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sands, of miles. It has never been described with any | parts by weight of the first preparation, one part of the care, and, extraordinary as it is, has excited very little second preparation, one part of gypsum, and one part of attention. The trees are scattered loosely and at inter phosphate of magnesia and ammonia. vals over the desert all the way from Cairo to Suez, a MEAN TEMPERATURE OF THERMOMETER AT ELGIN. distance of 86 miles. No theory of their silicification or

(The Thermometer in the shade exposed to the North.) their appearance where they are found has ever been

Time of registering-9 o'clock A. M., --mid-day,—6 o'clock attempted. The late Dr Malcolmson found fragments of

P. M., and 9 o'clock P. M. the wood imbedded in the conglomerate which contains

1843.
1844.

1845. the Egyptian jaspers, and threw it out as possible that

January

39:32
39.48

37.64 they and the gravel of the desert, consisting almost en

February

32.25
34.00

36.00 tirely of jaspers, might possibly be the result of ab March

41:55
40.80

37.93 rasion or denudation. This threw the difficulty only one April

47:46
50:55

51:13 step further back; besides this, that the appearance of

49.64
54:3)

51:48

June the forest is at variance with the theory. No agates or

58.43 54.86

59.93 July

60-51

59.64 gravel appeared around; the trees seemed to have been

58:19 62:45 August

58.35

58.42 petrified as they lay; they looked like a forest felled by

September

60-76
56:40

53.96 mighty winds." A further mystery was this: they lay

October

45:16
48.25

49.64 on the surface of bare drift-sand and gravel, and repos

November

40:53
44.20

33:36 ing on limestone rocks of the most recent tertiary for December

47.45
33:58

36.97 mation-the texture and colour of the imbedded oyster

12)582.00 12)577.93 12)564.63 shells were as fresh and pure as if brought not six weeks Mean

48.5

47.00 from the sea.—Dr Buist.

Highest tempt. Highest temp Highest temp. LIEBIG'S PATENT MANURES.-In making manure accord

registered, 769, on registered, 80o, on registered, 770, on ing to the invention, carbonate of soda or of potash, or

16th and 19th Aug. 20 Sept.

12th June.

and 15th Sept. 1 Lowest temp. Lowest temp. both, are fused in a reverberatory furnace, such as is

Lowest temp. registered, 20°, on registered, 189, on used in the manufacture of soda-ash, with carbonate or

registered, 160, on 220 Feb.

30th Jan.

16th Feb. phosphate of lime (and with such fused compounds other ingredients are mixed), so as to produce manures; and such composition, when cold, being ground into powder

Gleanings. by edge stones, or other convenient machinery, the same is to be applied to land as manure. And in order to apply

THE CHINESE.— When the first Europeans visited China, such manure with precision, the analysis and weight of the

says Mr Barrow, they were astonished to find an universal previous crop ought to be known with exactness, so as to

toleration of religious opinions—to observe Lamas and return to the land the mineral elements in the weight and

Tao-tzes, Jews, and Persians, and Mahomedans, living proportion in which they have been removed by the crop.

quietly together, and each following his own creed without Two compounds are first prepared, one or other of which

molestation, while most of the countries in Europe were is the basis of all manures, which is described as the first

all that time torn in pieces by religious schisms, and man and second preparations.

was labouring with enthusiastic fury to destroy his fellowThe first preparation is formed by fusing together two,

creatures in honour of his Creator, for a slight difference e two and a half parts of carbonate of lime, with one part

of opinion in matters of no real importance, or even for a A potash of commerce (containing on an average sixty

different acceptation of a word. In China, every one was carbonate of potash, ten sulphate of potash, and ten chlo

allowed to think as he pleased, and to choose his own relinde of potassium, or common salt, in the hundred parts),

gion. The horrid massacre of the Protestants in Paris had or with one part of carbonate of soda and potash, mixed in

terrified all Europe. China knew pothing of internal comequal parts.

motions, but such as were sometimes occasioned by a parThe second preparation is formed by fusing together

tial scarcity of grain. The art of improving vegetables by one part of phosphate of lime, one part of potash of com

particular modes of culture was just beginning to be known merce, and one part of soda ash.

