Imágenes de páginas

171. Moonlight. A. Perigal, jun. One of this artist's best pictures.

174. Landscape and Cattle. G. Sidney Cooper. A soft, mellow, evening scene, with cattle scattered about. A beautiful picture, both as respects the landscape effect and the truth and accuracy of the animals.

175. Portrait. W. S. Watson. A good specimen of this artist's style of youthful portraits.

We are quite aware that many pictures of merit have been passed over in this enumeration, but we shall pick up some of them on a future occasion.

attendng to; even the bare plaster of the walls and windows, and the homely desks and tables, are all indicative of the simple primitive country school, and of the habits and domestic life of the dominie.

67. Evening Scene on Loch Etvie. M. Macleay. This artist delights in mountain scenery; and he does it justice, only that, to our taste, he has too vivid and decided tints.

73. Portrait of a Lady. J. Ballantyne. A graceful and pleasing picture.

78. Early Winter. Sir W. Allan. A simple pastoral homestead among the hills,—the green sward forming a contrast to the snow-capped hills in the distance,very true to nature.

79. Glenfalloch. Miss Stoddart.

85. The Brides of Venice carried off by the Pirates, J. R. Herbert. A picture replete with action and good drawing the tone of colouring rather subdued.

100. Murder of Fethelmac. J. E. Lauder. A darktoned composition, suitable to the subject. The principal figure is the minstrel,—the victim and the murderers being cast into comparative shade.

Some good portraits here intervene, by C. Smith, Mackenzie, and Watson Gordon.

119. Peter the Hermit preaching the Crusades. D. Scott. A large picture, full of figures of varied character. There is here less of the mannerism of the artist, both in design and colouring, and a decided improvement as respects both. The subject is a difficult one,to convey to the spectator, through the medium of the expressions of others, the impulse intended by the orator. On the whole, we should say that the diversity of the groups breaks up the unity of expression.

121. Oberon and Titania. J. N. Paton. A small picture, but full of fancy and aerial visions as is the midsummer dream from which it is taken. There is a peculiar coldness of colour which at first is unfavourable, but on farther and minute inspection this peculiarity seems to throw an increased ideality over the whole scene. The picture evidently shows genius and imagination, the latter power not always in the possession of the artist.

127. Greyfriars' Churchyard in 1679. W. Johnstone. A group of covenanters taken at Bothwell Bridge. There is here a good deal of power of expression, and bold and free execution, though the colouring is rather hard and cold. This artist gives good promise.

131. River Scene. E T. Crawford. A soft, mellow, and pleasing picture.

132. Dolbadern Castle. A. Perigal, jun. This artist has several good landscapes in the room, and is rapidly improving in delicacy of touch and fidelity to nature.

135. Portrait of T. de Quincy, Esq. By J. W. Gordon. A perfect likeness, and much of the ease and fine tone of colouring of this artist.

136. Jeanie Deans and Queen Caroline. J. G. Middleton. A good picture, but the attitudes rather constrained.

140. The Firth of Clyde. J. F. Williams, The best we have seen of this veteran artist's for years.

145. Distraining for Rent. Sir D. Wilkie. This picture requires no comment. It is one of those happy efforts which tells its own tale at a glance, and the longer it is inspected the more it is liked. The Edinburgh public owe a deep debt of gratitude to the Scottish Academy for the repeated opportunities they have had within the last few years of inspecting some of the finest of this artist's works.

149. The Cathedral of Durham. D. 0. Hill. A noble view, and treated in the best style of this artist.

160. Coast of Mull. M. Macleay. A very pleasing and well managed landscape.

162. Loch Coruisk. A. Perigal, jun. The wild scenery of sky painted with a good effect.

167. Norbam Castle. J. Stein. A rich and mellowtoned picture.



To the Editor of the Torch. SIR, I have a few remarks to make upon “The Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Seotland," but which will apply as well to all associations of the same kind. And as I know your anxiety to promote the arts on all occasions, I hope you will be able to afford space for the following observations in your excellent periodical, as they are only called forth from an anxious desire to benefit the arts and artists. In the first place, then, it seems, after an experience of ten years, that the system of engraving and distributing annually to the subscribers, a print engraved exclusively for them, does not give satisfaction,—this I think will not be denied. No member that ever I have seen or heard of, puts any value upon them whatever, they are looked upon, as they in general deserve to be, as very inferior works of art; in fact so far from the print being any inducement to join the association, I know many cases where it has been the direct means of making members leave it. How often have I heard the following reasons given for ceasing to subscribe ?“ I never grudged the guinea so long as I thought it could be of the least use to the arts or artists, if that had been all, but a print was sent to me every year, which, as I had no place to keep it in, I got framed, which cost me another guinea, and even that I could have stood, but worse than all, after the print was hung on the wall, I only got myself aughed at for frami

