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the whole peninsula by means of railways-to foster and l education (both secular and religious), and the stimuencourage local agriculture and trade; but, above all, to | lants of active and industrious life, to make him a new institute schools and higher seminaries of education being-in short, to bring him back to the great Indothroughout every province and village. The mind of European family to which his language, his physical the Hindoo is acute and thoughtful-his feelings and structure, and his mental capabilities, evidently show affections are disposed to all the charities of civilized him to have originally belonged. and domestic life-and he requires only kind treatment,
THE IDIOT MURDERER. It might be supposed a very easy matter to draw a blood up there; I went to look for it last year, but it line of distinction between offenders who are morally re- had not curdled then, and he who had buried it flogged sponsible for their acts, and those who are not. Yet in me soundly. To-day I went up there again to look after practice this is by no means the case; and no subject of my blood, and he who buried it was there again, and had late has given rise to such nice hair-splitting specula horns, but I hit him on the head with the hatchet, choptions, as, in the first place, what constitutes an insane ped off his feet, and drank his blood.” Deuerlein, who act, and in the next place, whether such act should be knew that Sörgel was foolish at times, took no heed of punished or not. We say of late, for not many years what he said; meanwhile they came to Hersbruck, where have elapsed since our justiciary benches began to make Sörgel's father was waiting at the door of the poor-house, any distinctions of the kind-almost all murderers being into which he and his family had been received. punished with death, whatever was the condition of their Sörgel came quietly along with Deuerlein, who told intellects. Thus no question was made about the moral the father, in the presence of a blind man called Albert responsibility of Bellingham, the murderer of Percival; Gassner, what his son had been saying. The father though evidently a madman, he was hanged without any scolded his son for talking such nonsense; but he reremorse; and, to come nearer to the present day, a plied, “ Yes, father, it is quite true that I knocked a man wretched lunatic, who, in a fit of caprice, murdered a on the head and chopped off his feet; I killed him in poor woman at Cramond village, in the neighbourhood order to drink a felon's blood; and the man bad horns of Edinburgh, also suffered death on the gallows. We upon his head.” Gassner followed Sörgel into his room, think the public mind cannot be too much alive to this where he added, “ I also took from him a purse of moquestion, especially in connection with a subject which ney, but I threw it away again, for I will never keep we alluded to in a former number- the amelioration of what is not mine.” Gassner said, jesting, “ Oli, you our criminal code. With this view we give the follow- | kept the money, to be sure;" whereupon Sörgel was ing case of murder by an insane person, from a work we angry, and said, “ Hold your tongue, or I will strike you already noticed—“ Narratives of Remarkable Criminal dead." Trials from the German."
About an hour later Sörgel went into the barn of the Conrad Eichmuller of Lenzenberg, a day-labourer, inn, next door to the poorhouse, laughing heartily, and seventy-one years old, and feeble with age, had been em- said to Katharine Gassner, “ Now I am well again; I ployed for about a week on a hill in the forest near Hers. have given it to some one soundly; I hit him on the bruck, in digging and cutting up stumps of trees. He head, and chopped off both his feet, and one of them I always went to his work early in the morning, and re- threw away.” Katharine was frightened at this speech, turned home before dark, usually at five o'clock; but on especially as she perceived blood upon his face; when the 7th of September 1824, night began to close in, and she asked him how it got there, he answered, “I drank he was not come back. His wife, a woman of sixty-two, a felon's blood;" and he went on to tell her that the man became uneasy about him, and sent her son by a former was sitting on the ground filling a pipe, and that he marriage, a young man called Lahner, with some other (Sörgel) took up the man's hatchet, which lay beside youths, to look after him. 'They soon returned with the him, struck him with it on the head, and took two florins news that the old man was lying dead in the forest, and which he had upon him. took with them some men, and a cart to fetch the body. In the evening he told Katharine Götz, the daughter
Eichmuller was found about three feet from the stump of the sick-nurse in the poorhouse, that he had come at which he had been working, and in which three wedges upon a woodcutter who was digging up stumps in the were still sticking; he was lying with his face towards forest, and that at first he had helped him at his work, the ground, his skull shattered, and both feet chopped but that the man then appeared to him to have horns, off; the left foot still adhered to the body by the boot, whereupon he took up the hatchet and hit him on the but the right lay under a tree at a distance of four or head; that the man groaned very much, and he then five feet. Traces of blood clearly showed that he had chopped off both his feet and drank his blood. been dragged from the spot where he was at work, after Old Sörgel, who looked upon his son's story as a symphe had been killed and his feet had been chopped off; tom of returning insanity, to attacks of which his son his jacket and his two axes were scattered about, and was subject, chained him to his bed by way of precauone of the latter was stained with blood in a manner tion. The son bore it quietly, ate his supper, and joined which left no doubt that it had been used in the murder in prayer with the rest of the family as usual, and then and mutilation of the unfortunate old man. The wife lay down; but towards morning he broke out in raving had charged her son to take possession of the money madness, stormed, and tugged at his chain, which he enwhich her husband had in his pocket, amounting to about deavoured to break. In this state he was found by the two florins, but on searching the body nothing was found constables when they went to arrest and take him before upon it, save one button in the breeches pocket.
