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were killed, and in a general council, it was deter-| lot was cast, to rule their minds, and to gaide them mined to return. Boone seem destined not to reach out of their difficulties. He was chosen to represent his earthly paradise, and dozing in security by the the new state in the Congress at Philadelphia, and, fireside, or the westward flowing stream, siglied in after much labour, succeeded in securing its indevain for the howl of the wolf and the stealthy tread pendence. But meanwhile affairs were looking of the Indian. But his time for action had come, darker on the frontier. All through the winter and the white men were thronging into the woods, spring, the settlers gathered close round the fortified driving the natives from their hunting grounds, and stations, and scouts came in with rumours of bands murdering them without mercy when they ventured of savages seen in the forest. Then parties of ranto murmur. War between the white and the red gers would set out in search of them, starting two men seemed inevitable, and Boone longed to join in or three together at daybreak to return before eventhe war dance, for he hated an Indian as heartily as ing. In such parties Boone took no share, but sat he loved an Indian life. In the spring of 1774 he quietly by the fireside darning his hunting-shirt, was sent by the governor, Lord Dunmore, to guide mending his leggings, or casting rifle-balls. But back the surveyors on the Ohio to the colony, which " when day had drawn herself into the shadow of he did with complete success, having travelled by his the earth, and the forest paths were wrapped in own calculation eight hundred miles in two months, gloom,” noiselessly he would steal out, scarce missed though the Indian tomahawk was then gleaming by his comrades round the smouldering logs. “And bright all along the border. But before the year now," they would say, we shall know something was over the war with the Shawanese was at an end, sure, for old Daniel's on the tract.” And when he and the wilderness again open to the white men. brought back tidings of safety, all slept in peace,

In company with one Henderson, an ambitious assured that danger was still distant. In this way man, who had been chief judge in North Carolina, the winter and spring passed, and no Indians came ; but who had fallen into difficulties, by living, spend but when the summer leaves covered the trees, then ing, and speculating freely, and some other rich and the scene changed; the forests swarmed with savage influential persons, Boone, in March 1776, concluded bands, the white man was shot down as he ploughed a treaty with the Cherokees, for the purchase of all his fields, many farms were abandoned, and more the ground between the Cumberland and Kentucky than three hundred emigrants sought shelter in the rivers. Boone well knew that the southern Indians mountain stations. had no right to dispose of these lands, and that their In July of that year happened one of the most title would be resisted by their brethren in the north, romantic incidents of the border warfare. A daughter with whom peace was hardly concluded. But he of Daniel Boone and two of her companions, about had got the pretence he wanted, and set out to take fourteen years old, ventured on the Kentucky river possession, and to open up a way for his companions. in a small canoe in sight of the fort. They incauFor some time his band met with no opposition, but, tiously approached too near the opposite bank, on reaching the plains, was attacked by the Indians, thickly covered with bushes to the water's edge. who killed four of his followers, but were repulsed In these bushes the savages were lurking, and one by the superior skill and prowess of the white men. of them slipped noiselessly into the river, and was On the 1st April they reached the Kentucky river, lost to sight. Soon, however, the canoe was seen and commenced the construction of a fort, named moving as by magic towards the northern bank, and Boonesborough, which was completed with much the terrified girls saw the savage who had seized the labour and danger, the pioneer working with the rope dangling from the prow. “One shriek, and axe in one hand and the rifle in the other. Hender- they were beneath the branches, and stout arms son, with another party, had followed, and other two seized them, and rough hands closed their mouths, stations had been commenced by other pioneers. On and they were borne away.” But that shriek was the 23d May, delegates from the rising republic met heard by the watchers in the fort in time to show below a vast elm tree, on the banks of the Kentucky them the struggling girls and the dark forms of the river, to decide on articles of union, and laws for the captors as they bore them away beneath the bushes. colony of Transylvania, as they named it. A chair- A council was held, pursuit determined on, but there man and clerk were chosen, and the meeting opened was no boat save the canoe on the other side, and no by prayer by the Rev. Mr Lythe, one of the dele- one would venture to swim over for it, when the gates. They established courts, and passed several enemy might yet be lurking in the woods. At laws, which were highly judicious, but rendered length the river was crossed, but before they could vain, by the claim which Virginia set up, to supe- proceed five miles, the night had come on, and they riority over the whole district. These matters being had to wait till morning. By daybreak Boone had settled, Boone, in June 1776, returned to the borders recovered the trail, but it was soon lost in a canefor his wife and family, and, in September, brought brake, where hours might be spent in disentangling them, with four other families, to their new hoine. the maze. But hours could not be wasted where life The party consisted of twenty-seven fighting men, or death, freedom or captivity hung on the right use and four women—the first who had ever entered the of every moment. With prompt decision Boone wilderness—the “ mothers of the west.'

