« AnteriorContinuar »
more partially developed than their physical character. ter of custom and form than real benevolence, and along They are remarkably curious and inquisitive; and, com- with it is mixed a selfish expectation of benefits in pared with other Polynesian nations, may be said to return, They are cheerful and good-natured-not inpossess considerable ingenuity, mechanical invention, clined to give offence to each other—they live in amity and imitation. Totally unacquainted with the use of in social life, free from domestic broils, yet not enjoying
etters, their minds could not be improved by any regu that more elegant state of domestic endearments which lar, continued culture, yet the distinguishing features of is only to be found in a state of advanced civilizatheir civil polity-their imposing nature-numerous tion. With all this, their moral habits are stained with observances and diversified ramifications of their my. the most brutal licentiousness, nor have they that salutary thology--the legends of their gods--the historical songs command over their passions and inclinations that befits of their bards—the beautiful, figurative, and impassion | a moral and accountable agent. They engage in various ed eloquence sometimes displayed in their national labours with great spirit for a time, but soon tire and assemblies; and, above all, the copiousness, variety, pre give them up, from a deficiency of perseverance. Like cision, and purity of their language, with their extensive most savages, they eat a great deal of food, though use of numbers, warrant the conclusion, that they pos- | this is not of the most nutritious kind. They can sess no contemptible mental capabilities. This conclusion also endure great occasional fatigue and abstinence. is supported by a variety of circumstances connected | It is difficult to ascertain the average duration of their with their former state. Though unacquainted with the life, from the absence of all records; the presumption compass, they have names for the cardinal points. In however, appears to be that they are equal in longevity their genealogical traditions, they extend backwards to to the inhabitants of temperate climates. The effect nearly one hundred generations. They have names for of intemperance and diseases introduced by Europeans, each day and month of the moon-they do not, however, has tended no doubt to shorten the lives of many. In reckon time by days, but by nights. They are now gra general, the mode of living is temperate, they retire eardually adopting the British mode of computing time. ly to rest, rise by break of day, and take that degree of Their acquaintance with, and use of numbers, is very exercise necessary for healthy existence. They are excomplete; and, considering their condition, surprising. tremely clean in their habits, and bathe frequently. Their mode of reckoning is by tens, or decimal num The original dress of the natives was composed of the bers. The precision, regularity, and extent of their bark of certain trees, beat into a fine soft texture, chiefnumbers is very astonishing - they reckon up to a ly by the labour of the females. It was disposed in loose million. Many of their numerals are precisely the same flowing folds around the waist—with the mano or girdle as those used by the people of several of the Asiatic worn by the men. The head was usually uncovered, islands, and in the remote and populous island of Mada and in the females ornamented with natural flowers. gascar. In counting, they usually employ a piece of the The houses are constructed of wood and the leaves of stalk of the cocoa-nut leaf, putting one aside for every trees--they have canoes, fishing boats, hooks, war ten, and gathering them up, and putting a larger one clubs and spears. There are three ranks in the comaside, for every hundred. The natives of most of the munity at Tahiti:—the Eries or nobles who possess islands are remarkably fond of, and learn with great | land—the Totous or cultivators of the soil, who are facility, the elements of arithmetic. That their mental vassals to the former--and a third class who possess powers are not inferior to those of the generality of and cultivate portions of land of their own. In many mankind, has been more fully shown since the establish of the islands Captain Cook discovered that the practice ment of schools, and the introduction of letters. Not | of eating human flesh was not unknown. In New Zeaonly have the children and young persons learned to land they still continue cannibals. The Tahitians had read, write, cipher, and commit their lessons to memory | a practice of sacrificing human victims to their deities. with a facility not exceeded by individuals of the same They believe in the existence of invisible beings of difage in any country; but the education of adults, and ferent orders, and call their gods Eatooas. They believe even persons advanced in years, which in England, with that Tapapa or the wife of their principal god gives orievery advantage, is so difficult an undertaking, that gin to all the others. And from two of these Eatooas nothing but the use of the best means and untiring ap sprang originally all mankind. They believe that the plication ever accomplish it, bas been effected here with soul has a separate existence after death-that for a comparative ease. Multitudes who were upwards of 40 time it takes up its abode in certain wooden images, and or 50 years of age when they commenced with the afterwards ascends to heaven. alphabet, have, in the course of twelve months, learned Like all other nations on the earth they have a disto read distinctly in the New Testament, large portions,
tant tradition of the deluge, modified of course aeand even whole books of which, some of them have in a cording to their local situations and superstitions. They short period committed to memory. They certainly believe that the fate of the soul after death has no deappear to possess an aptness for learning, though the pendance on the conduct of the individual the souls of volatile disposition of the savage, and the indolence good and bad men faring alike, yet they have an idea engendered by the climate, are great obstacles to steady that the gods watch over human actions, and punish the advancement. The moral character of this people, wicked with an immediate and temporal affliction. The though more fully developed than their intellectual ca- | dead bodies are first laid in houses constructed for the pacity, often presents the most striking contradictions. purpose till the flesh rots from the bones, when the latTheir hospitality bas, ever since their discovery, been ter are burned in their maraes, which are also used for proverbial, yet this, like all savage virtues, is more mat. places of worship.