such thin So to prevent my friends from laughing, and the print from being sent, I withdrew my name from the association." I think every member must have heard this, or something very like it, hundreds of times; the very fact of seeing them in every house is quite sufficient to make them of little value, in the ornaments of a house, above all things, one does not like to see a facsimile of their next-door neighbour's in their room. It may be argued that from the great expense of paintings, a sufficient number of prizes cannot be obtained, without the print, to please the whole subscribers. This to a certain extent is true, but in what follows I mean to bring forward two plans by which this objection will be overcome. The first plan is to spend all the funds except what is required for necessary expenses, in the purchase of paintings, and it is possible by this plan to add very considerably to the number of prizes; thus, the engraving and printing of the one print, will cost at least this year, L.1,250. Here is a fund that would at once add a third to the number of prizes; and doing so would, in my opinion, please all parties much better than wasting the same sum on a second-rate engraving. This sum, large as it is, could be, I think, very much increased by a little more economy on the part of the committee; thus, the funds at their disposal last year were L.5,641, 10s. 11d., the sum spent on works of art only L.2,047,- all the rest of this large sum is swallowed up in expenses of one kind or another, with the exception of L.1009, lls. 6d., which is “ reserved," but for what purpose I cannot tell. Surely something might be done to reduce the expenses; for instance who cares for the volume of reports issued every year, which costs the association L.2007 a simple advertisement of the state of the funds and number

of subscribers, would answer every purpose, and thus

News of the cuteek. four prizes of L.50 ench would be obtained from this one unnecessary expense alone. But if it is found that the ARMORIAL BEARINGS.-At a meeting of Commissioners great mass of subscribers would still prefer having some

of Supply for the County of Forfar, held at Brechin on

the 24th day of June, 1845 years, for the purpose of hearthing like a certainty of obtaining a work of art every ing and determining appeals against the surveyor's charges year, the second plan, while it retains the print system, of assessed taxes, would prevent the same print from being seen every- The Right Reverend David Moir, Bishop of Brechin, where, and also do an immense deal more to improve appealed against the charge made upon him for duty on and elevate the public taste, by giving variety, and works

armorial bearings,

L.1 40 of a much higher standard. It is this-- let the L. 1250,

And 10 per cent. additional,

0 2 4 (which is the cost of the one engraving) be spent in the

Amounting together to

L.l 6 4 purchase of the finest engravings that can be obtained for the year 1844, ending at Whitsunday 1845. in the British market, varying in price from 8s. to L.5; Upon hearing the appellant and surveyor, the case apof course even L. 1250 will not procure a print for every peared to be as follows: subscriber, but the chance of obtaining one would be very

The appellant had not, during the year for which the great, as will be afterwards shown; and I think no one

charge was made, used or worn a family crest, or ensign,

on a seal or otherwise. He had, by right of his office or would hesitate to take his chance of obtaining such a

appointment as one of the bishops of the Protestant Episwork of art as “John Knox Preaching,” “Bolton Abbey," copal Church in Scotland, use two seals (impressions of “ First Reading of the Bible,” « The Highland Drovers,” which are herewith produced), and the smaller seal was or“ Prince Charles entering Edinburgh,” compared with worn, as well as used by him; the larger seal was only octhe certainty of getting a print which no one values when casionally attached to letters of orders, and deeds of conobtained. L.1250 would not purchase many prints of

secration. The appellant therefore contended, that seals

of this kind were not of those described in schedule K. of the expensive class mentioned above, but prints a thou

the Act 48 Geo. III., cap. 55, under which he was charg. sand times more welcome than the annual one, can be

ed, or, if they were, they came under the exemptions from obtained for a sum very little above the actual cost of the the duties, as set forth in said schedule. Association-print, which is 6s. each; thus, for instance, The surveyor contended, that by said schedule of the the prints of “ Finden’s Gallery of Art” cost only Us. Act referred to, the appellant is clearly liable, in respect each, but wholesale could be purchased for the very price

that the arms on the large seal, an impression of which is paid for the Association print; and who would ever com

produced herewith, are the duly registered arms of the see

of Brechin, to wit-Argent, three piles meeting at the pare Stanfield's glorious “ Trafalgar," engraved by Mil

points, in base, gules--see Robson's Peerage of Scotland, ler, with its transparent sea and life-like ships, with the

