpose of making purchases from among the innu ed, which enabled us to build a large fabric, which, merable bales of infidel pamphlets which were

you are aware, is at present under the superinten

dence of Mr Dun; and in a conversation I had ten piled around, when a person entering, derisively

days ago with Mr Dun, the intelligent master of called out, “ What shall I do to be saved ?” Some

that seminary, he told me that just now it was atone, in a similar tone, immediately responded, tended by 700 scholars. Now suppose we had suc“ Believe in Christ Jesus,” &c., which was the | cumbed to the whining sentimentality that the signal of a universal burst of laughter from the

people were too poor to pay, and that they could sympathizing audience! We might also here paint

do nothing to help themselves, the school would

have dwindled down to nothing. At this school the low theatrical establishments, and the kind of

2d. a-week is paid by nearly all the scholars, and fare there presented to the young and imitative in it is now attended by 700 scholars. Now, this 2d. tellect, but there could be little practical benefit in a-week amounts to 8s. a-year; and 700 scholars at dwelling on such themes as these; we shail rather

2d. 2-week realizes L.280 a-year. Very well, while turn to what is doing at the present time in some of

the higher classes raised the fabric, the continuance

of the school was ensured by the weekly payments the lowest haunts of poverty and ignorance in our

of the general population; and it was much better immediate neighbourhood, and test the utility of to see an interest created in behalf of education these doings with the many sayings which we have among the families around that fabric, which interalluded to above. While some put their whole

est exists to the extent of no less than L.280 a-year, hope of the regeneration of the lowest classes in

than if the continuance of the school hinged on the

support it should receive from the wealthier classes. legislative measures, in liberal grants of money, and

The people are not the worse of being told of what other means originating from a central governinent, we expect from them, and it is but right that they others, again, place their chief reliance on the should be told to a certain extent of their own imaroused and well-directed energies of the people portance. themselves. Of this latter class is Dr Chalmers.

I have the pleasure of announcing the gratifying

fact, that our day-school is now attended by no I think," says he, that a great and radical error in fewer than 250 scholars, -and those chiefly local, the management of our population has just proceed -the West Port has the preference. ed from the idea that they are utterly helpless, and This system of general schooling and churching unable to do anything for themselves. I believe that is a system which, I admit, has conferred the highif you proceed rightly, it will be found that they are est educational and spiritual benefits on one or two able to do a great deal for themselves, and that un of the uppermost strata of society; but in conseless you enlist their co-operation, you will never quence of the lower having been overlooked and achieve anything like a permanent good for them. I neglected, a smouldering tire is now gathering at I know that there is a difference of opinion on this the bottom of the commonwealth, which, if not inet point; and I have to encounter a good deal of sen and counteracted, will explode and upheave all the timentality on the subject. There has been a little | institutions of the country. Go, therefore, to the internal controversy among ourselves, but I stand Grassmarket, we say, and get down to the bottom up most inflexibly on the subject of fees, and think of the pool there,-go to the very humblest of sothese persons ought to pay fees for the education of ciety, and let me see the Christian Church performtheir children. Acting, accordingly, on the princi- ing its functions, and letting down its services to ple, we exact 2d, a-week from the people in the the veriest beggars and blackguards of the comWest Port for the education of their children; and munity. I think I have pretty well convinced the people I ought to state, that we have a girls' school as there that it is a good thing and a right thing to well as a boys' school, and that the girls are taught . Churches and Schools for the Working Classes. An Address by the

not only sewing and knitting, but likewise washRev. Dr Chalmers. 1816.