in Europe. All China at that time was comparatively a Both preparations are ground to powder; other salts or

garden.' When the king of France introduced the luxury ingredients in the state of powder are added to these pre

of silk stockings, which about eighteen years afterwards parations, and mixed together, or those not of a volatile con

was adopted by Elizabeth of England, the peasantry of sistency may be added when the preparations are in a state

the middle provinces of China were clothed in silks from of fusion, so that the manur

head to foot. At this period, few or none of the little elepossible the composition of the ashes of the preceding crop.

gancies or conveniences of life were known in EuropeThis is assuming that the land is in a high state of cultiva

the ladies' toilet had few essences to gratify the sense of tion; but if it be desired to grow a particular crop on land

smell, or to beautify for a time the complexion. The not in a high state of cultivation, then the manure would

scissors, needles, pen-knives, and other little appendages, be applied in the first instance suitable to the coming crop,

were then unknown, and rude and ill-polished skewers and then, in subsequent cases, the manure prepared ac

usurped the place of pins. In China, the ladies had their carding to the invention would, as herein described, be

needle-work, their paint-boxes, their trinkets of ivory, of applied to restore to the land what has been taken there

silver, in fillagree, of mother-of-p-arl, and of tortoise-shell. from by the preceding crop.

Even the calendar, at this time so defective in Europe, Preparation of Manure for Land which has had a Wheat

that Pope Gregory was urged to the bold undertaking of crop grown on, and removed therefrom.-Take of the first leaping over or annihilating ten days, was found to be in paration six parts by weight, and of the second prepa

China a national concern, and the particular care of goparation one part, and mix with them two parts of gypsum

vernment. Decimal arithmetic, a new and useful discovery one part of calcined bones-silicate of potash (contain

of the seventeenth century in Europe, was found to be the ing six parts of silica), and one part of phosphate of mag

only system of arithmetic in China. In a word, when the nesia and ammonia.

nobility of England were sleeping on straw, a peasant of And such manure is also applicable to be used after

China had his mat and his pillow, and the man in office engrowing barley, oats, and plants of a similar character. joyed his silken mattress. .

Preparation of Manure for Land which has had a crop EXERCISE YOUR OWN TALENTS.—There is a class of perof Beans grown thereon, and removed therefrom. Take sons who interest themselves so far in the condition of the fourteen parts by weight of the first preparation; two labouring-classes, as to bring forward sad instances of parts of the second preparation, and mix them with one suffering, and then to say, “Our rich men should look to part of common salt, (chloride of sodium)—a quantity of these things.” This kind of benevolence delights to bring silicate of potash, (containing two parts of silica,)-two together, in startling contrast, the condition of different parts of gypsum, and one part of phosphate of magnesia classes, and then to indulge in much moral reflection. Now, and ammonia.

riches are very potent in their way; but a great heart is And such manure is also applicable for land on which often more wanted than a full purse. ...... Do not let peas, or other plants of a similar character, have been us accustom our minds to throw the burden of good works grown and removed.

on the shoulders of any particular class. God has not given Preparation of Manure for Land on which Turnips a monopoly of benevolence to the rich.—The Claims of have been grown, and removed therefrom.--Take twelve | Labour.

RONGE AND CZERSKI, THE GERMAN REFORMERS.--Ronge's external appearance is sufficient to prepossess in his favour. Without presenting any thing imposing in form or bearing, there is a combination of force and self-possession, with benevolence, openness, and honesty, in the expression of his countenance, which wins all who approach him. His beautiful black hair, one of the grounds of heresy against him, flows in luxuriant tresses around his noble forehead. He was born 16th October 1813, at Bishop's Walden, a hamlet in Silesia; his father was a small farmer, and from his ninth to his twelfth year the future reformer was occupied in herding his father's cattle. He received the rudiments of his education at the school of his native village, and soon showed such proficiency, that he was sent to the University of Breslau in 1836, where he spent the greater part of three years as a student of theology, and in 1839 he entered the seminary of priests at Breslau. Here he first conceived a dislike for the peculiar tenets in which he was educated, and afterwards, on becoming a parish priest, he set himself to oppose them by all means in his power. From the obscure village of Grottkan, he wrote those celebrated letters against the Catholic faith, which have now stirred up the greater part of Germany,