1830; and as it was admitted, on the part of the appellant, “ Castaway," or indeed with any print ever issued by that he was in the practice of using the small seal, upon the Association? The chance of obtaining a prize, too, which is engraved a “mitre,” with the initials of his name at present is very small. This last year, the subscribers underneath, an impression of which is also produced herebeing 4108, and the works of art purchased 54, gives 1

with, the surveyor contended, that as the seal bore underin 76 only, whereas L.1250 spent in the purchase of

neath a mitre the initials of the appellant's name, he had

thereby adopted the same as his arms or ensigo, and which prints would give, along with the paintings (taking them

ensign, though connected with, and bearing upon, the apeven at the same number as last year) a prize to every pellant's ecclesiastical office, was nevertheless as clearly third member.* By this plan a large patronage would his arms or ensign as was the coronet of any peer or baron. be bestowed on engravers as well as artists, and print- Further, that the appellant's clerical office was not such as publishers would be induced to issue works of a superior

to entitle him to exemption for the private use of such class, knowing that nothing which had not some standard

seal, which is purely a heraldic ensign. Further, that the of excellence in it would be purchased by the committee.

exemptions under the Act do not recognise any such ex.

emption, being declared only in favour of the Royal There is yet another advantage worth mentioning: it is family, and others using their arms by appointment, or well known that all paintings do not answer for engrav- right of office, or those used in any city, burgh, or town corings, or, in other words, that a very splendid painting porate." may, and often does, make but a very poor engraving.

The commissioners considered the appellant entitled to From this risk the committee would be entirely relieved

relief from the charge appealed from, and relieved him of by purchasing only prints which have stood the test, and

the same accordingly. But the surveyor being dissatisfied

with that decision, requested that a case might be made been approved of by competent judges. In conclusion,

for the opinion of her majesty's judges, which is hereby I hope sincerely that the committee will take the above stated accordingly. statements into their consideration at our next annual “ 13th January, 1846.-We are of opinion that the demeeting; and I think that either of the above plans, or

termination of the commissioners is wrong, in respect of any other that will do away with the annual print, will

the exemption in the statute being limited to any person insure a large addition to the list of subscribers. Adam

who shall, by right of office or appointment, have word

or used any of the arms or insignia worn or used by the Urquhart, Esq., stated at last meeting, that " while the

royal family, or used in any city, borough, or town corposubscriptions from other parts were large, the proportion rate."

F. JEFFREY. from the citizens of Edinburgh was not so large as might

J. CUNINGHAME. have been expected." The print is the cause of this; the KNIGHTHOOD.-Mr Murchison, the geologist, has been evil tells with tenfold effect here, where so many are dis

created a knight. Dr Kane has also been raised to the same tributed compared with any other place; give none, or

dignity by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. give variety, and the evil is removed. T. J. B. MR SAMONELLE.-We regret to announce the death of

this able entomologist. He was connected with the British * 30 prints at L.5 0 0

Museum for 24 years, and died suddenly, in his 56th year, 272 0 0

on Friday se'enight.

