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them during a different condition of things. 2. As to the l account for the singular Flora which is now native there, plants in the south-west of Ireland.--These are unquestion As confirmatory of these views respecting the centralization ably distinct, not only from the Scandinavian plants just of species, the Professor mentioned some remarkable results mentioned, but equally separated from the Germanic and of researches made by himself and Mr M'Andrew in the cretaceous plants before referred to as constituting the sea depths north of Scotland during the last summer, bulk of the British Flora. Among these are several spe. and now for the first time communicated to the public. cies of saxifrage of the division called Robertsonia (London Dredging the deepest water, he actually found, what a Pride,) and Debæcia, the present locality of which plants priori would have been expected, supposing his theory is Asturias. This little Flora presenting a sub-alpine sound, mollusca which are peculiar to the Arctic Ocean, character, Prof. Forbes held to be the most ancient; and and which differ specifically from the inhabitants of the referred it to an epoch probably immediately succeeding North British sea. "These Arctic, as contra-distinguished the meiocene period of the tertiary era. During this period, from the Celtic animals, were, according to Prof. Forbes's there is geological evidence that vast changes occurred on theory, diffused over the seas of our isles during the pleisthe earth's surface. There are in the Mediterranean region tocene period, and are contemporary in time with the Arctic traces of the sea-bottom having been extensively elevated plants then exclusively growing on what was then the during that period. In Asia Minor this elevation cccurs to nucleus of our islands. Prof. Forbes concluded by noticing the extent of 6,000 feet. Prof. Forbes referred the origin the remarkable fact, that nearly 150 years since, the causes of the great bank of gulf-weed, now extending from 15° to of the peculiarities of the Irish Fauna and Flora wero 45° of north latitude, to the margin of some post-meiocene | referred by Dr Molyneaux, in a paper in the Philosophical land. Such a land, probably, may then have connected | Transactions, to the connexion of that country with distant Ireland with the northern part of Spain, and thus would | lands.- Atheneum.

ORIGINAL POETRY,

LAYS FOR THE LA BOURER.

By GEORGE ASPINALL (of Liverpool)..
Hail honest workman! Hail to thee.

Thy spirit's inmost cell;
Come, let me clasp thy toil-worn hand,

I'll teach thee too, aye all I can,
And let me call thee brother too;

To know thy dignity as man.
For such is love's command.

What though I'm call'd of gentler blood,
Heaven's eye is not like man's, I guess,

"Tis but a name, my blood's like thine;
It views the man and not the dress,

On us the self-same Lord looks down,
Beneath the coat of fustian cloth,

The self-same sun doth shine;
A heart as noble doth reside,

And curs'd be he who steels himself
As ever beat 'neath satin vest,

'Gainst thee in hollow pride of pelf.
Or robes of courtly pride;

Thou art a workman: well, what then!
The virtue's in the germ within,

Thou hast thy feelings, hast thou not !
The casquet is not worth a pin.

And high aspirings should be thine;
Who is there that doth not prefer

Yes! high though low thy lot.
The kernel to the outer shell ?

Encourage them! thy rights protéct!
Who than the husk doth not e'en prize

Droop not thy head-learn self-respect!
The corn-blade twice as well ?

Art thou a craftsman ? even so
As husk, then, outward gear doth seem

Was Christ in this world's rank--not more.
To me; the blade our mind I deem.

Dost till the ground! so Adam did
Then, brother-mortal, on such terms

In ages long before.
I bid thee meet me, and I'll tell

In this we're equals, workman brave;
Thee tales of liberty to cheer

At least, we've both a soul to save.

GRACE DARLING,

BY WORDSWORTH. Among the dwellers in the silent fields

All night the storm had raged, nor ceased, nor The natural heart is touched, and public way

paused, And crowded street resound with ballad strains,

When, as day broke, the maid, through misty air, Inspired by one whose very name bespeaks

Espies far off a wreck, amid the surf, Favour divine, exalting human love;

Beating on one of those disastrous islesWhom, since her birth on bleak Northumbria's coast, Half a vessel:-half-no more; the rest Known but to few, but prized as far as known,

Had vanished, swallowed up with all that there A single act endears to high and low

Had for the common safety striven in vain, Through the whole land-to manhood, moved in spite Or thither throng'd for refuge. With quick glance Of the world's freezing cares—to generous youth