John Czerski was born at Werlubien, a village near Neuenburg. Though his parents were in poor circumstances, yet he received a good education, and studied theology at Posen. On becoming a priest, his mind became filled with scruples and objections to the faith and practice of his church, and to show his disapproval of celibacy, he publicly acknowledged as his wife a female of the place. Czerski's external appearance is not so prepossessing at first sight as Ronge's, but a farther intimacy leads to many noble points in his disposition. Dignity and decision form the basis of his character, and his grave aspect seems to express the consciousness of his high vocation. The creed of Czerski is supposed to be more scriptural and evangelical than that of his brother reformer, who has given lately indications of belonging to the rationalist party.

FORCE OF HABIT.-Then you may perceive too well what is habit, and how, once bound in its thousand imperceptible threads, you remain tied in spite of you to what you detest. These threads, though they escape the eye, are, nevertheless, tough; pliable and supple as they seem to be, you may break through one, but underneath you find two; it is a double, nay triple, net. Who can know its thickness? I read once in an old story what is really touching, and very significant. It was about a woman, a wandering princess, who, after many sufferings, found for her asylum a deserted palace. in the midst of a forest. She felt ha in reposing there, and remaining some time: she went to and fro from one large empty room to another, without meeting with any obstacle; she thought herself alone and free. All the doors were open. Only at the hall-door, no one having passed through since herself, the spider had woven his web in the sun, a thin, light, and almost invisible network; a feeble obstacle, which the princess, who wishes at last to go out, thinks she can remove without any difficulty. She raises the web; but there is another behind it, which she also raises without trouble. The second concealed a third ; that she must also raise :--strange! there are four.--No, five! or rather six--and more beyond. Alas! how will she get rid of so many? She is already tired. No matter! she perseveres; by taking breath a little she may continue. But the web continues too, and is ever renewed with a malicious obstinacy. What is she to do? She is overcome with fatigue and perspiration; her arms fall by her sides. At last, exhausted as she is, she sits down on the ground, on that insurmountable threshold; she looks mournfully at the aerial obstacle fluttering in the wind, lightly and triumphantly.-- Poor princess! poor fly! now you are caught! But why did you stay in that fairy dwelling, and give the spider time to spin his web?Michelet.

is newly charged, is in full operation. The wheel- work, showing minutes and seconds, is moved by the gravitating bar or detent immediately on its being attracted by the electro-magnet. When this clock is made to show minutes and seconds only, as in observatory clocks, it consists of two wheels only, and when it is made to show hours, three wheels are necessary. The contact-breaker is suspe

pended on knife-edges immediately above the pendulum bob, having a gold concentric arc, on which press two very slight gold springs. In this are is inserted a piece of ivory, which breaks the current, and permits the falling bar or detent to fall on the pendulum so as to keep up its vibration. By the method of coincidences, it was stated, the penduluin was found to keep its motion with the utmost steadiness, as compared with a compensation mercurial penduluin beating seconds.

Referred to a committee.

2. On the Causes of Hurricanes in the West Indies, with illustrative Diagrams. By Robert Lawson, Esq., AssistantSurgeon, 47th Regiment.

In this paper Mr Lawson gives further instances, both from personal and recorded experience, of hurricanes in the West Indies, exhibiting phenomena not conformable to the laws of Hare, Espy, Reid, or Redfield; and, while adopting as true many points insisted on by these eminent observers, endeavours to prove the dependence of those mighty convulsions on the moon's influence, and other more recondite influences, which seem to have escaped all observers in this field of inquiry except the indefatigable Howard.

3. Description of an Improved Method of Manufacturing Pyroxilic Spirit (Wood Naphtha of Commerce,) Pyrolig. neous Acid, and other products, from the destructive distillation of Wood. By Captain George Dacres Paterson, 4 Melville Place, Edinburgh.

This communication contained a description of the manufacture of Pyroxilic Spirit and Pyrolignite of Lime, with various improvements, the principal of which consisted in a new manner of stifling the charcoal, so as to free it from the noxious gases, and in the distillation which is conducted on the principle of distillation in vacuo. The arrangements were stated to effect great saving in fuel and labour.