From whence these numerous islands of the Pacific might, in vessels corresponding with those in which were originally peopled is a matter not now easily to be they passed the straits, proceed southwards to the Sandconjectured. That they derived their inhabitants from wich Islands, and thence spread over eastern Polynesia. some of the continents is highly probable, but which of The nations at present inhabiting the islands of the Pathese or by wtrat chains of communication, whether in cific have undoubtedly been more extensively spread one direction or through several channels, is now a mat than they now are. In the most remote and solitary ter of pure speculation. Mr Ellis remarks, that a tabu islands, occasionally discovered in recent years, such as iar view of a number of words in the Malayan, Asiatic Pitcairn's, on which the mutineers of the Bounty settled, or the Madagasse, the American and the Polynesian and on Farming's island, near Christmas island, midway language, would probably show that at some remote pe between the Society and Sandwich isles, although now riod either the inhabitants of those distant parts of the desolate, relics of former inbabitants have been found. world maintained frequent intercourse with each other, Pavements of floors, foundations of houses, and stone or that colonies from some one of these originally peo entrances have been discovered, and stone adzes or hatpled in part or altogether the others. The striking ana chets have been found at some distance from the surface, logy between the numerals and other parts of the lan exactly resembling those in use among the people of the guage, and several of the customs of the original inhabi north and south Pacific at the time of their discovery. tants of Madagascar and those of the Malays who inha These facts prove that the nations now inhabiting these bit the Asiatic islands, many thousands of miles distant and other islands have been in former times more widein one direction, and of the Polynesians more remote in ly extended than they are at present. The monuments the other, shows that they were originally one people, or or vestiges of former population found in these islands that they had emigrated from the same source. Many are all exceedingly rude, and therefore warrant the inwords in the language and several of the traditions, cus ference that the people to whom they belonged were toms, &c. of the Americans so strongly resemble those rude and uncivilized, and must have emigrated from a of Asia, as to warrant the inference that they originally nation but little removed from a state of barbarism-a came from that part of the world. Whether some of the nation less civilized than those must have been who tribes who originally passed from Asia along the Kurih could have constructed vessels and traversed this ocean or Aleutian islands, across Behring's Straits to America six or seven thousand miles against the regularly preleft part of their number who were the progenitors of vailing winds, which must have been the fact, if we conthe present race inhabiting those islands, and that they clude they were peopled only by the Malays. at some subsequent period either attempting to follow | On the other hand, it is easy to imagine how they the tide of emigration to the east or steering to the could have proceeded from the east. The winds would south, were by the north-east trade winds driven to the favour their passage, and the incipient stages of civilizaSandwich Islands, whence they proceeded to the south tion in which they were found would resemble the conern groups,-or whether those who had traversed the dition of the aborigines of America far more than that north-west coast of America, sailed either from Califor of the Asiatics. There are many well authenticated aca nia or Mexico across the Pacific, under the favouring counts of long voyages performed in native vessels by influence of the regular easterly winds, peopled Easter the inhabitants of both the north and south Pacific. In Island, and continued under the steady easterly or trade | 1696, two canoes were driven from Ancarso to one of winds, advancing westward till they met the tide of emi. | the Philippine islands, a distance of 800 miles. They gration flowing from the larger groups of islands in had run before the wind for 70 days together, sailing which the Malays form the majority of the population from east to west. Thirty-five had embarked, but five it is not now easy to determine.