the court, and they were accordingly forced to depart The deed was no sooner made public than the mur without him. Soon after, however, he became perfectly derer was known and brought before the tribunal at quiet, and his own father and another man took him beHersbruck.
fore the court, unfettered, on the 8th of September. On the 7th of September (the day of the murder), He was immediately examined in the presence of his Paul Deuerlein, a day-labourer, was driving a cart load father and his father's companion. On being questionof grain from Reichenschwand to Hersbruck, and at ed, be stated that his name was John George Sörgel, about five o'clock in the afternoon, he overtook young that he was twenty years of age, a Protestant, the son Sörgel on the road, and called out to him, “ Where do of a day-labourer, born in the poorhouse at Hersbruck, you come from? the Hansgörgle, eh?” Sorgel replied, unmarried, and without property, and that he had learnpointing to the hill, “ A year ago some one buried my led the trade of a knife-grinder and of a chimney-sweep. On being asked whether he had ever been in custody | beat you last year? “I went to the woods once before before, he replied, “Oh, no; who would do any harm to to catch birds, and he beat me then." me-I am an angel.” He then related the murder as On the 15th of September the court was informed that follows:-“I went yesterday with my father to the wood Sörgel had been perfectly quiet for several days, and that called the Hansgorgle-I left my father, and saw at a he talked coherently, without any mixture of foolish fandistance an old man digging up stumps of trees--I did cies. The judges hereupon repaired to his prison, in not know this man; but it seemed to me that my own order to avail themselves of this interval of reason for blood was buried under the stump, and I formerly dream- an examination. His appearance and manner were toed that my parents were shut up in that place, and that tally changed; when the authorities came in he took off I must drink the blood of a felon. So I went up to the his cap, and greeted them civilly, which he had never old man, and struck him on the head with his hatchet, done before, at the same time addressing the judge by and chopped off both his feet. I then drank the blood name. On being asked, he said he had felt much betout of his head, left him lying there, and went home.” ter ever since he had been bled by order of the physiWhen asked what could induce him to commit such a cian. That before that he had not been at all well, that deed, he said, “ The thing is done and I cannot help it; his head had been dizzy and full of strange fancies, and it was because I thought he was digging up my blood.” that he had dreamt ali manuer of nonsense. He was Sörgel signed the protocol properly, but during the exa then asked if he knew the cause of his arrest. “My mination he stared about him wildly, showed great father," said he,“ who generally watches beside me at restlessness, and fidgetted with his feet and hands; night, told me that I ran away from bim in the Hansmoreover he continually expressed a desire of be gorgle and killed a woodcutter, so I suppose that is why coming a soldier, and could only be kept in the room I am in prison.” Did he remember going to the Hansby the promise that his wishes should be complied gorgle with his father. “No; I should know nothing of with.
the matter had not my father told me about it the other On the same afternoon he was taken to Lenzenberg day. I know nothing at all of having killed a man; and to see the body, which he approached without the slight if I did so, it must have been the will of God who led est air of dismay, embarrassment, or remorse. When me thither.” He was then reminded that he had himasked whether he recognised it, he said, “ Yes, it is the self twice told the court that he had killed a woodcutter same man whom I struck yesterday evening; he is dress with his own hatchet. “I remember," said he, “ that ed in the same clothes; I chopped off his feet so that he you were here in my prison, and that somebody wrote might never be laid in chains again." During this scene at yonder table, but I know nothing of having confessed he displayed the same bodily restlessness as he had done that I killed a man.” He as positively denied any reat his examination. He frequently laughed, and said collection of having had a dead man with his legs chopthat he was an angel, and that he had known very well ped off shown to him, or that a bloody hatchet and a flint that the old man was good for nothing.