The vacuum is formed by steam, and by a simple arrangement the condensed vapour is entirely drained off from the still prior to the supply of liquor being forced up from the charging back. A simple apparatus was described for guiding the workman as to the different strength of the liquor; and a plan of a rectifier, by which the essential oil is more easily separated from the spirit, was also given, by which means, and others farther described, the Pyrox Spirit, it was stated, could be procured in great purity.

Fine Arts. ROYAL ACADEMY EXHIBITION. We resume our Catalogue raisonée, with a glance at the pictures in the North Octagon.

195. A Peasant Girl, near Rome. J. Ballantyne. This artist is rapidly improving in ease and simplicity of touch. This forms a very pleasing portrait.

200. On the Thames, near Blackwall. R. Norie. A lively and well managed landscape.

201, Fleurs Castle. G. Simson. Stiff castles and lawns are difficult to be brought within the rules of tasteful landscape-but except that green rather predominates, this is a good picture.

207. Abbey Craig, Stirling. J. F. Williams. A good view, but the colouring rather muddy.

212. Fruit Girl. W. Crawford. A tasteful picture with delicacy of touch, and a good deal of expression.

128. Druidical Stones, Isle of Arran, H. Macculloch. A bold sketch dashed apparently off at a sitting, by this clever artist.

219. Old Mill, Perthshire. Macneil Mackleay. A laboured landscape, but somewhat stiff.

220, Glen in the Ochil Hills. R. K. Greville. This is a soft and beautiful picture. The trees are perfect portraits, and the rocks and foliage, and all the accessories of the scene are in perfect keeping with nature. In fact, the eye of the botanist is here evident as well as the delicate touch of the artist. For these reasons we would recommend this picture to the attention of young students of landscape painting. There is nothing in art

Proceedings of Societies. ROYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF Arts. 9th Feb.-1. Descrip ion of a New Clock, impelled by a combination of Gravitation and Electro-Magnetism. Invented by Mr Alexander Bryson.

In this clock the common pendulum is used. It is kept vibrating, in equal arcs, by a small falling bar, or detent, which is raised every alternate second by the attraction induced in a soft electro-magnet. The magnetism is excited by constant batteries placed in the bottom of the clockcase, which may be kept in action for any desirable period, and when changed it is not necessary to stop the clock; as before the spent battery is out of action, the other, which

or fancy which can be substituted for actual nature | joyous urchins swinging on a gate. The human figures indeed fancy is but the reflected and blended images of form the best part of the picture. nature. Compare the principal tree in this picture with 306. St Jacques Dieppe. W. A. Wilson. A soft and that in its near neighbour, No. 231, of J. W. Turner. pleasing view. To what growing plant on earth does this latter bear 314. Bamborough Castle. R. K. Greville. A sea any resemblance! It is like nothing in nature but a | view by this indefatigable artist-soft and pleasing, but peacock's feather, deprived of its brilliant eye. Nor let not equal to some of his other pictures we have alluded us be misunderstood as hypercritical. There is an ad to. mirable lesson to artists in Sir Walter Scott's Life, by 166, Scene from Gil Blas. T. M. Joy. A picture in Lockhart. When that poet was busy preparing himself the large room, omitted in last notice, and well deserving to write Marmion, his friend Morrit, whose guest he inspection. There is much spirit and good drawing in then was, discovered him one day in a hollow glen near the piece. Though the subject has this great fault, that the ruins of a castle, busily ocoupied in noting down it expresses no particular or marked incident or action. every shrub and plant which grew there. On Morrit's expressing his surprise at this minute scrutiny, Sir Walter Scott remarked “ that in nature no two scenes

Literature. are exactly alike, and that whoever copied truly what Scott's Sketches from Scripture History. was before his eyes, would possess the same variety in

A posthumous volume by the late Mr William Scott, his descriptions, and exhibit apparently an imagination

author of the Harmony between Religion and Phrenoas boundless as the range of nature in the scenes he re

logy, a work combating Mr Combe's “ Constitution of corded; whereas, whoever trusted to imagination would