had died from the effects of privation and fatigue during But a variety of facts connected with the past and the voyage, and one shortly after their arrival. In present circumstances of the inhabitants of these coun 1720, two canoes were drifted from a remote distance tries authorise the conclusion that either part of the to one of the Marian islands. Captain Cook found in present inhabitants of the South Sea islands came ori the islands of Wateo Artiu inhabitants of Tahiti, who ginally from America, or that tribes of the Polynesians had been drifted by contrary winds in a canoe from have at some remote period found their way to the con some islands to the eastward unknown to the natives. tinent. The difficulties in the passage of the first inha Several parties have within the last few years reached bitants from the American continent to the most east
the Tahitian shores, from islands to the eastward, of ern islands of the Pacific are not greater than must which the Society islanders had never before heard. In have attended the passage of the same tribe between 1820, a canoe arrived at Maurua, about 30 miles west the Society and Sandwich Islands, and yet the identity of Borabora, which had come from Rurutu, one of the of the inhabitants of these is unequivocal. It is difficult Austral islands. This vessel had been at sea between to say which group was first peopled. Evidence of a fortnight and three weeks, and considering its route great antiquity compared with the peopling of smaller must have sailed seven or eight hundred miles. A islands may be adduced in favour of each. Mr Ellis is more recent instance occurred in 1824. A boat belongs disposed to think the northern islands were first settled. ing to Mr Williams of Raiatea left that island with a Their genealogies extend much farther back. If it be westerly wind for Tahiti. The wind changed after the supposed that any part of the American continent was boat was out of sight of land. They were driven to the settled by a maritime people, whether Malayan or Ja island of Atiu, a distance of nearly 800 miles in a southpanese, a portion of the same tribe who settled in Noot westerly direction, where they were discovered several ka, or whose remains are discovered in North America, 1 months afterwards. The traditions of the inhabitants
of Rarotonga, one of the Hervey Islands, preserve the most satisfactory accounts not only of single parties at different periods, for many generations back, having arrived there from the Society Islands, but also derive the origin of the population from Raiatea
It is gratifying to find that the labours of the missionaries, notwithstanding many obstructions and difficulties, have in a great measure succeeded in establishing Christianity in many of these interesting islands—schools are also extensively established and the natives taught
o read and write in considerable numbers. It is a work of great time to fix the volatile attention, and bring in the licentious morals of savages, yet few scenes are more full of cheering hope to the philanthropist than the anticipations of the final civilization of this extensive mass of the wanderers of mankind.
In Pitcairn's Island are the descendants of the mutineers of the Bounty, a race of half Britons and half Tahitians--this interesting colony under the tuition of
their veteran father Adams, appear from Captain Beechy's account to be trained up in a most moral and Christian manner, and exhibit all the amiable simplicity of beings uncontaminated with many of the vices of the world. Even from the multiplication and diffusion of this race, much future benefit to the islands may be anticipated.
The late seizure of Tahiti by the French-the dispersion of the English missionaries, and the state of suspense and warfare in which the poor unoffending inhabitants have been kept for the last two years, has no doubt tended to the retardation of civilization in all the South Sea islands—but a beneficial work of the kind was never yet accomplished without many drawbacks and difficulties and the time may yet arrive when the voice of peace and the humanizing sounds of Christianity may give place to wanton and unprovoked aggression and all the horrors of war.
MEMOIR OF JOHN CLAUDIUS LOUDON. This memoir, prefixed to a posthumous work of the publishing in Edinburgh. He subsequently studied Itaauthor,' and written with much simple pathos, by Mrs / lian, and paid his master in the same manner. He also Loudon, affords one of those instructive examples of kept a journal from the time he was thirteen, and conhow much may be achieved even under many difficulties, tinued it for nearly thirty years; writing it for many by unremitting habits of industry. It is on this account, years in French, in order to familiarise himself with the as affording wholesome instruction, that we here give it language. somewhat in detail.