Daughter and sire through optic glass discern, To infancy, that lisps her praise--and age

Clinging about the remnant of this ship, Whose eye reflects it, glistening through a tear

Creatures—how precious in the maiden's sight! Of tremulous admiration. Such true farne

For whom, berike, the old man grieves still more Awaits her now; but, verily, good deeds

Than for their fellow-sufferers engulph’d, Do not unperishable record find

Where every parting agony is hushid, Save in the rolls of heaven, where here may live

And hope and fear mix not in further strife. A theme for angels, when they celebrate

" But courage, father! let us out to seaThe high-soul'd virtues which forgetful earth

A few may yet be saved.” The daughter's words, Has witnessed. Oh! that winds and waves could speak Her earnest tone, and look beaming with faith, Of things which their united power call'd forth

Dispel the father's doubts: nor do they lack From the pure depths of her humanity!

The noble-minded mother's helping hand A maiden gentle, yet at duty's call,

To launch the boat; and, with her blessing cheer'd, Firm and unflinching as the lighthouse reared

And inwardly sustain'd by silent prayer, On the island rock, her lonely dwelling place;

Together they put forth, father and child! Or like the invincible rock itself that braves,

Each grasps an oar, and, struggling, on they go Age after age, the hostile elements,

Rivals in effort; and, like intent As when it guarded holy Cuthbert's cell,

Here to allude and there surmount, they watch

The billows lengthening, mutually cross'd

| In woman's shape! But why prolong the tale, And shatter'd, and re-gathering their might;

Casting weak words amid a host of thoughts As if the wrath and trouble of the sea

Armd to repel them? Every hazard faced Were by the Almighty's sufferance prolong'd,

And difficulty master'd with resolve That woman's fortitude-80 tried, so prov'd

That no one breathing should be left to perish,
May brighten more and more!

This last remainder of the crew are all
True to the mark,

Placed in the little boat, then o'er the deep
They stem the current of that perilous gorge,

Are safely borne, landed upon the beach, Their arms still strengthening with the strengthening! And, in fulfilment of God's mercy, lodged heart,

Within the sheltering lighthouse. Shout, ye waves! Though the danger, as the wreck is neared, becomes Pipe a glad song of triumph, ye fierce winds! More imminent. Not unseen do they approach;

Ye screaming sea-mews, in the concert join! And rapture, with varieties of fear

And would that some immortal voice, a voice Incessantly conflicting, thrills the frames

Fitly attuned to all that gratitude Of those who, in that dauntless energy,

Breathes out from flock or couch, through pallid lips, Foretaste deliverance; but the least perturb'd

Of the survivors, to the clouds might bear Can scarcely trust his eyes, when he perceives

(Blended with praise of that parental love, That of the pair--toss'd on the waves to bring

Beneath whose watchful eye the maiden grew Hope to the hopeless, to the dying, life

Pious and pure, modest, and yet so brave, One is a woman, a poor earthly sister,

Though young, so wise, though meek, so resolute)Or, be the visitant other than she seems,

Might carry to the clouds and to the stars, A guarding spirit sent from pitying heaven,

| Yea, to celestial choirs, GRACE DARLING's name!

Year.

SCIENCE. NOTES ON CLIMATE.-The effects of thorough draining | the same localities at the present time. This would reor tile draining on the soil, as respects its fertility, have quire more extensive and more accurate data than been very striking, extensive portions of land with a what can perhaps be furnished to settle this question. cold clayey subsoil which formerly produced little else We subjoin however a few records from the Philosophibut rushes and weeds, being now converted by this pro cal Transactions of 1788, but chiefly to illustrate artcess into excellent grain-bearing fields. It is highly other meteorological observation which we have subprobable that this process, when it becomes, as it will do joined in time, almost universal over Britain, will also produce Mean of Observations made at Hawkhill, 14 mile a marked effect upon the climate. It is well known N. E. of Edinburgh. The thermometer noted at 8 that an uncultivated country with dense woods and A. M. each day. large portions of the surface either covered with water,

1771. 1772 1773 1774 1775. 1776. or in a stagnant marshy condition, retains more of the Therm. 45.85 45.53 46.08 44.8647.08 45.84 annual rain on its surface than a well cleared and well Rain, 22.194 32.184 28.842 30.185 34.298 26.093 drained country. The consequence of this is a less amount of absorption of the sun's rays in the uncultivat

Comparative View of the fall of rain at Branxholm, ed country than in the cultivated, and of course a di

Dalkeith, and Langholm, for five years, minished temperature on the surface.