and steel had been laid before him, both of which he reOn the following day, 9th of September, the judges cognised. Nevertheless he knew that he had been imwent into the prison of the accused to examine him again. prisoned for about ten days, and that it was Saturday. When asked how he felt, he said, " My head is very full, He admitted having heard, as he added, from his mother, and I have bad dreams; among other things I dreamt who had heard it from some one else, that the blood of that I must go up to the Hansgörgle, where there is a a felon was a cure for the falling sickness, but observed clock which strikes very loud." You told us yesterday that the man he killed was no felon, but rather that he that you had killed a man; how did you do that? “I himself must be one. Still he maintained that he never saw an old man digging up stumps in the Hansgörgle, remembered drinking human blood or killing the woodand I went and sat down near him. I took up his cutter. “Every one tells me that I did so," said he, "and batchet, which lay beside him, and struck him with the therefore I am bound to believe it, but I must have been back of it upon the head, so that he instantly fell down out of my mind at the time.” During the whole examidead; then I chopped off both his feet. He had an old nation his demeanour was quiet and collected, he spoke wooden tobacco-pipe in his hand, which he dropped coherently, and without any confusion of ideas, and his when I struck him; I took the pipe, but threw it away look was open and unembarrassed. directly. I also took his flint and steel, and kept them;", The next examination was deferred until the 28th (these were found upon him by his father, and delivered September, but nothing new was elicited. Sörgel still to the court.) Sorgel stedfastly denied having taken any answered every question by declaring that he knew abmoney from the old man, or having confessed to any solutely nothing of all that he had formerly related to one that he had done so, nor was a single coin found the court and to other persons. The fint and steel were upon him. Why then did you chop off the man's feet? shown to him, but he denied all knowledge of them, or “ In order that he might not be laid in chains.” Why of how they had come into his possession. The axe was did you kill him? “I struck him because I thought he likewise laid before him, but he said, " I don't know it." was going to dig up my own blood.” He then went on The court remarked that during the whole examination to say that a strange woman had once told him he must the prisoner behaved with composure and propriety, was drink felon's blood to be cured of the falling sickness; perfectly easy and unconstrained, and that his counteand he added that he had felt much better since he had nance was open and cheerful. drunk the old man's blood. “I knew,” said he, “ that It is evident that the utter ignorance of all he had it was forbidden to kill people, but I killed the man in done, which Sörgel professed during the examinations of order to be cured by his blood. It happened soon be the 15th and 28th August, was not affected. Falsehood fore five in the afternoon, and I first drank the blood is never so perfectly consistent as were his declarations from the man's head, and then dragged him to a little in the two last examinations, nor can dissimulation ever distance and cut off both his feet; the left foot remained appear so frank and unconstrained as the demeanour of attached to the boot, and the right foot I threw away." this young man, who was, moreover, described by all The blood-stained hatchet was then laid before him; he who knew him as a simple, kind-hearted, pious lad when looked at it attentively, and said at last, “ Yes, that is in his right senses. At both the two last examinations the hatchet with which I struck the man and chopped he showed himself perfectly sane, whereas, if he had had off his feet.” He also recognised the flint and steel any reason for wishing to deceive the judge, nothing which were shown him. The examination concluded would have been easier for him than to continue play. with the following questions and answers: - Do you re ing the part of a madman. If his ignorance at the pent of what you have done! “ Why, he beat me soundly two last examinations was affected, his former mad. last year, and that is why he did nothing to me when I ness must necessarily have been equally false, a suppohit him on the head.” On what occasion did the man sítion which is contradicted by all the evidence. None but a Garrick could have acted madness with such he had been with God, and had talked to him. When I fearful truth and nature. Nor was a murderer at all entered the room, he called to his mother to withdraw, likely first to confess his crime in the assumed character for that I was the devil; he was lying in bed at the time. of a madman, and then to affect forgetfulness of the past I reminded him of it since, but he remembered nothing upon pretending to recover reason. If, again, he were at all of the matter.” In this condition he remained, really mad when he committed the crime, when he re. according to bis mother's account, for a week; according lated it and when he recognised the corpse and the blood to his father's, for a month. He then recovered comstained axe, he could have no conceivable motive for pletely, talked rationally and coherently, and went to acting forgetfulness of deeds committed and words ut work again as before, and for nearly a year he had no tered during a paroxysm of insanity.