Among all the studies which Mr Loudon pursued John CLAUDIUS LOUDon was born on the 8th of April, while in Edinburgh, those he preferred were writing and 1783, at Cambuslang, in Lanarkshire, the residence of drawing. The first he learned from Mr Paton, afterhis mother's only sister, herself the mother of Dr Clau wards father to the celebrated singer of that name. dius Buchanan (the author of a work entitled Christian Drawing was, however, his favourite pursuit; and in this Researches in Asia,) whose labours in India, in attempt he made such proficiency, that, when his father at last ing to convert and instruct the Hindoos, have made his consented to his being brought up as a landscape-garname celebrated in the religious world. Mr Loudon was dener, he was competent to take the situation of draughtsthe eldest of a large family; and his father, who was a man to Mr John Mayer, at Easter Dalry, near Edinfarmer, residing at Kerse Hall, near Gogar, about five burgh; and, while with him, Mr Loudon learned a good miles from Edinburgh, being a man of enlightened mind deal of gardening generally, particularly of the manageand superior information, was very anxious that he should ment of hothouses. Unfortunately, Mr Mayer died behave every possible advantage in his education. Strange fore his pupil was sixteen; and for three or four years to say, however, Mr Loudon, when a boy, though fond afterwards Mr Loudon resided with Mr Dickson, a nurof books, had an insuperable aversion from learning lan seryman and planner in Leith Walk, where he acquired guages, and no persuasion could induce him to study an excellent knowledge of plants. There he boarded in Latin and French, though his father had a master from Mr Dickson's house; and, though remarkable for the Edinburgh purposely to teach him the latter language. nicety of his dress, and the general refinement of his At this early period, however, a taste for landscape-gar habits, his desire of improvement was so great, that he dening began to show itself, as his principal pleasure was regularly sat up two nights in every week, to study, in making walks and beds in a little garden his father drinking strong green tea to keep himself awake; and had given him; and so eager was he to obtain seeds to this practice of sitting up two nights in every week he sow in it, that, when a jar of tamarinds arrived from an continued for many years. While at Mr Dickson's, he uncle in the West Indies, he gave the other children his attended classes of botany, chemistry, and agriculture; share of the fruit, on condition of his having all the seeds. the last under Dr Coventry, who was then Professor of While yet quite a child, he was sent to live with an uncle Agriculture in the University of Edinburgh, and he was in Edinburgh, that he might attend the classes at the considered by that gentleman to be his most promising public schools. Here he overcame his dislike to Latin, pupil, and made extraordinary progress in drawing and arith In 1803 he first arrived in London. The following metic. He also attended classes of botany and chemis. day he called on Mr Sowerby, Mead Place, Lambeth, try, making copious notes, illustrated with very clever who was the first gentleman he visited in England; and pen-and-ink sketches. Still he could not make up his he was exceedingly delighted with the models and minmind to learn French, till one day, when he was about eralogical specimens, which were so admirably arranged, fourteen, bis uncle, showing a fine French engraving to as to give him the greatest satisfaction from his innate a friend, asked his nephew to translate the title. This love of order; and he afterwards devised a plan for his he could not do; and the deep shame and mortification own books and papers, partly founded on that of Mr which he felt, and which he never afterwards forgot, Sowerby, but much more complete. made him determine to acquire the language. Pride, As he brought a great number of letters of recomhowever, and a love of independence, which was ever mendation to different noblemen and gentlemen of landone of his strongest feelings, prevented him from apply ed property, many of them being from Dr Coventry, with ing to his father to defray the expense; and he actually whom he was a great favourite, he was soon extensively paid his master himself, by the sale of a translation which employed as a landscape-gardener; and his journal is he afterwards made for the editor of a periodical then filled with accounts of his tours in various parts of EngSeli-Instruction for Young Gardeners.
| land. It is curious, in turning over his nemoranda, to
find how many improvements suggested themselves to vises that purple flowers, which are composed of blue his active mind, which he was unable, from various cir- and red, should have yellow next them; that orange flow. cumstances, to carry into effect at the time, but which, ers, which are composed of red and yellow, should be many years afterwards, were executed either by himself contrasted with blue; and that green flowers, which are or by other persons, who, however, were unaware that composed of blue and yellow, should be relieved by red. he had previously suggested them.