Dalkeith.
Branxholm

Langholm
The fall of rain

Inch.
Inob.

Incb. may be much the same, but the evaporation is less, es

1773 25.473

32,652

38.850 pecially in the colder country, and the discharge by 1774

27.925
29.250

34.405 streams and rivers being impeded, the tendency is to an 1775

29.550
38.573

39.300 increased accumulation of surface moisture. In the 1776

20.650
26.295

34.161 cleared country again the surface of the soil absorbs the

1777 22.025

29.533

36.950 greatest proportion of the sun's rays, the evaporation In the first table the average of the six is from the increased temperature more rapid, and the years' fall of rain from 1773 to 1776 is 28.299 free flow of springs and rivers drains off the superfluous In the vicinity of Edinburgh from 1835 to moisture to the sea. This drainage is so sudden that, as 1843, the average fall was, . . . 24.009 has been repeatedly remarked, our streams and rivers Here the annual average of rain bas during heavy falls of rain rise higher and more rapidly apparently diminished by . . . 4.290 now than they did in a less cultivated state of the coun The second table exhibits the remarkable increase of try, because every declivity and every valley pours out the annual fall of rain as we proceed from the eastern by innumerable channels that moisture which under side of the island to the western. This increase is geneother circumstances would have been obstructed in its

ral and constant throughout Britain, and is readily ex. course. With this amelioration of soil and climate, plained by the fact that the westerly winds come to our which though apparently small in the main yet will be shores charged with moisture, and with an elevated quite sufficient to produce a marked influence, we doubt temperature, whereas the easterly winds are of low temnot but many plants, and even animals, may in process perature and deficient in moisture. of time be added to the list of native or acclimated species. A very few degrees of elevation of temperature

PRODUCTION OF Soils.-A friend remarked to me, over the whole year, but especially a slight amelioration

while we were contemplating a venerable and hoary of winter, would be found sufficient to promote this ac

ruin, in the mellow light of a still autumnal day, that he climatation. So that in process of time we do not despair

had discovered several different species of lichens coverof seeing our Scottish valleys rivalling even the finest of

ing the stones, and varying not only according to the the English midland and southern counties. The com

different exposures of the walls, but aceording to the plete drainage of the bogs of Ireland would no doubt

different kinds of stones of which the edifice was composed. produce a marked effect on the moist and dripping sky

It would appear that the walls of the ruin had originally of that country, as well as on the condition of its hu

been built by contributions of stones from different locaman inhabitants.

lities, at the distance of several miles from each other,

and that these stones, differing somewhat in their rature It would be curious to compare the temperature and and composition, still continued to be covered with spethe amount of rain occurring in certain localities in cies of lichens peculiar to each. This was an ingenious Scotland, a century or two back, with the amount in enough discovery, yet quite in accordance will be habits of nature-each plant and vegetable, however the reel on which she was winding the thread was suddeninsignificant, has its own peculiar soil or locality, and

| ly projected from her. The circumstance excited surprise; there, when left to itself, it will delight to vegetate.

the reel was replaced, when the same effect followed. The Some like a deep rich soil—some & dry, and others a

circumstance was talked of in the village, and the Cure in

formed of it. It was immediately conjectured that she was moist one—some take to the ditches and pools, while

possessed with an evil spirit, and she was solemnly exorothers are found on the tops of mountains, old walls, or cised, but no good results followed. Doctors, too, visited even roofs of houses. It is thus with the lichen-thou her, but they could not fathom the cause of her condition. sands of the minute and almost invisible seeds of these At last, she was sent from the country village where she are continually wafted about in the air, and whenever

resided, te Paris, and submitted to the scrutiny of the they meet with a rock or wall so old as almost to be re

scavans of the academy. In presence of Arago, and others,

à piece of paper was placed upon the edge of a table, turning to its original state of rock again, they fix their

which paper was immediately attracted by the left hand gluey and adhesive seeds to it, and spread out a circular of the girl. She then, holding her apron in her hand, apvegetation all around, which in time covers the whole proached a cabinet, which was pushed back, although her place, and imparts that light hoary grey, or soft yellow apron scarcely touched it. She was next placed on a and reddish tint, so picturesque in rocks, and so expres chair, with her feet on the ground, and immediately the sive of associations of age in ruins erected by the piety

chair was projected with violence against the wall, while or munificence of human beings who have themselves,

the girl was thrown the other way. This experiment was

repeated several times, and with the same results. M. centuries ago, mouldered into dust.