Man" on phrenological principles. We are rather parsoon find his own mind circumscribed and contracted to

tial to religious writing by laymen, as we generally get a few favourite images, and the repetition of these

from them, if not much that is absolutely new, at least would sooner or later produce that very monotony and

old matter freshened in the modes of expression. Boulbarrenness which had always haunted descriptive poet

den's Essays are marked instances of this, and although ry in the hands of any but the patient worshippers of

not of merit equal to them, Mr Scott's sketches are truth."

pleasing, earnest, and improving. 224. A Shepherd Boy. J. D. Marshall. A soft and

Life and Character of Gerhard Tersteegen. simply touched picture. 231. Mercury and Argus. J. M. W. Turner. We

The “life and character” of Tersteegen occupy but a have twice alluded to this picture already. To be esti

small portion of the book, the greater part of which is mated at all it must be viewed at a distance, and looked

taken up with selections from his life and writings. His at for a long while-still we cannot find out a bit of na

life, however, is, as in the case of all earnest spirits, to ture in it.

be found in these, and therefore the brevity of his bio238. The Bandit's Outlook. J. D. Marshall. As far grapher is of less moment. Gerhard Tersteegen was as a single figure goes, a well painted little picture.

the countryman of Heinrich Stilling, but preceded him 250. Cottage on South Esk. J. Stein. A pleasing

in the pilgrimage of life. Equally pious as Stilling, he landscape.

has none of his quaintness or literary ability, but for 270. The Arrest of William Tell, w. Simson. A purely religious reading, his works are of a superior large picture containing several good groups and inte

order. resting figures, but the time of action in the story has Lowe's Edinburgh Magazine. not been well chosen with a view to pictorial effect.

This periodical is decidedly improving. Amongst 274. The Enterkin Leadhills. G. Harvey. We never other able articles, the present number contains a good tire looking on this picture. It appears as perfect as one, entitled, Carlyle and Guizot on Cromwell. If, howcould be wished. Carry the eye from the dark pool be ever, the writer would see Mr Carlyle's claims as a hisneath the shelving bracken-covered rocks of the fore torian thoroughly discussed, we refer him to a paper by ground, up to the sunny knolls, with the sheep fast nib Dr Vaughan, in last number of the British Quarterly bling the green sward, in the middle ground; and the Review. mountain streamlet wimpling through the dell; and then

English woman's Family Library. to the summit, where a glimpse of the blue misty sky is visible, and it is nearly as refreshing as a ramble over

This library commences with Mrs Ellis' “ Women of

England,” and is principally, or entirely, to consist of the real scene. It is exactly nature—but nature idealised.

the other works of that esteemed authoress. The four 278. Portrait of a Gentleman. S. Mackenzie. A well

treatises addressed to her countrywomen, by Mrs Ellis, painted portrait.

have already passed the ordeal of public opinion so fa280. The Knitter. R. T. Ross. A good deal of cha

vourably, as to preclude criticism now; and at present racter and expression here.

we have only to say, that the “Library” editions are 284. Going to the Fair. R. K. Greville. A small

portable, elegant, and cheap. The re-issue of these picture, which requires a near inspection, but it will well

works reminds one of the variety of publications which repay the trouble. It is delicately and beautifully touch

have recently issued from the press on the subject of ed off, with much of nature in it.

female duty-would it not be well to take up the coun291. Entrance to Strathearn. Macneil Macleay. A

ter-topic of male obligation? The men—the Husbands, laboured picture, but we desiderate ease and more of the

Fathers, and the Sons of England, would embrace a class soft blending of tints.

quite as destitute of instruction as its Women, Wives, 292. Reading the Bible. T. Faed. Force of effect

Mothers, or Daughters, can be.. and a bold brush here.

Pisher's Gallery of Scripture Engravings. Part I.–V. 296. Bothwell Castle. H. Macculloch. The soft re The plates in this gallery we have seen before, but ceding landscape and the shadow on the water, are given their beauty and extreme cheapness puts it out of our with a truth and beauty which cannot be surpassed; the power to make any complaint, as, if got up originally foreground is also rich and well conceived; but we think for this work, they must have been sold at six times the too minutely laboured. A little more massing and gene price. The letter-press descriptions are by Dr Kitto, ralizing of objects would have produced a finer effect and, as a matter of course, are ably done, but we must on the whole.

be excused for saying that, if we wanted biblical litera297. A Dutch East Indiaman. R. Leitch. A well ture for its own sake, we would rather have pictures to managed and faithfully depicted sea piece.

illustrate Dr Kitto's text, than have Dr Kitto's text 302. Happy as a King. W. Collins. A parcel of | illustrating pictures even by masters new or old.