He accounts for this on the principle that three parts are When Mr Loudon first arrived in London, he was required to make a perfect whole; and he compares the much struck with the gloomy appearance of the gardens union of the three primitive colours formed in this inanin the centre of the publie squares, which were then ner with the common chord in music; an idea which planted almost entirely with evergreens, particularly with has since been worked out by several able writers. * Scotch pines, yews, and spruce firs; and before the close He had also formed the plan of a Pictorial Dictionary, of the year 1803, he published an article in a work call- which was to embrace every kind of subject, and to be ed The Literary Journal, which he entitled, “ Observations illustrated by finished woodcuts printed with the type. on laying out the Public Squares of London.” In this During the greater part of the year 1806 Mr Loudon article he blamed freely the taste which then prevailed, was actively engaged in landscape-gardening; and toand suggested the great improvement that would result wards the close of that year, when returning from 'Trefrom banishing the yews and firs (which always looked Madoc, in Caernarvonshire, the seat of W. A. Madocks, gloomy from the effect of the smoke on their leaves,) and Esq., he caught a violent cold by travelling on the ontmingling deciduous trees with the other evergreens. He side of a coach all night in the rain, and neglecting to particularly named the Oriental and Occidental plane change his clothes when he reached the end of his jourtrees, the sycamore, and the almond, as ornamental trees ney. The cold brought on a rheumatic fever, which that would bear the smoke of the city; and it is curious settled finally in his left knee, and, from improper medito observe how exactly his suggestions have been adopt cal treatment, terminated in a stiff joint-a circumstance ed, as these trees are now to be found in almost every which was of great annoyance to him, not only at the square in London.
time when it occurred, but during the whole of the reAbout this time he appears to have become a member mainder of his life. This will not appear surprising of the Linnean Society, probably through the interest of | when it is considered that he was at that period in the Sir Joseph Banks, to whom he had brought a letter of prime of his days, and not only remarkably healthy and introduction, and who, till his death in 1820, continued vigorous in constitution, but equally active and indepenhis warm friend. At the house of Sir Joseph Banks, Mr dent in mind. While suffering from the effects of the Loudon met most of the eminent scientific men of that complaint in his knee, he took lodgings at a farm-house day, and the effect produced by their conversation on his at Pinner, near Harrow; and, while there, the activity active mind may be traced in his Journal. Among many of his mind made him anxiously inquire into the state other interesting memoranda of new ideas that struck of English farming. He also amused himself by painthim about this period, is one as to the expediency of try ing several landscapes, some of which were exhibited at ing the effects of charcoal on vegetation, from having the Royal Academy, and by learning German, paying observed the beautiful verdure of the grass on a spot his expenses, as he had done before when he learned where charcoal had been burnt. He appears, however, French, by selling for publication a pamphlet which he to have thought no more at that time on the subject, or had translated by way of exercise. In this case, the to have forgotten it, as, when he afterwards wrote on translation being of a popular work, it was sold to Mr charcoal, he made no allusion to this fact.
Cadell for L.15. He also took lessons in Greek and HeIn 1804, having been employed by the Earl of Mans brew. The following extract from his journal in 1806 field to make some plans for altering the palace gardens will give some idea of his feelings at this period:- Alas! at Scone in Perthshire, he returned to Scotland and re how have I neglected the important task of improving mained there several months, laying out grounds for myself! How much I have seen, what new ideas have many noblemen and gentlemen. While thus engaged, developed themselves, and what different views of life I and while giving directions for planting and managing have acquired since I came to London three years ago! woods, and on the best mode of draining and otherwise I am now twenty-three years of age, and perhaps oneimproving estates, several ideas struck him, which he third of my life has passed away, and yet what have I afterwards embodied in a book published in Edinburgh done to benefit my fellow-men?" by Constable and Co., and by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Mr Loudon, during the length of time he was comand Orme, in London. This, then, was the first work of pelled to remain at Pinner, became so interested respectMr Loudon's presented to the public through the Meesr3 ing English farming, and so anxious that the faults he Longman, with whom he continued to transact business observed in it should be corrected, that he wrote to his of the same nature for nearly forty years.