ing, which I regard as a most useful branch of

education; and I must say, that we have been much With regard to the kind of qualifications necesobliged to a lady, who lately gave us the most op- sary in the clergymen thus labouring, the Doctor portune present of a hundred-weight of soap. We

further remarks. have upwards of a hundred girls at this school, and

It is to the aggressive principle, which the pastor I have no recollection of any thing so sudden, so much per saltcm, as the transition in the aspect of

puts incessantly into operation, and to the activity these girls, from the time of their first raggedness,

of his secondary agents, that I ascribe the chief

success of our undertaking; and I confess it is most as they were found running about the streets in that destitute locality, to the personal cleanliness

cheering to find that the success of our cause de

pends upon nothing so rare as genius, or talent, or and respectability which they now exhibit. Their

transcendent abilities, but upon the assiduities of appearance, indeed, is altogether delightful. I am sure I may appeal to the ladies who are in the habit

Christian worth and Christian principle. Give me

within a stone-throw of the West Port, the most of visiting the school, if there be not an immense

eloquent preacher in the world,--and give me anoimprovement in the aspect and manners of the girls. Now, just consider the prodigious refining

ther within the West Port, who has no pretensions and elevating cast which this is calculated to give

to oratory or eloquence, but who plies the families

with the assiduities of Christian kindness, and I to their whole character. You have heard of baths,

say that the eloquent preacher will not attract onetoo, for the working classes. Well, we also have our district baths. The boys, I may state, have

tenth part of those who will be gathered around

the other by dint of his plain, household ministranot made so large an advance as the girls in point

tions. Upon this, then, I found my anticipations of appearance; but altogether the schools present a most attractive and delightful spectacle. I have

of the success of my plan. Talents are rare; and I been told that a number of the plebeian schools in

should give up the cause of the world's regeneration,

if I thought it hinged upon men's high talents. our city have been abandoned by female visitors,

Grace is diffusible; Christian worth may be brought in virtue of want of personal cleanliness. By the use of baths, this want is counteracted. The truth

down by prayer from heaven upon all. These inis, that there is nothing like going thoroughly to

gredients are capable of being indefinitely multiplied,

and it is by virtue of that Christianity will be difwork; we even take cognizance of the hair-cutting,

fused throughout the mass of the population. But as far as the boys are concerned. We have made a bargain, I don't know that it is a very cheap

look at the present system in Edinburgh. We

want a minister to fill the church; and for this purone,-but we got a hair-dresser to clip the boys'

pose we get the ablest and most eloquent man we heads at eighteen-pence d-dozen-which is at the

can find in Scotland, and when he comes he does rate of three-halfpence a-head. I can just say this

fill the church by his oratory,- but from whence much, that I am sure that the ruder and rawer the

does he fill it ? material is, out of which finished goods are worked,

From previous congregations.

There is no creation of new worshippers; there is a the greater is the triumph of the manufacturing

mere transference of old worshippers from other art; and in this point of view, I would consider it à

places. This is the whole amount of the mere most attractive and inviting circumstance, when

congregational system, with a fine, eloquent, and we recollect that these poor people have all the capacities of human spirits,-that they have talents,

attractive minister; whereas we get a man on the that they have imperishable souls,-that they

territorial principle, whose business is to fill the

church out of the district,—to expatiate among the are on a full level of equality with ourselves in all that is essential to man, and that we have nothing

people through the week, to be a constant attendant to do but to go and do them justice, and to give up

of every sick-bed,- to pray at every dying couch,

to dignify every funeral hy his presence,-and to inthe shameful neglect which we have indulged to

gratiate himself with all the neighbourhood by his wards the lower classes for half a century,—I would

interest in their welfare, and by his attention to say for almost a whole century;-and it is not to be

the religious and moral education of the young; and told to what height of advancement, morally, intellectually, and economically, they are capable of

this is the right way to get new churches filled al

together by new hearers. It grieves me to hear of being raised.

jealousies about raising churches here and there. The Rev. Doctor next proceeded to explain that