AMERICAN LITERATURE. WHATEVER Americans have done toward fostering and be an accurate Greek scholar. His translation of the cultivating a native literature, at all worthy of the name, Greek Grammar of Buttman was used at the institution has been done in a comparatively recent period. The where he was educated the venerable Harvard,' as it is colonists were necessarily more engaged in levelling called by its sons; and two centuries of existence in a forests and panthers, than in serving the Muses in aca 'young country may warrant the term. Mr Everett's demic shades; and the few polemical treatises, histori · literary and historical discourses and orations on various cal tracts, and rhyming couplets, which the natives' al public occasions were collected in a volume a few years since. lowed them leisure to manufacture, were mostly of too His literary acquirements are extensive, and few public men local or temporary an interest to be perpetuated, and they have obtained, more generally, the respect of all parties. are now almost forgotten or seldom referred to. There Daniel Webster, the ex-senator and secretary of state, were among the pilgrims,'and their children, a Winthrop, is frequently confounded in England with Noah Webster, a Mather, a Bradford, a Prince, and a Hutchinson, to com- the philologist. Mr Webster has long held a prominent memorate the adventurous progress of those hardy and rank among American statesmen. His style of oratory is high-minded men who became the founders of a nation; a massive, clear, and forcible, appealing to reason and good Roger Williams, a Cotton, and many others, to beat “ the sense, rather than to feeling and passion; and it is much drum ecclesiastic," and chronicle the dogmatical and pug aided by his remarkably impressive and commanding pernacious theology so peculiar to that age; and a Broadstreet, sonal appearance. His speeches and forensic arguments a Wolcott, a Trumbull, to invade the realms of imagination. (for he is also eminent at the bar) have been collected in and perpetrate dull rhymes on prosy subjects; but all these three volumes, and justly place him in a high literary rank, are only preserved as curiosities on the shelves of historical as well as that of a statesman. Many of them are on 00societies, or occasionally quoted for the same purpose by a casional and local topics, but the "eighth edition" on the chronological collector of national jingles. ith the ex title-page exhibits some sign of their general interest, and ception of the political writings of Adams, Jefferson, Ham- enduring vitality. ilton, Madison, and Jay, already mentioned, the works of George Bancroft, the historian, resides in Boston. He Franklin and the State Papers of Washington, the durable | was the first to put into English some of the historical treapart of American literature, if there be any such, belongs tises of the German Professor Heeren. His “ History of to the last 30 years.

the United States" has been prepared with elaborate care, The veteran Noah Webster, who died two years since, at from original authorities and unpublished documents; and the age of eighty-five, was the first to propose a law for the style, though perhaps rather stately and Gibbonish, is the recognition and protection of literary property in the worthy of the subject. As vet it has only narrated the United States. This was soon after the national indepen colonial history: the revolution and later times remain to dence was accomplished. Webster was the author of several be described; and it may be said, that then, for the first useful works on education, besides historical and political time, will the American history have been fairly and aupapers, which were recently collected. His elementary thentically told. spelling-book is used in every part of the country, and has Jared Sparks, the able and industrious editor of numebeen the chief cause of that uniformity of pronunciation in rous important contributions to American history and biowidely distant places, which has been often remarked by graphy, is now Professor of History in Harvard University. travellers. His great American Dictionary of the English Dr Sparks has published altogether, chiefly from materials Language,' the product of thirty years' labour, was reprint | before unedited, more than sixty different volumes, several ed in England, and by good authorities pronounced the of which are original biographies. The twelve volumes of most comprehensive and useful one extant. It is now the Washington's writings were selected from 200 folio volumes general standard in the United States, and in various of manuscripts. abridged forms is found in nearly all the schools and pri William . Prescott, the historian of Ferdinand and vate libraries. Webster was much respected as a true Isabella,” is a resident of Boston. His father, an eminent benefactor of his country; at his funeral some hundred and highly respected jurist, died a few weeks since; his young ladies, from schools in the place, walked to his grave grandfather was a leading officer of the American arıny at with a long procession of citizens, and heard there an elo Bunker Hill, in 1775. Thus it appears the impression of quent eulogy on his virtues.