Arago laid his hand upon the chair, to prevent its moving, It was curious to see these different stones, varying but the force was too great for his resistance; and another perhaps somewhat in their composition and texture, gentleman having seated himself on a part of the chair, each clothed with its respective lichens, and here wear was thrown off as soon as the girl had also taken her seat. ing the samne livery which they would have done in their

In another experiment the chair was held fast by two

powerful men; but no sooner had the girl taken her seat native quarries.

in it, but it was forced into pieces. The mere contact of The numerous and apparently insignificant tribe of

the girl's clothes made chairs, tables, and every thing else, lichens may be called the pioneers of vegetation, for it fly from her like feathers. When the girl is isolated on a is to them in all probability that we owe the first forma glass stool, the same effects do not take place. She experition of soil or vegetable mould, without which the more ences different sensations when the north and south poles of perfect kinds of plants and herbs will not grow. It is a magnet are respectively placed near her left hand--the well known to botanists and practical agriculturists, that

north pole repelling her. When the electric effects take

place from her body, she suffers great uneasiness, and her the pure earth alone will not support vegetation, even with

electric powers are greatest in the evening, after she has the aid of copious moisture and air, but that a certain

dined. Such is the notice of this human Gymnotus, gravemixture of decayed vegetable matter is necessary for a ly detailed as taking place before the members of the vigorous and healthy growth. In the first ages of vege French Academy. We have heard of late so many things tation, then, and in the gradual extension of verdure done by girls in the mesmeric and clairvoyance sciences, over the globe, these simple and hardy plants must have

that we have even our doubts of this. We give the details, been, and still are, the preparatory agents. It would

however, and let our readers judge for themselves. appear that they are calculated to live and increase, and MODERN WITCH.-According to a statement in the to derive sufficient nourishment from the bare rock, Athencum, there is a French witch, in the shape of a aided by moisture and air. To form an idea, then, of young and cunning girl, performing most wonderful cures the gradual accumulation of soil, let us suppose a mass

among the mobility at the west end of London. She is of matter thrown up in the ocean, consisting of hills and

both a sorceress and homøopathist. She receives patients

at her own lodgings, and also condescends to visit them at valleys of hard bare rock, composed of the usual earths

their houses. Fees flow in in abundance. Nor do we in of clay, lime, and quartz. By degrees the air and mois the least wonder at this. The “ delusions of the day," ture begin to act upon their flinty and impenetrable which we alluded to in some of our earlier numbers, are surfaces, rendering these porous and friable. Innume rankest among the rich, the idle, and the fanciful. rable seeds of lichens floated on the wind, take root in

NICE SENSE OF Touch IN TIIE BLIND.-Mr Sanderson, these, and soon overspread the whole with a hoary

the blind mathematician, could distinguish with his hand, covering. In time, the parent plants decay, and are in a series of Roman medals, the true from the counterfeit, succeeded by innumerable successions of new ones with unerring precision; and when he was present at the thus a decomposed vegetable mould is gradually formed, astronomical observations in the garden of his college, he wbich mingling with the earthy particles of the rocks

was accustomed to perceive every cloud which passed over that are also daily detached by exposure, a sufficient

the sun. Dr Abercrombie mentions two instances related

to him of blind men, who were much esteemed as judges of soil is at last formed, its depth being accelerated in par

horses. One of them, in giving his opinion of a horse, deticular spots by the wind sweeping down the friable dust clared him to be blind, though this had escaped the obserinto the hollows and plains. In process of time the germs vation of several persons who had the use of their eyes, of mosses (cryptogamic plants), carried by the air or and who were with some difficulty convinced of it. Being water, spring up and decay successively in the new loca

asked to give an account of the principle on which he had lity, and thus add considerably to the depth of mould,