L.130 0 0

68 100 303 814

4 0 0 2 0 0 100 0 80

200 0 0
303 0 0
325 0 0

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ENDOWED HOSPITALS AND SCHOOLS. The numerous endowed hospitals for the aged, what of a pristine glow at the chubby, rosy face of and for the education of youth, made in latter infancy—the almost extinguished eye sparkles at times, had their origin from the monastic institu- the wild and vivid gaze of boyhood—the fading tions of the middle ages. When first instituted, in memory of the aged, now loaded, and well; those remote periods, they were, perhaps, the best nigh overwhelmed with the mass of events, turns suited for the times. When society was as yet but away from the present, and delights in going half-formed when the majority of the people back to childish days, and is garrulous of childish were poor and ignorant, and when frequent wars sports, and visions long since swallowed up in the disturbed the country, these were sacred and seclud- abyss of time. No scope has such a one for the exed retreats, where the indigent might resort to find ercise of his feelings amid the throngs of his aged relief, and the ignorant, the young, and the help- companions around hiin; and we would rather see, less, might be received and educated, and trained even in the meanest cabin, the mingling notes and to usefulness. Even such places were the centres expressions of human sympathy,—the aged grandand repositories of all the art and knowledge then father or grandmother, surrounded by her children in the possession of society, and while all was and children's children,-than the better clothed change and lawless rapine around, their sanctity and fed, though listless and monotonous, ranks of and utility maile them be respected and encour- the art-regulated workhouse. But it will be said, aged. No doubt such institutions then, as at all such things are inevitable.—To a certain extent times, had their defects, and latterly ran into they may; but not to the full extent, as at present abuse; but as expedients suited for the times, their existing. And, perhaps, among the many causes original intention was good, and they undoubtedly which have tended to raise up, and fill our hospihad a practical effect upon society. But what is tals for the aged, have been our numerous hospitolerable in one age may be useless, or worse than tals for the young. If the old are not intended by useless, in another. The good and pious intentions nature to congregate exclusively together, so neiof a founder of such places, in former times, may ther are the young. Man is a creature of imitaclaim our just praise; but it may so happen, that tion and experience; and if the young herd excluthe intentions and bequests of their modern fol- sively together, it is evident that they can learn lowers may be looked upon only as vain-glorious nothing from each other, at least nothing that is and self-exalting exhibitions. If we consider such salutary and humanizing. Take a boy of tender institutions, apart from any circumstances of the years, and view him at home, under the paternal times, or of the state of society, they are in princi- roof. His intellect and feelings are just beginning ple erroneous. The natural state of man in society to open up-that intense maternal affection, which is a mixture of old and young, of independent and he has drawn in as it were with his mother's milk, dependent, of rich and poor,-hence, if a number is beginning to manifest itself in rational love, reof old people are huddled together, or if a number spect, and obedience-the frowardness and coarseof young are collected exclusively into a perma- ness of his nature are being tempered and refined nent society, an artificial state of life is created, by sisterly influence, and bis inquiring faculties inimical to the full play of all those emotions and called into healthy play by brotherly collisionendowments of the human heart and intellect. not that the external discipline of the world is in

The poet. Cowper compares men, when crowded the meantime excluded—the day-school, the playtoo closely together in communities, to trees plant- ground, and the ramble in the fields, as well as in ed too thick, which will grow up weak, spind- the crowded mart, are all at play on his character, ling, and imperfect, totally unlike the same trees sometimes eliciting good, and sometimes evil; but when scattered over hill and dale, and rearing from all these he has the retreat of home to flee to, their strong, healthy trunks, and spreading their and its softer and purer influences to temper and broad, flourishing branches, into the sky. We know subdue his expanding passions and propensities. not a more melancholy and depressing thing than If his home be a straitened one-and perhaps for to visit an hospital, or a poor-house, filled with old him not the worse on this account—he has many people, even when there is no want of mere physi- lessons of prudence and forbearance taught him cal comforts. The inmates may be clothed and fed daily; and when, in return for some kindly office, tolerably well; but there is a languor and restless- his mother or sisters exact from him a promise of ness, a death-like depression, and an unimpassioned future kindly deeds, when he grows up to be and unfeeling deportment, which is more like a liv- able-bodied and rich, what a lasting stimulus does ing entombment than a real and earthly existence. this idea impress upon his little swelling heart, and Singular enough that, as the old increase in years, not unfrequently what ample fruits of future kind and even in sorrow and affliction, their sympathies offices are the result! But suppose this same boy turn more and more towards the young! The old taken from home, and placed in some hospital, or blanched and withered cheek lights up with some- great educational institution, his heart at first is THE TORCH, NO. X.