turned to the south, leaving the trail on his left, And bold must the women have been who thus having already decided from its general direction ventured into the forest wild, for troubles with the that the Indians would take their prisoners to the mother country had commenced, and no doubt was towns on the Scioto or Miami. He travelled with entertained that Britain would try to make allies of all speed for above thirty miles forward, and then the savages against her rebellious children. The turned north at a right angle, looking carefully for claims of Virginia, and dissentions ainong the settlers, the trail of the marauders. This was a bold and were also troubling the new colony. The latter were sagacious device, and, the event showed, a fortunate brought to a happy termination by George Rogers one, for, after proceeding a few miles, they came on Clark, who had first visited Kentucky in 1775, and the Indian track in one of the great buffalo paths. returned in the following year to settle. He was The white men now pushed on quickly but cauenergetic, enterprising, and intelligent ; well adapted tiously, and, after about ten miles, found the Indians to secure the favourof the wild spirits among whom his half-stripped, and leisurely preparing their dinner. The keen-eyed savages had seen them almost at the town he meant to attack, when Simon Kenton, who same time, but Boone was too quick for them : he alone composed the advanced guard, discovered two and three of his companions fired at once, and the natives riding on one horse, and laughing at some whole party rushing forward, the Indians fled, joke. Simon at once shot, and was proceeding to leaving their knives, guns, mocassins, and blankets. scalp them, but found himself among a dozen of his The three girls were recovered without injury. foes, from whom he only escaped by the coming up

The whole of 1776, and the following year, was of Boone and the remainder. Spies were immediatespent in incessant alarms and frequent contests with ly sent forward to the town, and found it deserted ; the natives. In this warfare the colonists received from which and other circumstances Boone judged little aid from the eastern states, now deeply engaged rightly that the savages must be meditating an attack in their struggle with the mother country. On the on the settlements. He immediately turned homeresult of this, the resistance of the pioneers had more wards, and on the way passed round a party of five influence than is generally allowed; for at many hundred Indians, led by Canadians, marching towards seasons of the war, an attack from Canada, aided by Boonesborough, which he reached only the day bethe whole power of the Indian nations, might have fore them. On the 8th August, the dusky army sat turned the almost balanced scale. Many are the down before the fort, and Captain Duquesne sumtales of hairbreadth escapes from the red men which moned Boone to surrender. Boone had no desire to yet survive in the western land, rivalling those which revisit his Indian relations, but the cattle, on whom Cooper has recorded in his admirable novels. But the garrison greatly depended, were all in the woods, we can find room only for one, in which Daniel so he asked two days for consideration. In this time Boone is again the hero. In 1778, the frontier men he drove the cattle home, and then announced his had repulsed the savages so often that they began to determination to fight. Duquesne next proposed a fear them less. One thing, however, was much treaty, to which Boone, anxious to gain time, conwanted—salt, and a party under the guidance of sented, and left the fort with eight others to meet Boone set out for the Licks to procure it. They had the leaders of the enemy, taking care, however, to to manufacture the salt from the water, and whilst remain within rifle shot. At its conclusion the his companions were busy with this employment, Indians said it was the custom for two of them to Boone acted as hunter and scout. They had sent off shake hands with every white man, and Boone havthe first supply to the forts, when, on the 7th Feb- ing gone too far to recede, consented. The warriors ruary, Boone came suddenly on a party of above one seized them with fierce eagerness, but too plainly hundred Indians, and, having in vain tried to escape, revealing their treachery ; the whites struggled to was taken prisoner. His companions, twenty-eight get free, and a shower of rifle balls from the fort in number, met the same fate, and were carried off struck down the foremost of their assailants. Amidst to an Indian town on the Miami. The British then the confusion Boone and his companions escaped to paid the Indians a price for all the prisoners brought the fort, all, except one, unhurt. A regular siege to them, and Boone, with eleven companions, were then commenced, which lasted for ten days, when marched off twenty day's journey to Detroit in the the Indians, having lost thirty-seven of their number north. His companions were soon resigned to the and expended a vast amount of powder and lead, British, who treated them, he says, with great kind retired. The garrison picked up from the ground ness; but no persuasion would induce the Indians to after their departure, one hundred and twenty-five part with Daniel, with whom they were quite ena- pounds of their bullets. With a more enterprising moured. He must return with them, and become leader this invasion might have wrested the whole one of themselves, and accordingly was marched back, of the west from the Americans ; but the opportunity and received into the tribe with all due solemnity was lost for ever. In the following years emigrants He contrived to conceal his dislike to the caresses poured in in numbers, so that all serious danger to bestowed on him by his new relations, and took part the settlements from the Indians was at an end. in their various games. Their suspicions were thus Their history then becomes less that of individuals, disarmed; he was consulted by the chiefs on impor- and more that of a political society, and here we tant occasions, and, in fine, was sent with a party to shall leave it, at least for the present; only menthe Scioto to prepare salt. They were on their way tioning that Daniel Boone long survived, the patriarch back, when, at a town on the river, he saw four of the west, having died in 1820, eighty-eight years old. hundred and fifty warriors, painted, and on their way to attack his old home. Boone was Indian