relapse; but in the spring of 1824 he had fresh attacks, His behaviour in court on the 3d November, when his which did not at first last long, but gradually increased advocate's defence was read to him, confirmed the truth in frequency and in violence. of his statement. His advocate pleaded for an acquittal “ This spring,” says Katharine Gassner, an eye-witon the ground that he was not accountable for his ac ness, “ three young men of the town passed the poortions. During the reading of this paper, Sörgel's man house singing and hallooing on their way to foreign parts. ner was unconstrained and almost indifferent; he listen This perhaps vexed young Sörgel, who stood at the gate ed to it attentively, but without the slightest emotion. and began as if he were preaching—'I am the collier On being asked whether he was satisfied with the de lad. They go forth rejoicing, and I have the falling sickfence; whether he had anything to add, and if so, what? ness, and am left behind in grief and sorrow.' He inHe answered, “ I have nothing to add, and what yonder stantly became restless and uneasy, and we saw that gentleman has written is quite to my mind. As I have some change was taking place in him. The wife of Goiz, often said, I know nothing about killing any man, and if the attendant on the sick, tried to quiet him and to perI did so, it must have been while I did not know what suade biin to go back to his room, but he struck hex I was about. If I had been in my right mind, as I am twice on the face, and went out upon the high road, now, I certainly should not have harmed any one." To where he walked up and down with a disturbed and the inquiry how he felt, he replied, “ Very well; but a angry air. At this moment a stranger came along the few days ago, my keeper tells me, I was very crazy road, and Sorgel went up to him, knocked his hat off his again, and talked all manner of nonsense, but I do not head, struck him with his fist, and trampled the hat unknow a word of the matter."
der foot. The stranger, surprised at this unexpected As yet we have confined ourselves merely to Sörgel's attack, was going to beat him, but his mother, Götz's murder and trial, but in order to understand his state of wife, and I, ran up and pacified him by explaining that mind, and the event to which it gave rise, we must ex the young man was out of his senses.” Another witners amine his previous history, as collected from the evi gave the same account of this occurrence, with the addidence of his parents and other persons who observed him tion that he said in a preaching tone, “ I am a little hare; shortly before the trial.
I am the Lord Jesus, and make the grass to grow." John George Sorgel was the son of a very poor day In the course of the following night, he secretly got labourer who lived in the poorhouse at Hersbruck. He out of the window and ran in his shirt to the churchyard received a proper school education, by which he profited of the neighbouring village. very well; he was fond of reading, and wrote a fair le. In the month of May he was working with his father gible hand. From his earliest youth he was always very in a hop-ground, when he suddenly began to thrust the industrious, helping his father in his work to the utmost iron bar with which holes are bored for the hop-poles of his power; civil and gentle towards every one, and violently into the ground, saying, “ Now I am thirusting very piously inclined. His leisure hours were occupied down into hell.” He then ran home to his mother, and in reading religious books, especially the Bible, in which told her that he would tie no more hops, as he was floathe was well versed; his mind thus became filled withing between heaven and earth. He then ran away to vague images of angels, devils, hell, heaven, divine reve Scherau, a wilderness surrounded with fish-ponds; on lations, and the like, mixed up with a large stock of vul his way he pulled off his boots and left them on a hill. gar superstition. These images formed the basis of the At Scherau he jumped into a pond, pulled off his trowworld of dreams into which he was thrown by madness. sers and stockings, and threw them into the water. At Iu the year 1820 he was apprenticed to a chimney nine o'clock at night, on the 14th May, he came in his sweeper. His master gave the highest testimony to his shirt to a farmer's house, and shouted through the winindustry, good will, attention, and morals; but at the end dow,“ Which way must I go to get upon earth again?" of a year he was compelled to leave his work owing to a The farmer's son came out and asked him who he was violent attack of epilepsy, which forced his master to re and what he was about, and he replied that he had run lease him from his apprenticeship and to send him home. away from home because the earth gave way under his From that time he remained subject to that disease in feet while he was binding hops. He repeated this answer its most virulent form; he not unfrequently had several next day before the magistrate at Altorf, to whom he fits during the day, once even as many as eight. These was taken by the farmer's son, and who sent him home constant fits weakened his understanding without in the to his parents. least blunting his imagination, and he fell into a state of For several months after this he was quite sane, but morbid melancholy, arising partly from bodily infirmity in the first week of September he exhibited the first and partly from the thought that his illness kept him at symptoms of a fresh and far more terrible attack. “On home a burden to his family, and debarred him from the the Wednesday preceding the murder," said Margaret possibility of occupation or enjoyment.