MARCH 7, 1846.

sad, and he droops like a transplanted flower; eminent philanthropist, to whose report we alludone by one his affections deaden and wither-he ed in a late paper, maintains that even the poorest must have companionship of some kind or another can pay a small sum for education, and that they

- he joins the crowd, and soon acts, and thinks, will and do think more of such education than if and feels as they do. In such seminaries, the in- it had been bestowed in an eleeinosynary way. tellect may be, and generally is, sufficiently culti- There is no greater hope of individuals and of comvated, but the feelings and affections shrink up, munities, than when even the lowest are willing and all but disappear; and in their place what can and able to help themselves,—when they cease to be substituted but selfish considerations, and too slavishly or ignobly depend upon extrinsic aid. often vicious passions and indulgences. If in such For this reason we regret to see proud palaces with institutions the discipline be imperfect or relaxed, glittering domes, rising in the present day, to form of course idleness and licentiousness will be preva- the secluded prisons either of the discontented and lent. If, on the contrary, the discipline be strict, peevish old, or of groups of the young and artless, then, although the intellectual advantages may be uprooted and transplanted from their native and great, and even the moral conduct guarded, still more useful beds, where they might have withthere is a barrier to the full play of the best and stood even the bitter blasts of poverty, and perhaps most valuable of the affections. In thus generaliz- grown more hardy and brave-hearted in conseing we by no means exclude exceptions; but we quence of this discipline. Not, however, that we think it will be found, that those exceptions are altogether blame the founders of such institutions. where institutions of the kind are placed as much Though personal vanity may have been one of as possible upon the model of domestic and family their chief prompters, and that other singular tuition. If, again, it be said that these generaliza- feeling, which almost always actuates great hoardtions are visionary, or at all events greatly exag- ers, a desire to keep their accumulated wealth in gerated, we could bring proofs of the accuracy of one great mass, and so to perpetuate it down ward our conclusions, and adduce evidence to show that through all time, unbroken and unalienated, yet the discipline of such institutions has been so de- we believe other benevolent feelings may, and often fective, and the morals of the inmates so contami- have had their influence. Of this nature is that nated, as to fill with alarm the breasts of parents high estimate which every partially or un-educatwho had confided their children to them. But it ed man has formed in his mind of the paramount will be said, do not idleness, and disobedience, and importance of learning and knowledge, and that vice, and profligacy, prevail sufficiently in private benevolent desire which actuates him to do all that families, or at least among individuals of such in him lies to procure that learning for others families, trained and cared for in the most anxious which he had not had the good fortune to com

True, this is the case. But vice in com- mand in early life for himself. Of this cast must munities becomes inevitably contagious ;-it grows


canny, industrious, and courtier-formed “ginand increases, and is transmitted from one year to gling Geordie” have been when he formed the deanother, with a faithfulness and pertinacity not sign of endowing Heriot's Hospital,-an institution easily to be overcome; while individual vices are which undoubtedly has been of service in its day, more circumscribed, do less extensive harm, and and which, in the present time, by a judicious exmay be weeded out, if not reclaimed. So obvious tension of its founder's general intentions, has been have become the evils of such institutions, that in the means of establishing excellent and cheap dayEdinburgh propositions have emanated from seve- schools, throughout the most populous districts of ral quarters to abolish them altogether, and sub- this city. The fame and success of Heriot's instistitute domestic education and training in their tution, however, and the prospective eclat of simistead. An experiment of this kind is being tried lar glittering domes rising to the memory of others, with the orphan children of the city poor, and a pro- have had a contagious effect upon many worthy position to extend this experiment to institutions of citizens, who, finding they had more wealth than a higher grade, has been more than once mooted. they had the heart to bestow upon their own needy It appears, indeed, as if the age for such institutions relatives, have, from time to time, inundated the had entirely gone by. Their necessity is not now northern metropolis with their charity. Within apparent,-a good common education is now with- the precints of the city there are not less than in the reach of every family, even of very humble seven such hospitals, at which are educated and means. Make even a first-rate education as cheap maintained about six hundred and fifty boys and by the funds of our numerous endowments,—apply girls; and there is besides, Donaldson's Hospital, the surplus to the domestic board of orphans and which looks more like a magnificent palace than a destitute children, and every fitting and salutary place of charity, which is now nearly ready to repurpose of the donors will be served. Such a sys-ceive some hundreds more; and a similar institutem as at present exists, besides producing the evils tion to be yet reared from the bequeathment of the we have enumerated, tends still farther to degrade late Sir William Fettes, the proper independent spirit which both children The actual intention of most of these donors and parents, in all ranks, ought to cherish. An was, that the charity should be confined to or