AN UNFORTUNATE AUTHOR. enough to conceal his feelings, but at daybreak of June 16th, left his red friends to mourn his loss, and « There be, perhaps, who barren hearts avow

Cold as the rocks on Torneo's hoary brow; sped over hill and valley, forty miles a day, for four

There be, whose loveless wisdom never failed, successive days, with only one meal by the road.

In self-adoring pride securely mailed ;He at length reached Boonesborough, but found his

But triurnph not, ye peace enamoured few,

Fire, Nature, Genius, never dwelt with you! wife gone, as his friends told hin—“She put into

For you no fancy consecrates the scene, the settlements long ago; she thought you was

Where rapture uttered vows and wept between.

'Tis yours unmoved to sever and to meet, dead, Daniel, and packed up, and was off to Carolina,

No pledge is sacred, and no home is sweet." to the old man's.' Daniel had little time for reflection on his desertion, as the fortress was wholly ONE evening, some years ago, when the sky was serene out of repair for the expected visitors. The whites and unclouded, when the sun, fast declining, was beautilaboured hard to have all in order for their reception fully crimsoning the west, and the face of Nature was but still they came not, till at length another captive bearing a mild and exhilarating aspect, I was walking who had escaped told them that the whole expedition Edinburgh, and came up to a man clad in black, and

near the old castle of Merchiston, in the near vicinity of had been put off in consequence of Boone's escape, rather advanced in years, looking intently upon that which thus proved the salvation of the forts.

ancient and celebrated building. His dress, which had Boone then determined to pay a visit to his red

once been good, and was not yet unfashionable, indicated relations, and started for the Scioto river, where he

poverty: the furrowed lines of anxious thought” were had been at salt-making, with nineteen men. He visible on his dejected countenance; and I immediately crossed the Ohio, and was within a few miles of the concluded that he had seen better days, and probably