decided, he said it was by the sound of the horse's step in

walking, which implied a peculiar and unusual caution in till at last herbs of various kinds, and shrubs and trees,

his manner of putting down his feet. The other individual, carried there by the agencies of the elements, by birds

in similar circumstances, pronounced a horse to be blind of and men, spring up in profusion, and clothe the undu one eye, theugh this had also escaped the observation of lating surface with beautiful verdure. Thus, supposing those concerned. When he was asked to explain the facts certain central spots in the globe, where the Creator's

on which he formed his judgment, he said he felt the one agency first called animal and vegetable existences into

eye to be colder than the other. The late Dr Moyse, the being, we may easily conceive how this original stock

blind philosopher, could distinguish a black dress on his

friends by its smell; and this seems to be good evidence increased, and multiplied, and spread, and still continues

that blind persons have acquired the power of distinguishto spread, over the surface of the earth.

ing colours by the touch. The blind, in walking along crowded streets, are enabled to avoid posts, and other objects, by a fine sense of the concussion of the air in ap

proaching them. Dr Rush relates of two blind young men, Miscellaneous.

natives of the city of Philadelphia, that they knew when

they approached a post in walking across a street, by a ELECTRICAL GIRL.--The wonder of the day among the peculiar sound which the ground under their feet emitted Parisians is a girl who is said to possess extraordinary | in the neighbourhood of the post, and that they could tell electrical properties. She is a girl of thirteen years of the names of a number of tame pigeons, with which they age, and was employed in a thread glove manufactory as amused themselves in a little garden, by only hearing them

winder. One day, while at work with her companions, fly over their heads.

SLEEP AND DREAMS.-Sleep is the temporary repose of the voluntary and active powers. It is quite essential to existence,

erson of sleep, and the body sinks under the privation more rapidly than under famine. Indeed, no circumstances, however urgent, will prevent the approaches of sleep for any length of time, and under the severest calamities. Even while in the hour of battle, or when suffering from extreme fatigue, or cold, or hunger, sleep steals upon us to steep the senses in oblivion. Healthy sleep is so profound as to resemble, in all that regards selfconsciousness, death itself. We are unconscious of the exact moment when we pass into sleep, but occasionally it happens that immediately afterwards we are awakened by a convulsive start, which is caused by the sudden breaking in of the powers of volition when as yet but newly and imperfectly lulled to rest. Sometimes, however, the mind exerts its activity, though it is but a partial exertion, and hence dreams, or the thoughts of sleep, are made up of all incongruous associations, such as thoughts of the past day, and incidents of long bygone years-scenes of actual experience, and others totally imaginary, being all mixed up and jumbled together. Yet in sleep the vital functions are carried on as usual—the heart beats, the lungs play, and digestion goes on, though all these processes are somewhat more feeble than in the waking state.

Dr Gregory mentions of himself, that, having on one occasion gone to bed with a vessel of hot water at his feet, he dreamt of walking up the crater of Mount Etna, and of feeling the ground warm under him. He had at an early period of his life visited Mount Vesuvius, and actually felt a strong sensation of warmth in his feet when walking up the side of the crater, but it was remarkable that the dream was not of Vesuvius, but of Etna, of which he had only read Brydon's description. On another occasion he dreamt of spending a winter at Hudson's Bay, and of suffering much distress from the intense frost. He found that he had thrown off the bed-clothes in his sleep, and a few days before he had been reading a particular account of the state of the colonies in that country during the winter. · The following, also related on the authority of Dr Gregory, affords the singular circumstance of two individuals dreaming simultaneously the same thing, and also illustrates the curious fact that in a second or two of time a dream may comprehend the idea of the actions of many hours. It happened to a gentleman and his wife, at a period when there was an alarm of French invasion, and almost every male in Edinburgh was a soldier. All things had been arranged in expectation of the landing of the enemy, the first notice of which was to be given by a gun from the castle, and this was to be followed by a chain of signals calculated to alarm the country in all directions. The gentleinan to whom the dream occurred, and who had been a most zealous volunteer, was in bed between two and three o'clock in the morning, when he dreamt of hearing the signal gun. He was immediately at the castle, witnessed the proceedings for displaying the signals, and saw and heard a great bustle over the town, from troops and artillery assembling. At this time he was roused by his wife, who awoke in a fright in consequence of a similar dream, connected with much noise and the landing of an enemy, and concluding with the death of a particular friend of her husband's who had served with him as a volunteer during the late war. The origin of this remarkable concurrence was ascertained in the morning to be the noise produced in the room above by the fall of a pair of tongs, which had been left in some awkward position in support of a clothes' screen. We have often heard, that in some particular individuals dreams could be produced by whispering some incidents into their ears while asleep, but would scarcely have credited such reports, had not the following case been related by Dr Gregory, as he received it from a gentleman who witnessed it. The subject of the experiment was an officer in the expedition to Louisburgh in 1758, who had this peculiarity in so remarkable a degree, that his companions in the transport were in the constant habit of amusing themselves at his expense. They could produce in him any kind of dream, by whispering into his ear, especially if this was done by a friend with whose voice he was familiar. At one time they conducted him through the whole progress of a quarrel, which ended in a duel, and when the parties were supposed to be met, a pistol was put into his hand, which he fired, and was awakened by the report. On another occasion, they found him asleep on the top of a locker or bunker, in the cabin, where they made him believe he had fallen overboard, and exhorted him to save himself by swimming. He immediately imitated all the motions of swimming. They then told him that a shark was pursuing