There might be jealousies, if we meant to fill a Savings Bank had also been instituted, chiefly

churches at the expense of previously existing confor the girls, though it had also been extended to

gregations; but we do not want that. Our system the boys, and was of great importance in teaching them habits of saving. He read a statement show

is such, that it creates new customers. We make ing that from 3d January to the 230 December the

inroads merely on the out-field population, which

is increasing by thousands every year, in spite of nuinber of depositors was 236, of whom 107 were

all the crowding and bustle we see on the streets boys, and 129 girls,--and that the total sum deposited was L.15, 4s. 1d.; out of which there had

on Sunday, when the bells are ringing for the heen returned in money L.5, 9s. 9d., and in articles

church. of clothing L.5, 18, 3ļd., leaving a balance of L.4,

Now, all this appears to be true and genuine 13s. 04d. A good deal had been expended on shoes practical philanthropy, and, as an example of the and boys' clothing. The evening school is attend working of this system, as introduced more than ed by farther advanced scholars, and the total sum twenty years ago by the same eminent individual, deposited by them between the 5th May and 22d December was L.4, 1ts. 4 d., of which there had

in Glasgow, we subjoin an extract from a report of heen returned L.3, Os. 9 d., leaving a balance of

Mr Gibson, inspector of schools, given in to the L.1, 11s. 6 d. Then, with respect to the Sabbath Committee of Council on Education, in 1845. services, he estimated the forenoon attendance at 1 “I was induced,” says Mr Gibson, after exbetween 60 and 70, and he was happy to say that plaining his reasons, “ to spend much of my time, it was steadily progressing; he estimated the after- when in Glasgow, in the examination of the eduDoon attendance at about 150; and in the evening cational means, and of the schools particularly, there was an overflowing attendance.

provided for the benefit of the very lowest of its population. I was most anxious to ascertain to 'l mers, and denominated by him the influence of what extent the peculiarly enlightened and philo- locality in large towns,' each member of the assosophical views, long since expounded by Dr / ciation undertook to visit, regularly and at stated Chalmers, and to some extent exemplified in ope intervals, so many of the families resident in the ration by him in some of the poorest districts of district, and to endeavour, by friendly intercourse the city, had been acted upon, and to test their with the parents, and affectionate interest in the soundness and practical wisdom by an examination education and general welfare of the children, to of the results of actual experiments. To the de- | bring all under his personal and moral influence. scription of some of these experiments I shall de A missionary, too, was appointed to labour convote a few pages of this report; and, from the stantly among them, to carry to each household narrative, I hope it will appear, that, by a suffi the lessons of Christianity, and at stated times to cient multiplication of similar efforts, the social, assemble in the school-rooin, and address in formal as well as the moral and religious, condition of discourre all who had come under their humanizthese classes of the community might, even in the ing power. course of a single generation, be greatly elevated “The contrast between the present condition of and improved.

this district and its state only a few years ago is “Perhaps the fullest and most satisfactory illus very striking. There then existed, as I have said tration of the practicability of this may be found before, no valuable means of instruction, either in a detailed narrative of the efforts made by a secular or religious. Very many of the adult pofew earnest and philanthropic individuals in the pulation had never enjoyed the opportunity of suburban and manufacturing districts of Wood- acquiring even the ordinary branches of reading side. Before the commencement of their labours, and writing. They were living in the habitual a few years ago, there were, in the immediate | neglect of religious ordinances; and of religious neighbourhood, and among a population consisting truth they were in general profoundly ignorant. almost wholly of poor operatives and their fami Their disregard for the former was so complete, Jies, no means either of secular or religious instruc that, four years ago, only seven persons could be tion. The parents were living in the deepest moral brought to attend a meeting held for the celebradebasement, and the children were growing up in tion of Divine worship; and their aversion to the ignorance of every social and religious duty. To lessons of Christianity was so rooted and so deep, prevent the perpetuation of this state of matters, that, in the course of sixteen months, four missionseveral gentlemen, residing in the neighbourhood, aries abandoned in despair the task of reclaiming or having an interest in the district, began with them from their sordid tastes, and the depraved earnestness and Christian zeal the task of provid. | habits by which they were characterized. The ing educational means suited to the whole popula members of the association, however, hopeful and tion. Week-day and Sabbath schools were esta undiscouraged, persevered, and now these ordinanblished for the children, and all the processes of a ces are regarded by numbers with becoming revehome mission were simultaneously brought to rence, and waited upon with all diligence; these bear upon the parents. Acting on the principle so lessons are listened to with attentive gladnese, earnestly and eloquently expounded by Dr Chal. ' and are productive of their own peaceable fruits."