" had felt the pangs which worth should never know.” never attain, or which, if I could attain it, I shall never I approached him with reverence, and after the usual be able to enjoy? Domestic calamities quite overwhelm introductory, salutation, entered into discourse with him; me. Many years ago, I married the daughter of a long by which it soon became apparent that he was a man of lost friend, one of the most amiable and dignified of her a superior mind, and had a heart susceptible of the ten. sex,--whose recent death has unhinged my mind, and derest emotions. His mode of speaking was deliberate rendered me regardless of existence. Most of the comand graceful; and, in the course of our conversation, he panions of my youth are no more. I have few friends frequently expressed his ideas by appropriate quotations whose happiness would be increased by my success, and from our more esteemed authors, and made some very neither wife nor child to participate my honours. I feel striking and pathetic observations.—" Many,” he sud- so distracted that I can only walk about and weep. Emdenly exclaimed," who are, at this moment, enjoying barrassments of every kind are crowding upon me; and every happiness which this transitory world can afford, though I bear my calamities with as much fortitude as is and are prognosticating to themselves many years of suc- possible, I doubt the torrent of affliction is become irrecess and esteem, will soon be consigned to their mother sistible." earth, and the place which knew them once will know Such was his interesting narrative, during the recital of them no more at all for ever.' This life is truly uncer- which the tears flowed from his eyes; and I confess I tain ; for of the morrow who can assure us? But while we could not listen to it unaffected. After a short pause, I live, let us do good to society, that we may be looked ventured to suggest that he should not cherish such upon as useful citizens ; not,” continued he,“ to gratify gloomy reflections ; that he should mingle with the world, the desire of being celebrated, but of being respected and or engage in some great literary undertaking, in order to esteemed. Epaminondas, upon receiving the highest turn his ideas into a different channel, to overcome his commendations after the battle of Leuctra, nobly declared, sadness, and ultimately to effect his composure.

that his joy arose principally from the thoughts of the “ Your suggestion," replied he,“ is kind, and the pleasure that his father and mother would feel from the remedy you propose would be efficacious in ordinary news of his success ;' and our great Dr Johnson was in- cases; but a man of letters is a peculiar being. His different about his reputation, when the dear object of ideas, it is true, are enlarged and ripened; his mind is bis affections no longer lived to enjoy it. Applause from stored with imagery and knowledge ; but his susceptibibeloved relations and friends is more acceptable and lities are acute, and when, for example, in a solitary stimulating than that of the multitude. Every man of walk, he either resigns his soul to sorrow, or, as was my any mind pants after honest fame, and endeavours to case when your goodness prompted you to accost me, deserve it. I would rather die inglorious and unknown allows his thoughts to soar above the world, and to hold than be a Voltaire. But who would not wish to be an high converse with the mighty dead. Addison or a Johnson ?”

• o lost to virtue, lost to manly thought, The preposseșsion of his ingenuous manner, and the

Lost to the noble sallies of the soul, amiability of his heart, induced me to express a desire to

Who think it solitude to be alone! know his employment and history, which he related at the moment, in truth, when you addressed me, I was nearly in the following words :

" My parents,” said he, “ were remarkable only for in raptures. That edifice was the property of the immortheir poverty, honesty, and piety; and, having a strong tal Napier

, one of the brightest ornaments of Scotland, conviction of the advantages of learning, exerted them

a building which I often visit, because with it are assoselves to bestow on me a liberal education. They have ciated ideas of the most patriotic and ennobling kind. both gone the way of all the earth ; and to my latest Scotland as a kingdom is now no more, but as a land of hour I will cherish their memory and imitate their virtues. scholars, like a rock in the ocean, she stands pre-eminent I have several brothers and sisters, who have all removed

and alone. from the place of our nativity, and whom, though I sin

“ The best of my years are gone, and I have no proscerely love them, I have seldom the pleasure of seeing. pect but that of experiencing the fate of a Savage, a The teacher of my youth, who is still alive, is a man of Derrick, or a Heron ;* if my name be allowed to be as learning and of worth: he was particularly kind to me,

eminent in literature as theirs, and the tenor of my life and I can only repay him with gratitude and respect.

to have been virtuous and godly, the time and place of my About thirty years ago I entered college ; since which departure from the world are to me a secondary consider

ation : time I have either been employed as a teacher, or have written for the booksellers. The life of a mere author • Nor love thy life, nor hate; but what thou liv'st,.. by profession, is far from being enviable: his industry