him, and entreated him to dive for his life. He instantly did so with such force as to throw himself entirely from the locker upon the cabin floor. by which he was much bruised, and was awakened of course. After the landing of the army at Louisburgh, his friends found him one day asleep in his tent, and evidently much annoyed by the cannonading. They then made him believe that he was engaged, when he expressed great fear, and showed an evident disposition to run away. Against this they remonstrated, but at the same time increased his fears by imitating the groans of the wounded and dying, and when he asked, as he often did, who was down, they named his particular friends. ticular friends. At last, they told him that the man next

At last, they tola himself in the line had fallen, when he instantly sprung from his bed, rushed out of the tent, and was roused froin his danger and his dream together by falling over the tentropes. A remarkable circumstance in this case was, that after these experiments he had no distinct recollection of his dreams, but only a confused feeling of oppression and fatigue, and used to tell his friends that he was sure they had been playing some trick upon him. A similar case is related by Smellie, the subject of which was a medical student at the university of Edinburgh. Many curious cases of dreams are given by Dr Abercrombie, where they seem to coincide in a remarkable manner with facts that immediately afterwards happened to the individual. Yet the same acute observer remarks, that all these may be readily accounted for by natural causes, such as previous impressions and associations on the mind. Indeed, there are no grounds for supposing that dreams are ever supernatural or prophetic. The multiplicity of incongruous fancies that come across the dreaming brain rarely find any real corresponding parallel in existence. For one dream that happens to correspond with an actual event, there are ten thousand that are perfectly inexplicable. And if supernatural communications were still necessary for mankind, as we are expressly told they no longer are, we would have the utmost difficulty to select those from the mass of fancies which come like shadows to depart. A credulous attention to dreams then, by leading the judgment astray, may cause infinite error and confusion.

The BOOKSELLER OF LOGRONO.--About the middle of the sixteenth century, there resided one Francisco Alvarez in the city of Logrono, the chief town of Rioja, a province which borders on Áragon. He was a man above the middle age, sober, reserved, and in general absorbed in thought; he lived near the great church, and obtained a livelihood by selling printed books and manuscripts in a small shop. He was a very learned man, and was continually reading in the books which he was in the habit of selling, and some of these books were in foreign tongues and characters, so foreign indeed, that none but himself and some of his friends, the canons, could understand them: he was much visited by the clergy, who were his principal customers, and took much pleasure in listening to his discourse.

He had been a considerable traveller in his youth, and had wandered through all Spain, visiting the various provinces and the most remarkable cities. It was likewise said that he had visited Italy and Barbary. He was, however, invariably silent with respect to his travels, and whenever the subject was mentioned to him, the gloom and melancholy increased which usually clouded his features.