Götz, to whom Sörgel was secretly attached," he conIn the spring of 1823 the disorder of his mind broke plained of a great weight upon his heart, but did not out for the first time into positive madness. He lay in seem at all wrong in his mind. On the Thursday, as I bed, ate nothing, stared at one corner of the room, spoke was sitting at my work in the court of the poorhouse, he little, except at times, when he poured out wild and in said to me, 'Margaret, this weight is terrible; I never coherent speeches almost entirely upon religious subjects, felt anything like it before; I think I must be going to saying that the Saviour had appeared to him, and had die.' On Friday I observed that he talked wildly. He talked and eaten with him; that his father and mother did not come and sit with me and the other women, but would go to heaven, where there was no water to drink, sat apart by himself; he stared wildly, laughed like a but only wine, and sweet things to eat. The constable, madman, and said he was going down into bell. His Andreas Lauter, who visited him during this attack, said, I friend, the blind Albert Gassner, came in; he seized him “ Sörgel shouted, preached, aud sang hymns without by the forehead, pulled open bis eyelids, and said, ' Now ceasing, for twenty-four hours together. He told us that I you will see;' and when Gassner said that he could not see now nor ever should, Sörgel replied, “Wait a bit; I | by madness, he was as perfectly conscious of his own will take a knife and cut your eyes open, and then you fancies, motives, resolutions, and actions, as of the real will see;' which frightened Gassner so that he ran away. external circumstances of the deed, and was able clearly On Saturday, 4th September, he stayed neariy all day in to describe all that had passed. But these images, momy parents' room, where there was a soldier lying sick. tives, and recollections, vanished as soon as the spell of He did not seem to like this, and frequently asked the madness was broken, and he heard the account with as soldier to get up and go away with him. I turned him much surprise as he would have listened to the recital out at the door several times, but he always returned, of the strange deeds of some unknown person. He knew and once he gave me such a terrible look that I was quite only thus much of a period of several days, " that his frightened. On Sunday (5th) he told me that he had a head was very confused, and that he dreamt all manner hair in his mouth that reached down into his siomach, of nonsense." He did not even remember the substance and begged me to pull it out. I was going to do so, but of his dreams; only one or two circumstances remained his mouth was so full of foam that I was frightened. He in his memory; for instance, that the judge had visited then went to the well and rinsed his mouth, saying all him in prison, and that some one had written at the the time that he felt so ill he must be going to die. In table. He was not aware either that he was himself the the evening he lay upon the bench in my room, and bung principal person concerned on that occasion, that the his head down backwards, which I forbid him several subject of the inquiry was his own deed, or that he had times, but he always did it again. On Monday afternoon confessed it. he kept walking up and down in the passage, and at last It is well known that in madness or delirium the pathrew himself violently upon his face, crying, · Kill me, tient often appears to himself to be a third person, or kill me!' and in the evening he threw himself down in ascribes his own feelings and actions to some one else. the same manner under a tree, so that his father had to Thus a fever patient begs his nurse to remove that carry him away." Katharine Gassner and Elizabeth troublesome guest out of his bed, pointing all the while Hecklin gave evidence to precisely the same effect. to himself, or says that a friend sitting by his bedside
After his father had taken him home on Monday has a violent pain in the side, or is thirsty, and requests evening, he again tried to escape through the window, that something may be given him to drink; while it is whereupon old Sörgel sent to the constable for a chain he himself who feels the pain and the thirst which he and padlock, and chained his son to the wall beside his ascribes to another. This singular confusion of persons bed, to which he quietly submitted.