Live well; how long or short permit to heaven.” seldom adds much either to his fame or his emolument; The poor unfortunate and I parted with mutual proand protracted study often brings him prematurely to the testations of friendship, and a desire of being better grave at the moment when he is forming great literary acquainted, and having exchanged addresses with him, “I projects, and anxiously looking forward to honour and soon after received a note, requesting me to call at No. celebrity. He may be beneficial to mankind, but it is 10, Street. I did so, and there found my poor often at the expense of his own health and quiet; and of friend stretched on the bed of death. He clasped my all this respectable class, there are few, according to my hand in his bony fingers, and told me that he had sent knowledge, who have not had reason to complain of the for me to make me his literary legatee, and to request delusion of their hopes, and the frustration of their designs. that I should see his weary remains deposited in their Though I am neither rich nor eminent, I cannot say final resting place. “I have long looked forward to this that I have been altogether unsuccessful. Since I came hour,” said he ; " and as I have been no burden to the to Edinburgh, I have written several pamphlets on ephe world in life, I shall not be one in death. In my desk meral subjects,-contributed, more or less, to almost all will be found as much as will provide for the ceremony the periodical publications, -edited, with notes and illustrations, many valuable works,--and have often been

• The melancholy lives of Savage and Derrick are universally

known. The former, the son of a nobleman, was a poet and dragratified by seeing my anonymous pieces honoured with

matist of eminence, and perished in a jail! The latter, a native of the reward of liberal approbation. I have generally Dublin, was a poet and an author by profession-was acquainted written for bread, and my subjects were mostly prescribed with all the literary characters of his age--many a night walked me by my employers. I have long had in contemplation, the streets of London when he had no lodging to go to—and at length

died of a broken heart, overwhelmed with poverty. and, would my condition admit, will soon have ready for Robert Heron, the author of a History of Scotland, in six volumes, the press, a work, the profits of which, I hope, will secure and many other works, spent a most laborious and unhappy life. me, if I live, a tolerable competence, and entitle me to be

In Edinburgh, in which he resided nearly twenty years, he made a ranked among those who have enlarged the literature of with all the literati of that period. He afterwards went to London,

very respectable figure as an author, and was intimately acquainted their country; at least I fondly flatter myself, that my where, after leading a life of dissipation and of irregular study, he writings will always plead the cause of virtue, and tend died in an hospital of him, however, we may say what Johnson

said of Savage :-" The reigning error of his life was, that he misto promote the dearest interests of mankind.

took the love for the practice of virtue; and was not so much the • But why am I speaking about fame which I shall good man as the friend of goodness."

in a humble way; and as for my papers, they contain | determined to sacrifice his private feelings to the interests what may interest you, if they do not instruct others of the Company. Two men were selected to accompany they have cost me much labour, and I would not have me, and orders were given to catch ‘Le Bleu.' He was them lost.” The entrance of the medical attendant pre- a noble animal, between fifteen and sixteen hands high, vented farther conversation. I called next day, but seven years of age, admirably built, and derived his name found that he had died on the previous evening, and that from his colour, which was dappled white and sky-blue. his wounded spirit had at length found release from the He was also a prime racer, and had beaten all his comcares and sorrows of this world of tears. Soon after his petitors on the turf. Owing to the delay occasioned by death I had to go abroad, but having leisure now, I intend catching the horses, we did not start till twelve o'clock. offering some of poor -'s papers for publication in I remained in company with the men the first two hours this work.

at a slight canter; after which I took the lead at a handgallop, and quickly lost sight of them. I followed an

excellent and well-beaten pathway for upwards of sixty THE HORSES AND BUFFALOES OF OREGON. miles through the Pointed Heart plains, but late in the

evening it brought me to a wood, through which it runs The boundary question regarding the partition, or rather for a distance of ten miles, when it terminates at the

portage. occupation of Oregon, since America will have it all, has

Shortly after entering the wood night overtook me, been thoroughly discussed; but we still desiderate minute and I several times lost the pathway, which, owing to information regarding its internal resources, and this we the darkness and a quantity of fallen trees and brushare glad to find copiously supplied in a small work, en- wood, þecame exceedingly intricate. The sagacity of my titled “The Oregon Territory,' by the Rev. C. G. Nicolay, and a little after eight o'clock I emerged from the forest,

horse, however, extricated me from these "égaremens, forming one of the numbers of Knight's Weekly Volume. and was delighted at the cheering appearance of a range We cordially recommend it, and extract the following of fires along the banks of the river. 'Le Bleu, who account of the horses and buffaloes of this important had been for some time drooping, on seeing the light,

knew his task was at an end, and galloped up in fine region :