phans alone, who had been left unprovided for by their elders with awe as well as reverence. The their parents. This restriction it was always found system of apprenticeship was universal among difficult to observe, and as the institutions became the middle classes, and the master not only held richer, by the gradual increase in the value of pro- the sway of command, but exercised a paternal perty, the admissions also became more indiscri- surveillance over his young household. We do minate and promiscuous. The total annual expense not affirm that all this was wisely done, or that in of maintaining and educating each individual practice it was found uniformly advantageous. But within such establishments is also comparatively if severity of treatment, restraint, and ceremony, high-much higher, in fact, than what is necessary were imposed upon the young of those days, the to clothe, feed, and educate, in a private way,

reverse is the case now. The youth of the present individuals of the same station in society, and des- time may be said never to be young. They start tined for the common business of life-so that, on from the cradle to the independence of manhood at economical views alone, these establishments are one leap; the toga virilis of the Romans, that disbased on erroneous principles; but when to this tinctive check of a people fond of salutary disciwe add the moral considerations which we have pline, is never worn; every child is hurried into a already alluded to (and we must say, that we have forced precocity; restraint is deemed a cruelty or merely hinted at evils which are quite palpable a inark of slavish oppression, and hence indulgence and notorious), the sooner some radical change is has its full and unrestrained swing. The very brought about the better, both for the interests of characteristics of youth, even under the best manthe young, and the community at large.

agement, are, self-sufficiency, a tendency to hasty But one erroneous principle, if carried out in conclusions of thought, and a quick play of fresh practice, is sure to bring other evils in its train. and untamed passions,—but the sway of unWe have said that the eleemosynary education of bounded liberty thus degenerates into boldness, so large a proportion of the community, especially rudeness, and every kind of selfishness. Formerly so large a proportion of the poorer class, may have respect to the opinions of the old and experienced no little effect in bringing back to hospitals a con- was deemed a virtue, and the “wisdom of our ansiderable proportion of the old and infirm poor. cestors” was perhaps too tenaciously adhered to: Once impart an idea of an hospital in early life, and now antiquity is despised in the gross,-neither its it becomes familiar afterwards,-many may trust

wisdom nor its errors claiming a passing glance of to it themselves, and more may find it a convenient attention. All modern thought is hurried on to way of getting quit of the burden of their aged par- the future, we live not in the past or the present, ents, or dependant sisters and relatives. It has but in what is to come, or rather in anticipation of been frequently remarked, both iń England and what may come. Formerly Britons gloried in Scotland, that where such institutions abound, “Old England,” now it is Young England, Young trade and enterprise languish. It is not to our France, and Young America. An acute traveller ancient cathedral cities, with their endowed stalls, has pointed out the remarkable prevalence of and deaneries, and hospitals, and free schools, that young opinions in the latter country. It would we are to look for the greatest enterprise or the appear by their vital statistics that the proportion sounds of busy labour,-to stately York, or solitary of young people as compared to middle-aged and Lincoln, or ancient Chester,—but to the unpinna- old persons is more in America than in other councled Manchester, and Leeds, and Birmingham. tries in Europe; now this physical fact, joined to Even those great and renowned halls of ancient the precocious forcing of the young, and the unilearning, Oxford and Cambridge, now allow the versal go-a-head system of the country, has evicobwebs to accumulate in their córners, and the dently produced a national effect, and hence the sleek and amply endowed professors sleep in soft rashness and volatility of purpose, the self-sufficient slumbers, while the world around is all awake. boasting, that constitutes the chief foibles of that The electric telegraph, that mechanic power which otherwise remarkable people. has rivalled the celerity of thought, did not origin- In addition to the strict surveillance and suborate there. The brilliant gas, which rose a meteor dination of former times, which we have just alfrom the earth, did not first shine on the Cam or luded to, as existing in all families of the communithe Isis,-neither did steam engine or railway car- ty, there was also the discipline of the army and riage start from their classic abodes. Few Watts, navy, and especially that discipline as exercised or Boltons, or Windsors, that we are aware of, during states of long and trying warfare. This have ever issued either from ancient universities or had no doubt an effect on the general manners of endowed hospitals.

the community; and if there were any salutary Few changes in society are more remarkable advantages arising from it, it is now lost, by the than the different position which the young now relaxed discipline of these our “piping times of hold from what they did formerly. In the days of peace.” It appears to us as if the training and our ancestors young people held a very subordinate fitting subordination of the young did not altoplace. They were kept in strict discipline and gether keep pace with the improvements and refinesubordination. They were taught to look up to ments of the age.

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