occurs twice in Sörgel's madness, and proves its reality On Tuesday morning young Sörgel appeared perfectly and the truth of his confession; and also that the contranquil, and begged his father for God's sake to unfet fession was made during the paroxysm of insanity, as in ter him. His request was complied with, and he prayed it he relates these delusions as positive facts. and breakfasted with his parents. At last he proposed The first instance of this delusion was that which to his father to take a walk with him up the old hill, prompted him to drink the blood of the murdered man. about three miles from Hersbruck, as it might divert After he had recovered his senses, he was perfectly well his thoughts and do him good. His father consented, able to distinguish a felon from a murdered man. Thus and they set out together at about eight o'clock. When his application of the vulgar superstition that the blood they reached the very top of the mountain, young Sörgel of an executed felon is a cure for the falling sickness, to jumped down a steep bank, broke through the thicket the man he had himself killed, was no doubt entirely the and disappeared. His father, seeing that it was impos result of this delusion. His imagination transferred to sible to follow him, went home, in order to prevent mis the person of the murdered man that which he knew chief there. What followed, our readers already know. himself to have become by the deed he had committed.
Nothing is more remarkable than that Sörgel's con We find exactly the same confusion in the motivé fessions, which were made during his fits of madness, which induced him to chop off the feet of the murdered should, with one single exception, tally so accurately in man. He constantly asserted that he had done this in every point with the real facts of the case. His state order to prevent their laying the old man in chains ment was as connected and as intelligible a one in every again. Now Sörgel had of late been frequently chained respect, except the fantastic motives which he assigned himself, and indeed had but just been released from the for the deed, as could have been made by a perfectly chains in which he had lain all night, and possibly still sane man. The only one of his assertions which was felt the pressure of the rings upon his ankles; and here contradicted by the evidence of others is this, that be again his disturbed imagination confounded his own feet fore the court Sörgel denied having taken or having ever with those of the dead man, and in order to secure himtold any one that he had taken, the murdered man's self from the danger of being laid in chains in future, on purse. It was nevertheless certain that the woodcutter the presumption that a man who has no feet cannot be had had two florins in his possession, and that this mo chained by them, he chopped off both the feet of the ney must have been taken by Sörgel. This was proved dead woodcutter. by the declaration of the widow and her son, and by the The physicians declared their opinion that Sörgel had confession made by Sörgel that very evening to the blind committed the murder in a paroxysm of madness, when Gassner and to Katharine, both parties agreeing exactly he was not accountable for his actions; and accordingly as to the sum. It is, however, equally certain that Sör- the court, on the 230 November 1824, acquitted him of gel did not keep this money; in all probability he took it murder. in a fit of childish avidity, and afterwards threw it away For the safety of the community, he was confined in as a useless or forbidden possession.
the madhouse of Schwabach, where he died in the course The perfect unconcern with which Sörgel related the of a few months. whole transaction, as if it were the most ordinary event, No doubt can be entertained of the justice and huas well as several irrational expressions which he made manity of this decision of the Bavarian Judges. Indeed use of in court, prove him to have been mad, not only it becomes a question whether a considerable number when he committed the murder, but also when he under of the cases of murder are not perpetrated by persons 'went the first two examinations. The most remarkable labouring under some kind of mental disease. It is light is thrown upon his condition by the change which evident in the above case, which is by no means a sin took place in him when the fit of madness had passed gular one, that the individual acted under two distinct away. With the madness, every trace of the imaginary mental states, the one in which he had no present conworld which it had called into existence disappeared from sciousness of the import of the actions he was commithis mind. His recovery was like waking from a deep ting, and consequently a state of moral irresponsibility; sleep, which left no impression but a vague sense of bad the other, where his mind was awake to the conseand frightful dreamos. So long as his soul was darkened | quences of all his actions,
THE ABATTOIRS, OR PUBLIC SLAUGHTER HOUSES OF PARIS." The removal of all slaughter-houses from the centre continental cities, in those of New York and Philadelof our cities becomes a matter of the deepest importance phia, and some others in the American Union, such to the inhabitants; and as it will be interesting to our conveniences do exist. By parliamentary evidence it readers to be made aware of the best methods of accom was shown that in 1842 there were sold in Smithfield modating these most necessary establishments, we shall market 175,347 cattle, and 1,468,960 sheep; and it was shortly direct their attention to the " Abattoirs," or pub further shown that at least this number was annually lic slaughter-houses in France, and from which our civic killed within the limits of the metropolis. It is not conauthorities might borrow a good example.