father, stating the capability of the soil, and the imperBefore Mr Loudon left Edinburgh, he published ano. fect state of the husbandry, and urging him to come to ther work, entitled A short Treatise on some Improvements England. It happened that at this period the farm calllately made in Hothouses. This was in 1805; and the ed Wood Hall, where he had been staying so long, was same year he returned to England. On this second voy to be let, and Mr Loudon, senior, in consequence of the age to London, he was compelled by stress of weather to recommendation of his son, took it, and removed to it in land at Lowestoffe; and he took such a disgust at the sea, 1807. The following year Mr Loudon, who was then that he never afterwards travelled by it if it was possible residing with his father at Wood Hall, wrote a pamphlet to go by land. He now resumed his labours as a land on the improvement of agriculture. This pamphlet exscape-gardener; and his Journal is filled with the obser cited a great deal of attention; and General Stratton, a vations he made, and the ideas that suggested themselves gentleman possessing a large landed estate, called Tew of improvements on all he saw. Among other things, he Park, in Oxfordshire, having read it, was so much intemade some remarks on the best mode of harmonising rested in the matter it contained, that he offered him a colours in flower-gardens, which accord, in a very strik portion of his property at a low rate, in order that he ing manner, with the principles afterwards laid down by might undertake the management of the rest, and thus M. Chevreul in his celebrated work entitled De la Loi du introduce Scotch farming into Oxfordshire. Contraste simultane des Couleurs, published in Paris in The farm which Mr Loudon took from General Strat1839. Mr Loudon states that he had observed that ton, and which was called Great Tew, was nearly eightflower-gardens looked best when the flowers were so ar. een miles from the city of Oxford, and it contained upranged as to have a compound colour next the simple wards of 1500 acres. “The surface," as he describes one, which was not contained in it. Thus, as there are it,“ was diversified by bold undulations, hills, and steeps, only three simple colours, blue, red, and yellow, he ad
* See notice of Mr Hay on Colouring, in Toreb No &
and the soil contained considerable variety of loam, clay, I ing of the wolves, and once when a herd of them rushed and light earth, on limestone and red rock. It was, across the road close to his carriage. He had also some however, subdivided in a manner the most unsuitable doubts whether the postillions would be able to recollect for arable husbandry, and totally destitute of carriage where they had left the carriage, as the wind had been roads. In every other respect it was equally unfit for very high during the night, and had blown the snow northern agriculture, having very indifferent buildings, through the crevices in the curtains. The morning, and being greatly in want of draining and levelling." | however, brought the postillions with fresh horses, and At this place he established a kind of agricultural college the remainder of the journey was passed without any for the instruction of young men in rural pursuits; some difficulty. of these, being the sons of landed proprietors, were un When he reached Moscow, he found the houses yet der his own immediate superintendence; and others who black from the recent fire, and the streets filled with the were placed in a second class, were instructed by his ruins of churches and noble mansions. Soon after bis bailiff, and intended for land-stewards and farm-bailiffs. arrival, news was received of the capture of Paris, and A description of this college, and of the improvements the entrance of the allied sovereigns into that city; but effected at Great Tew, was given to the public in 1809.
the Russians took this intelligence so coolly, that though Mr Loudon's farming operations proved so successful it reached Moscow on the 25th of April, the illumina. that he realized upwards of L.15,000; and he now de tions in honour of it did not take place till the 5th of terinined to 'relax his la bours, and gratify his taste by a May. He left Moscow on the 2d of June, and reached visit to the Continent, which he did in 1813. He landed Kiov on the 15th. Here he had an interview with Geat Gottenburgh, and passed through Sweden and l'ome neral Rapp, on account of some informality in his pass rania to Berlin,
port. He then proceeded to Cracow, and thence to yiHe remained at Berlin from the 14th of May to the enna; after which he visited Prague, Dresden, and Leip1st of June, and then proceeded to Frankfort on the sic, passing through Magdleburg to Hamburg, where he Oder. Here, at the table d'bote, he dined with several embarked for England, and reached Yarmouth on the Prussian officers, who, supposing him to be a French 27th of September 1811. man, sat for some time in perfect silence; but, on hear After his return to England, it would appear that Mr ing him speak German, one said to the other, “ He must Loudon embarked largely in some mercantile concerns, be English;" and when he told them that he came from by which he lost nearly the whole of his property, and London, they all rose, one springing over the table in he was again thrown on the resources of his indefatigahis haste, and crowded round him, shaking bands, kiss. ble industry. He now devoted his time principally to ing him, and overwhelming him with compliments, as he bis pen, and began to collect materials for his Encyclowas the first Englishman they had ever seen. He then pædia of Gardening, and other works, and in order to proceeded through Posen to Warsaw, where he arrived procure information for these works, he again visited on the 6th of June.