many in England, that the historian and the eminent James Fennimore Cooper, the novelist, now resides at banker of Lombard Street are the same perso , is somethe family seat at Cooperstown, New York, the Temple what erroneous. While engaged on his first work, Mr ton' of the Pioneers.' He has written in all, twenty-one Prescott was almost entirely deprived of the use of his eyes; novels; a naval history, 'the American Democrat,' and so that all of the laborious reference to materials, and the some occasional essays. His early works, the Spy, the actual writing of the book, was by dictation to an amanuPilot, etc. were first published by Charles Wiley, at N ensis. Indeed all his reading and literary labours, since York, 1818-19. His novels, especially the earlier ones, the age of twenty, have been done in this way--a remarkwere always eagerly sought for by his countrymen. Thé able instance of patient and successful perseverance. From first editions of some of the latter ones have consisted of this affliction he has now happily recovered, or nearly so. 10,000 copies. Nearly all of them have been translated into He is still a young man, on the sunny side of thirty-five, French, German, and Italian, and some of them into Rus and a fine specimen, physically as well as mentally, of a sian and other languages, and are very popular on the Con New England gentleman. He is understood to be now entinent.

gaged on the History of the Conquest of Peru. English Washington Irving is at present minister of the United critics have united in placing him in the first rank of moStates at the court of Spain. At home, he bas a pictur dern historians. esque retreat on the banks of the Hudson. His writings John L. Stephens, the enterprising and intelligent traare too well known in Europe to need comment. Two or veller in Yucatan and the East, is a native and resident in three years since he contributed a series of papers to the New York, where he was educated for the bar. The anomagazine, which is named from his own veritable and face nymous publication of his first work, on Arabia Petræa, tious Knickerbocker.' No American writer is more ad &c., as already mentioned, was at once remarkably successmired by his countrymen, and none more respected and ful. Many who would have shrunk from mo e learned and beloved by those who know him in private life,

drier descriptions, were for the first time made familiar, by The lamented Channing died in 1812, at the age of sixty his pleasant and sensible pages, with the actual condition two. He was a grandson of one of the signers of the De and everyday life of the land of Ishmael and of Pharaoh. claration of Independence; was educated at Harvard, and His persevering and adventurous researches in Yucatan for many years was minister of a church in Boston. His have been more elaborately presented, and have made the essays on Milton, Buonparte, and Fenelon, have been ad world familiar with the gigantic and wonderful remains mired by tens of thousands in both hemispheres; and his of a former age. No traveller, probably, in modern times, numerous tracts against slavery, and on behalf of the la has had a larger number of readers.--American Facts. bouring classes, place him in the foremost rank of true philanthropists. He had planned larger and more impor EDINBURGH: Printed by ANDREW JACK (of No. 29 Gilmore Place) tant works for the improvement of society—but his health wat No. 36 Niddry Street, and published at No. 58 Princes Street, was always feeble, and death prematurely reached him.

by WILLIAM AITCHISON SUTHERLAND of No. 1 Windsor Street,

and JAMES KNOX of No. 7 Henderson Row, all in the City and Edward Everett, the present American minister to Great

County of Edinburgh. Britain, is distinguished as an accomplished scholar, a EDINBURGH: SUTHERLAND and Knox, 58 Princes Street, and graceful and eloquent public speaker, and an able states sold by Houlston and Stoneman, Paternoster Row. London: man. He was for several years a member of the National W. Blackwood, Glasgow: L. Smith, Aberdeen: and may be had

by order of every Bookseller in the United Kingdom. Congress, and afterwards was for three successive terms Governor of Massachusetts, his native State. He is said to |

Edinburgh, Saturday, March 7, 1846.