venient for many butchers to kill for themselves, and These “abattoirs," or publio slaughter-houses, were therefore they employ slaughter-men to do so for them. first established in Paris by a decree of Napoleon in Many of these slaughter-men, without the least regard, 1810, but were not finished until 1818. They are either to their convenience or the comfort of the public, without the barriers of the city, on its northern and kill and prepare their meat in the most crowded parts of southern sides.
the metropolis, and in the narrowest and most confined The cattle markets for the supply of Paris are several situations, a cellar beneath the street, or any other similes distant from the city, and the cattle purchased milar apartment, being a frequent accommodation. there for consumpt by the inhabitants, or such as are Such instances are numerous, even in the immediate killed and prepared for the supply of the public services, vicinity of St Paul's Churchyard; and many instances of are driven from them, round the exterior boulevards, to the same kind exist throughout this city. the abattoirs, and thereby do not enter the city. All It must, however, be mentioned, that in the report of the butchers of Paris, amounting now to above 500, re the parliamentary committee on Smithfield market quire to take out a public licence, and all are compelledi above alluded to, the subject of establishing " abattoirs" to prepare their “materials” at the abattoirs, under a ' in London is noticed. The predilection, however, of heavy penalty.
the Londoners, for “prize-beef” in prime condition, These “abattoirs" are subdivided into a correspond- swayed the matter, and a universal benefit was set ing number of independent stalls or apartments, where ! aside for the feelings and opinions of the few. The obeach butcher has a sufficient accommodation for a jections urged, and which prevailed, were,- the amount slaughtering-house, and for the suspension of his meat of expenses that the butchers would incur in carrying until required, iron racks for the tallow, and accommo- | the meat to their places of sale; and what, we redation for its preparation, and a feeding hamel of a va- ! member, was considered of greater importance, that riable size, with all the requisite conveniences for keep
“the meat would not keep so well, in consequence of ing their cattle before being slaughtered.
being removed so soon after being killed." These objecThe abattoirs being property of the crown, a rental is
tions, however, considered in a sanitory point of view, charged for their use (independent of the licence fee), in are matters of moonshine, compared to the health of a the shape of a royalty upon the bestial slaughtered. In large community. 1843 the "custom" charged 'was 6 francs for each ox, An example, therefore, requires to be set to the cities 4 francs for a cow, 2 francs for a calf, and 10 cents for and towns of our kingdom, in this very essential departa sheep. The refuse of these abattoirs, together with ment of public health. Modern Athens has never lagthe fees thus obtained, exceeded, in 1842, L.48,000. ged behind in any improvement, and will she loiter in The lessees of the abattoirs employ their own men; they this? Let her civic authorities be up and doing-let are allowed to slaughter their cattle at any hour of the them take such steps as will at least provide for, or day or night, but they are compelled to remove them to | otherwise compel, the slaughtering of our bestial to take their sale-stalls, or elsewhere, during the night. An in- | place beyond tbe precincts of our city. If, indeed, the spector is appointed for each abattoir, whose preroga- | butchers of our city look to their own interests, they tive is similar to that of our inspector of markets, but will easily see that now, in the facility of the conveyance who, from the nature of his duties, is much more effec that will shortly be afforded to our city from all parts of tual in preventing unwholesome meat getting into con. the surrounding districts, it will be infinitely to their sumption.
advantage in a pecuniary point of view, as also to the Such are the public slaughter-houses of Paris; and no improved condition of their meat exposed for sale, to one who has ever visited them could be but struck with
have their “ abattoirs" in the suburbs, if not in the the regularity with which the operations conducted in country. The precincts of the lines of those railways them were carried on, and the cleanliness that pervaded terminating at the North Bridge afford abundance of every thing. The medical profession in France attach convenience for this, whilst the cheapness of rent of great importance to these slaughter-houses being strictly these slaughter-houses, the abundance of grazing and regulated, and to their being removed from the midst of feeding, the sale of their refuse as manure, and the faci. the population; and it is to be sincerely hoped that the lity of bringing their goods to a ready market without same order of things will, ere long, take place also in much trouble or expenee, would all tend to tempt the this country.
formation of our public slaughter-houses there. Then Notwithstanding the existence of such well regulat the annoyance of corrupt airs engendered by occasion of ed establishments of this kind in our neighbouring me blood, and other foul things coming by means of slaughtropolis of France, the improvement seems never to ter of beasts, an important and too much neglected have been thought of in this country. In many of the cause of epidemic disease, would be removed.