One day in the commencement of autumn, he was visited by a priest with whom he had long been intimate, and for whom he had always displayed a greater respect and liking than for any other acquaintance. The ecclesiastic found him even more sad than usual, and there was a haggard paleness upon his countenance which alarmed his visitor. The good priest made affectionate inquiries respecting the health of his friend, and whether anything had of late occurred to give him uneasiness; adding, at the same time, that he had long suspected that some secret lay heavy upon his mind, which he now conjured him to reveal, as life was uncertain, and it was very possible that he might be quickly summoned from earth into the presence of his Maker.

kseller continued for some time in gloomy meditation, till at last he broke silence in these words:" It is true I have a secret which weighs heavy upon my mind, and which I am still loath to reveal, but I have a presentiment that my end is approaching, and that a heavy misfor. tune is about to fall upon this city: I will therefore unburden myself, for it were now a sin to remain silent.

“I ain, as you are aware, a native of this town, which I first left when I went to acquire an education at Salamanca, I continued there until I became a licentiate, when I quitted the university and strolled through Spain, supporting

myself in general by touching the guitar, according to the tants of Logrono had perished. The bookseller had not practice of penniless students; my adventures were nume- been seen since the commencement of this frightful visitarous, and I frequently experienced great poverty. Once, tion. whilst making my way from Toledo to Andalusia through Once, at the dead of night, a knock was heard at the the wild mountains, I fell in with and was made captive by

door of the priest, of whom we have already spoken; the a band of the people called Gitanos, or wandering Egypti priest himself staggered to the door, and opened it,--he ans. They in general lived amongst these wilds, and plun was the only one who remained alive in the house, and was dered or murdered every person whom they met. I should himself slowly recovering from the malady which had deprobably have been assassinated by them, but my skill in stroyed all the other inmates; a wild spectral-looking figure music perhaps saved my life. I continued with them a

presented itself to his eye-it was his friend Alvarez. Both considerable time, till at last they persuaded me to become went into the house, when the bookseller, glancing gloomily one of them, whereupon I was inaugurated into their so the wasted features of the priest, exclaimed “ You too. ciety with many strange and horrid ceremonies, and having

I see, amongst others, have cause to rue the Drao which thus become a Gitano, I went with them to plunder and the Gitanos have cast. Know," he continued, “ that in assassinate upon the roads.

order to accomplish a detestable plan, the fountains of “ The Count or head man of these Gitanos had an only Logrono have been poisoned by emissaries of the roving daughter, about my own age; she was very beautiful, but,

bands, who are now assembled in the neighbourhood. On at the same time, exceedingly strong and robust; this Gi

the first appearance of the disorder, from which I happily tana was given to me as a wife or cadjee, and I lived with

escaped by tasting the water of a private fountain, which her several years, and she bore me children.

I possess in my own house, I instantly recognised the effects “My wife was an arrant Gitana, and in her all the wick of the poison of the Gitanos, brought by their ancestors edness of her race seemed to be concentrated. At last her from the isles of the Indian sea; and instantly suspecting father was killed in an affray with the troopers of the Her their intentions, I disguised myself as a Gitano, and went mandad, whereupon my wife and myself succeeded to the forth in the hope of being able to act as a spy upon their authority which he had formerly exercised in the tribe. actions. I have been successful, and am at present thoroughWe had at first loved each other, but at last the Gitano ly acquainted with their designs. They intended, from the life, with its accompanying wickedness, becoming hateful first, to sack the town, as soon as it should have beem empto my eyes, my wife, who was not slow in perceiving my tied of its defenders. altered disposition, conceived for me the most deadly hatred. “Mid-day, to-morrow, is the hour in which they have Apprehending that I meditated withdrawing myself from determined to make the attempt. There is no time to be the society, and perhaps betraying the secrets of the band, lost; let us, therefore, warn those of our townsmen who she formed a conspiracy against me, and, at one time being still survive, in order that they may make preparations opposite the Moorish coast, I was seized and bound by the for their defence." other Gitanos, conveyed across the sea, and delivered as a Whereupon the two friends proceeded to the chief maslave into the hands of the Moors.

gistrate, who had been but slightly affected by the disorder; “I continued for a long time in slavery in various parts of

he heard the tale of the bookseller with horror and astonMorocco and Fez, until I was at length redeemed from my

ishment, and instantly took the best measures possible for state of bondage by a missionary friar who paid my ransom.