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THE MODERN SCHOOL OF ROMANCE. At no previous period in the history of our coun- | he has given us no just exposition of their princitry have romances been so extensively read as at ples; and in the cases of Claverhouse and the present. During what is called the era of the Covenanters he has given positive caricatures, Minerva Press, more fictional works might have his delineations of those parties being about as been published, but then there were fewer readers, near the truth as phantasmagoria portraits, which

-the price and subjects treated of keeping the magnifying the head to an enormous size, allow the romances and novels of those days amongst the other portions of the figure to retain their original higher classes of society. Now, both points are proportions. Still, with these faults, Scott is, in reversed--the most famous continental romances downward progress, left far behind by his succescan be had in penny numbers, and the scenes de sors in the foot-pad school of romance. Instead of scribed in them almost all relate to humble life, taking up the great actors or events of history, the and in consequence these productions are largely romancers of our day deal only with crime, infamy, read by those who literally form the people. Cir and vice,-a descent worse than even what took culating libraries and book-clubs are for the most place in the romancing period that preceded the days part composed of such writings; and of pestiferous of the Waverley Novels,-for then we had the inaniworks like the Mysteries of Paris, Jack Sheppard, ties of fashionable life, lighted up by an occasional &c., every collection has its duplicate, and many spectre from the brain of Mrs Radcliffe, so tame or their triplicate copy,—the whole being thumbed and so improbable, that great harm could not have mutilated to an extent that significantly shows the been committed by them, except on fine ladies, or number of hands through which they must have those still finer ladies, their maids. But when the passed. The very circumstance that any given blue and crimson lights of the romancer irradiate class of books are perused extensively by the com the Newgate Calendar, we have indeed arrived at munity is of itself a sufficient reason for inquiring a degenerate stage in literature. into the character of such books, and the more so | The apologists of this class of writers prefer a if there be any presumption previously raised as to strange defence when they tell us that their lucutheir questionable tendency. We do not therefore brations, although bordering on the horrible, are think that we are instituting an idle, indifferent, true to NATURE, and the changes are rung on this or irrelevant discussion, when we propose to devote excuse with no small amount of self-complacency. 8 page or two to the consideration of the modern Let us see what it is worth. It quietly assumes school of romance, and in order that the whole that everything in nature is not only of equal imsubject may be fairly brought under review, we portance, but of equal worth, which is manifestly shall refer to the literary as well as moral bearing not the case. If it were, the process of reasoning of the works in question.

necessary to establish such a proposition would be Like many other things, the historical romance abundantly simple and satisfactory, for then we is not, in the abstract, liable to grave objection. It should have nothing more to do than to delineate professes to be a species of prose poem, in which, the moral lineaments of a villain, dwelling with Omitting the more dull portions of history, its im disgusting minuteness on every bloated feature, and portant actors and scenes are grouped and disposed then claim as much credit for depicting hinn as of by fancy, in order that their characteristic lights could be claimed for depicting a patriot. Will any and shadows may be better developed. Honestly man in his senses say that it is as creditable, or and ably executed it might be advantageous, but that there is the same necessity for giving a moral in the absence of integrity and talent it cannot fail or literary portraiture of Richard Turpin that to do much harin-more particularly as any mis there is for giving one of John Howard? There representation, whether wilful or unintentional, may be as much ingenuity, or talent, in illustratcannot be so readily exposed as it might be were it ing the character of the one as well as the other; contained in a work which professed to be a verit but what we contend for is that the talent i misable record of facts. It is a dangerous kind of applied, and that it cannot be so misapplied' withwriting, then, in so far as it affords so large scope | out producing consequences of a character positivefor extensive yet subtle admixture of what is ly baneful. Vice should be to the moral painter right and wrong in opinion, and what is true and what shadows are to the practical painter--they false in regard to the statement of actual occurren | should serve to bring his lights to the foreground, ces. Accordingly, we find that Sir Walter Scott, and judiciously disposed of in this way, they may the chief author, if not the inventor of the histo be of service. But only in this way can they be rical romance, has often misled and prejudiced the serviceable, and that simply because the great and public mind. He has given us good historical por- good in Nature should alone be prominently traits of Jaines I., the Pretender, Queen Mary, brought forward,--and however much the actual Richard, Charles II., Cromwell, &c., so far as their in the world's history may excite or gratify, the personal habits and manners were concerned, but author prostitutes his peu who dwelis on what THE TORCH, NO. XI,

MARCH 14, 1846.

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