INHABITANTS OF POLYNESIA. The numerous groups of islands scattered over the with the coral zoophytes, a minute polype, whose sucgreat Pacific Ocean, which is calculated to occupy about cessive myriads have, in the course of ages, raised up one-third of the globe, contain a highly interesting peo- considerable elevations upon the rocky summits of exple, who, being similar in habits, language, and, in all tinct and submerged volcanoes.* The climate, though probability, descent, are classed under the general deno extending over the torrid zone, is mild and salubrious, mination of Polynesians. This vast ocean, studded with from the great extent of surrounding ocean, compared its numerous islands, was first visited by Europeans in to the small and interrupted surface of the land. The the fifteenth century. During that and the succeeding scenery is beautiful, and the soil adapted for all kinds century, several Dutch, Spanish, and English naviga- of fruits and vegetables common to a tropical situation. tors explored this region, and in particular Captain The number of quadrupeds or other animals is, as in all Cook, towards the close of the eighteenth century, visit remote insular situations, extremely limited. The naed many of the groups of islands, and made known to tives, when first discovered, were entirely in a savage the public the habits and customs of the islanders. state, though not in the most degraded degree of that Much interest was doubtless excited on both sidesmon condition. They knew something of the cultivation of the part of the navigators, in their coming upon a new the soil, had tolerable houses, exercised themselves in and hitherto unknown race of human beings; and no fishing, and had loose flowing robes, manufactured from less on the part of the islanders, who had never seen the fibres of the bark of trees. Mr Ellis thus describes such strangers before, and knew not whether they were the general features of the Polynesians:- The islands of men like themselves, or gods descended from superior the Pacific are inhabited by two tribes of men, totally regions to become their guests. These islands are very distinct, and in some respects entirely different from numerous, varying in size from mere points, or detached each other. The most ancient tribe is composed of rocks, to islands of fifty miles in length. They are what are designated Oceanic regroes, who are distinirregularly scattered over the ocean, sometimes clustered guished by the darkness of the skin, smallness of statogether, while not unfrequently single islands are found ture, and particularly by their black, woolly, or crisped at the distance of many hundred miles from any other hair. The other tribe exhibits many of the distinguishland. They are chiefly of basaltic formation, with occa. ing features which belong to the Malays. The negro sionally granite, and not a few almost entirely encrusted |