France and Italy in 1819. Afterwards he travelled towards Russia, but was As soon as he reached home, he began the Encyclopæstopped at the little town of Tykocyn, and detained there dia of Gardening, at which he worked with little intermisthree months, from some informality in his passport. sion till it was finished, though he was suffering severely When this difficulty was overcome, he proceeded by at the time from chronic rheumatism in his rigbt arm; Grodno to Wilna, through a country covered with the the pain from which became at length so intolerable, that remains of the French army, horses and men lying dead in 1820 he was compelled to call in medical aid; and beby the road-side, and bands of wild-looking Cossacksing recommended to try Mahomed's vapour baths, he scouring the country. On entering Kosnow three Cos- went down to Brighton for that purpose. Here, notsaoks attacked his carriage, and endeavoured to carry withstanding the extreme torture he suffered from the off the horses, but they were beaten back by the whips shampooing and stretching, he submitted to both with so of the driver and servants. At Mitton he was obliged much patience, that they were continued by the operato sleep in his britzska, as every house was full of the tors till they actually broke his right arm so close to the wounded; and he was awakened in the night by the cows shoulder as to render it impossible to have it set in the and other animals, of which the inn yard was full, eating usual manner, and consequently it never united properly, the hay which had been put over bis feet to keep them though he continued to use his hand to write with for warm. He reached Riga on the 30th of September, and several years. found the town completely surrounded by a barricade of During the whole of the year 1823, he suffered most waggons, which had been taken from the French. Be excruciating pain, not only from his right arm, the bone tween this town and St Petersburg, while making a of which had never properly united, and to retain which drawing of a picturesque old fort, he was taken up as a in its place he was compelled to wear an iron case night spy; and, on his examination before the prefect, he was and day, but from the rheumatism which had settled in inuch amused at hearing the comments made on his note- his left hand, and which contracted two of his fingers and book, which was full of unconnected memoranda, and his thumb, so as to render them useless. It is, however, which puzzled the magistrates and their officers exces- worthy of remark, and quite characteristic of Mr Lousively when they heard it translated into Russ.
don, that, at the very time he was suffering such acute Mr Loudon reached St Petersburg on the 30th of bodily pain, he formed the plan of his houses in PorchesOctober, just before the breaking up of the bridge, and ter Terrace, Bayswater, and superintended the building he remained there three or four months; after which he of them himself, rising at four o'clock every morning, proceeded to Moscow, where the arrived on the 4th of that he might be on the spot when the workmen came March 1814, after having encountered various difficul- | to their work. ties on the road. Once, in partieular, the horses in his In 1824 a second edition was published of the Encycarriage being unable to drag it through a snow-drift, clopædia of Gardening, in which the work was nearly all the postillions very coolly unharnessed them and trotted | rewritten, and very considerable additions were made to off, telling him that they would bring fresh horses in the it. In the following year, 1825, the Encyclopædia of morning, and that he would be in no danger from the Agriculture was written and published. These extensive wolves, if he would keep the windows of his carriage and laborious works following closely upon each other, close, and the leather curtains down. There was no re in Mr Loudon's state of health, speak strongly as to his medy but to submit; and few men were better fitted by unparalleled energy of mind. When, shortly after, his Orture for bearing the horrors of such a night than Mr right arm was broken a second time, and he was obliged Loudon, from his natural calmness and patient endur to submit to amputation, though he gave up landscapeance of difficulties. He often, however, spoke of the si-l gardening, it was only to devote himself more assidutuation he was in, particularly when he heard the howl. ously to his pen. He was, however, now no longer able