frustrating the designs of the Gitanos; all the men capable With him I shortly after departed for Italy, of which of bearing arms in Logrono were assembled, and weapons was a native. In that country I remained some years, un

of every description put in their hands. By the advice of til a longing to revisit my native land seized me, when I

the bookseller all the gates of the town were shut, with the returned to Spain, and established myself here, where I

exception of the principal one; and the little band of defenhave since lived by vending books, many of which I brought

ders, which barely amounted to sixty men, was stationed from the strange lands which I visited. I kept my history, in the great square, to which, he said, it was the intention however, a profound secret, being afraid of exposing my

of the Gitanos to penetrate in the first instance, and then self to the laws in force against the Gitanos, to which I dividing themselves into various parties, to sack the place. should instantly become amenable were it once known that

The bookseller was, by general desire, constituted leader of I had at any time been a member of this detestable sect. the guardians of the town.

“My present wretchedness, of which you have demand It was considerably past noon; the sky was overcast, and ed the cause, dates from yesterday; I had been on a short tempest clouds, fraught with lightning and thunder, were journey to the Augustine convent, which stands on the hanging black and horrid over the town of Logrono. The plain in the direction of Saragossa, carrying with me an little troop, resting on their arms, stood awaiting the arriArabian book, which a learned monk was desirous of seeing. val of their unnatural enemies; rage fired their minds as Night overtook me ere I could return, I speedily lost my they thought of the deaths of their fathers, their sons, and way, and wandered about until I carne near a dilapidated their dearest relatives, who had perished, not by the hand 'edifice with which I was acquainted; I was about to pro of God, but, like infected cattle, by the hellish arts of ceed in the direction of the town, when I heard voices Egyptian sorcerers. They longed for their appearance, within the ruined walls; I listened, and recognised the lan determined to wreak upon them a bloody revenge; not a guage of the abhorred Gitanos; I was about to fly, when a word was uttered, and profound silence reigned around, word arrested me. It was Drao, which in their tongue only interrupted by the occasional muttering of the thunsignifies the horrid poison with which this race are in the der clouds. Suddenly, Alvarez, who had been intently lishabit of destroying the cattle; they now said that the men tening, raised his hand with a significant gesture; presentof Logrono should rue the Drao which they had been cast ly, a sound was heard-a rustling like the waving of trees, ing. I heard no more, but fled. What increased my fear or the rushing of distant water; it gradually increased, and was, that in the words spoken, I thought I recognised the seemed to proceed from the narrow street which led from peculiar jargon of my own tribe; I repeat, that I believe the principal gate into the square. All eyes were turned some horrible misfortune is overhanging this city, and that in that direction. . my own days are numbered."

That night there was repique or ringing of bells in the The priest, having conversed with him for some time towers of Logrono, and the few priests who had escaped upon particular points of the history that he had related, from the pestilence sang litanies to God and the Virgin for took his leave, advising him to compose his spirits, as he the salvation of the town from the hands of the heathen. saw no reason why he should indulge in such gloomy fore The attempt of the Gitanos had been most signally defeatbodings.

ed, and the great square and the street were strewn with The very next day a sickness broke out in the town of their corpses. Oh! what frightful objects: there lay grim Logrono. It was one of a peculiar kind: unlike most others. men more black than mulattos, with fury and rage in their it did not arise by slow and gradual degrees, but at once stiffened features; wild women in extraordinary dresses, appeared in full violence, in the shape of a terrific epidemic. their hair, black and long as the tail of the horse, spread Dizziness in the head was the first symptom; then convul all dishevelled upon the ground; and gaunt and naked chilsive retchings, followed by a dreadful struggle between life dren grasping knives and daggers in their tiny hands. Of and death, which generally terminated in favour of the grim the patriotic troop, not one appeared to have fallen; and destroyer. The bodies, after the spirit which animated when, after their enemies had retreated with howlings of them had taken flight, were frightfully swollen, and exhi fiendish despair, they told their numbers, only one man bited a dark blue colour, chequered with crimson spots. was missing, who was never seen again, and that man was Nothing was heard within the houses or the streets, but Alvarez. groans of agony; no remedy was at hand, and the powers | In the midst of the combat, the tempest, which had for of medicine were exhausted in vain upon this terrible pest; a long time been gathering, burst over Logrono in light80 that within a few days the greatest part of the inhabis ning, thunder, darkness, and vehement hail,

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