C. Darwin.

race more properly belong to Australasia, as by them New | white. The ears are large, and the chin retreating or Holland, New Guinea, New Britain, New Caledonia, and projecting, most generally inclining to the latter. The the New Hebrides, are peopled; while, on one of the form of the face is either round or oval, and but very islands still farther to the westward, both tribes take up seldom exhibits any resemblance to the angular form of their abode, and yet remain distinet-the Oceanic negroes the Tartar visage, while their profile bears a most dwelling in the interior and among the mountain fastnesses, striking resemblance to that of the European. Their while those of a fairer complexion form their settlements hair is a shining black or dark brown colour, straight along the shore. In the vicinity of the Friendly Islands but not lank and wiry like that of the American Indian; they appear to be blended. The greater part of Poly- nor, excepting in a few solitary instances, woolly like, nesia seems to be inhabited by those who present in that of the New Guinea, or New Holland negroes. their physical character many points of resemblance to Frequently it is soft and curly, though seldom so fine as the Malays and South Americans, but yet differ materi that of the civilized nations inhabiting the temperate, aily from either, and appear to form an intermediate zones. Mr Anderson* saw a man in Otahia who had, race. Although, with very few exceptions, all the inha- perfectly red hair, a fairer complexion than the rest, bitants of those islands to which the designation of and was spreckled all over with freckles. The females Polynesia is given, exhibit the leading marks of the are smaller in stature, and more delicately formed than. tribe to which they belong, the people of each cluster the males, but on the whole are more robust than the. are distinguished by some minor particulars. The fol females of England. A roundness and fulness of lowing description refers to the inhabitants of the Geor figure, without extending to corpulency, distinguishes gian, Society, and adjacent islands, which, for the sake of the people in general, particularly the females. The chiefs: brevity, are designated Tahitians, or Society Islanders. and persons of hereditary rank are superior in bodily The Tahitians are generally above the middle stature, structure, and dignified deportment, to the common but their limbs are less muscular and firm than those people, arising most probably from superior food, and of the Sandwich Islanders, whom in many respects they exemption from menial duties. The prevailing colour resemble. They are at the same time more robust than of the natives is an olive, a bronze, or a reddish brown, the Marquesans, who are the most light and agile of the equally removed from the jet black of the African and inhabitants of Eastern Polynesia. In size and physical the Asiatic, the yellow of the Malay, and the red or power they are inferior to the New Zealanders, and copper colour of the aboriginal American, frequendy probably resemble in person the Friendly Islanders as presenting a kind of medium between the two latter much as any others in the Pacific, exhibiting, however, colours. Considerable variety, nevertheless, prevails in neither the gravity of the latter, nor the vivacity of the the complexion of the population of the same island, and Marquesans. Their limbs are well formed, and al- as great a diversity among the inhabitants of the Georthough, when corpulency prevails, there is a degree of gian group. It is not, however, a blacker hue that their sluggishness, they are generally active in their move skin presents, but a darker red or brown. Many are ments, graceful and stately in their gait, and perfectly not darker than the inhabitants of some parts of southern unembarrassed in their address. Among the many Europe. At birth, the infant is but little darker than models of perfection in the human figure that appear in European children, and the skin only assumes the the islands, instances of deformity are now not unfre bronze or brown hue as they grow up. Those parts of quent, in consequence of diseases introduced by Euro the body that are most covered, even with their loose peans, and which were altogether unknown to the race draperies of native cloth, are through every period of formerly. The countenance of the Society Islander is life much lighter coloured than those that are exposed; open and prepossessing, though the features are bold, and notwithstanding the dark tint with which the climate and sometimes prominent. The features of the face appears to dye their skin, the ruddy bloom of health form the same straight line with the forehead as in and vigour, or the sudden blush, is often seen mantling Europeans, except in those cases where the front and the youthful countenance under the light brown tinge, back bones of the skull are flattened or pressed together which, like a thin veil, but partially conceals its glowing in infancy. This was frequently done by the mother hue. The females, who are much employed in beating, with the male children, when they were designed for cloth, making mats, or other occupations followed under warriors. The forehead is sometimes low, but not un shelter, are usually fairer than the rest; while the fishfrequently high and finely formed--the eye-brows are ermen, who are most exposed to the sun, are invariably dark and well-defined, occasionally arched, but more the darkest portion of the population. generally straight the eyes are seldom large, but Darkness of colour was originally considered as an bright and full, and of a jet black colour—the cheek indication of strength, and fairness of complexion the bones not high-the nose either rectilinear or aquiline, contrary. Hence the men were not solicitous, either to often accompanied with a fulness about the nostrils. It cover their persons, or avoid the sun's rays, from any is seldom flat, notwithstanding it was formerly the prac apprehension of the effect it would produce on the skin. tice of the mothers and nurses to press the nostrils of They looked on the European complexion, when faint, as the female children, a flat and broad nose being by many

the effects of disease, and beheld it with pity, probably regarded as handsome. The mouth in general is well associating it with the leprosy, which turns the skin formed, though the lips are sometimes large, yet never white; nor has this impression been altogether removed so much so as to resemble those of the African. The by lengthened intercourse with Europeans. The mental teeth are good, and always entire, except in extreme old capacity of the Society Islanders has been hitherto much age, and though rather large in some, are remarkably

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