style to Mr Farnham's tent, when he was immediately “When an Indian wishes to increase the number of his let loose to regale himself on the prairie. I had brought working horses, he mounts the fleetest he has, and, lasso a few fathoms of thick twist tobacco with me, on hearin hand, rushes into the band of wild animals, throws it ing which the Indians crowded round us, and in a few upon the neck of the chosen one, and chokes him down, seconds each man's head was enveloped in clouds of and while in a state of insensibility ties the hind and fore smoke. They promised that we should have all their feet firmly together. When consciousness returns, the skins; but in order to make assurance doubly sure, we animal struggles violently, but in vain, to get loose. His requested them to bring their respective packages to the fear is then acted upon by throwing bear-skins, wolf- tent and deposit them therein until morning. This was skins, and blankets at his head, till he becomes quiet ; he at once complied with, after which smoking recomis then loosened from the cords, and rears and plunges menced. About two hours after, two of our rivals came furiously at the end of a long rope, and receives another in with a quantity of tobacco ; they had started from introduction to bear-skins, &c. After this he is approach- Spokane House shortly after us, but were never able to ed and handled, and if still too wild, he is again beat overtake the gallant Bleu. They were much better with blankets and bear-skins as before, until he is docile. acquainted with the intricacies of the pathway through The captive is then initiated into the mysteries of the the wood than I was, and if their horses had been equal bridle and saddle, and, after the same mode practised in to mine, it is very probable the result would have been South America, frequently forced at full gallop "by the different: they were much chagrined at our success, and armed heel' until thoroughly subdued.'

on taxing the Indians with having deserted them for “In this mode of horse-breaking the Indians are most strangers, they replied, that being the first to satisfy their admirably proficient, and by it they make of the wild hungry cravings after tobacco, they could do no more horse the most pleasant, docile, and fearless animal in than give us the preference; but added that they would existence. Of their speed and powers of endurance some punctually pay them any debts which they had contractestimate may be formed from the following story, related ed with Mr M'Donald, which promise they faithfully by Mr Cox :—'In the spring of 1813, before the disso- kept. About midnight the two men whom I had left lution of the Pacific Fur Company, while I was stationed behind me reached the encampment; they also were for at Spokane House, with Mr Clarke, he received a letter some time lost in the wood, and, like myself

, were obliged from Mr Farnham, who had charge of the party sent to to depend on the sagacity of their horses to set them the Flatheads, stating that he had arrived at the Flat- right. head portage, a distance of seventy-two miles from ** We returned to Spokane House by easy stages, but Spokane House, where he should be obliged to remain a I did not ride the Bleu. In less than a week after he few days to recruit his horses ; that his trading goods was perfectly recovered from the fatigue of his journey, were exhausted, and that he was entirely out of tobacco; and in the summer of the same year beat the feetcst that a party of Flatheads were following them with a horses of both Companies on the race-course.' quantity of valuable skins; that his rival Mr M'Donald, “ It should be remarked that the Indian horses are not was also unsupplied with tobacco; that whichever of shod, and owing to this circumstance the hoofs, partithem got the first supply of that article would, by treat- cularly of such as are in constant work, are nearly worn ing the Indians to a grand smoking match, succeed in away before they are ten or eleven years old; they are getting the produce of their hunt, and that in order to never taught to trot, but their pace is a canter or handattain their object it was absolutely necessary the tobacco gallop. The Indians ride them with hair-rope bridles required should be with him that night, lest the natives and padded deer-skin saddles, which are not only severe, should go over in a body to Mr M.Donald, with whom but cruel in their operation. Their average price may be they had been longer acquainted.

stated at L.2, and they unite in herds of sometimes three • " It was eleven o'clock in the forenoon when this letter or four thousand. In the south their increase is so rapid, reached us, and Mr Clarke thought it impossible for any that in 1812 the Spaniards at San Francisco were obliged horse to go a distance of seventy-two miles during the to kill thirty thousand to procure grass for the buffalo, remainder of the day; at all events he knew that none of the fat of which is a staple commodity. It is killed in the Company's horses were fit for such a task, and was immense numbers for the sake of its skin, and on the about giving up the idea as hopeless, when I offered to great prairies still more for food, where the skin and undertake it with a celebrated horse of his own, named | bones and inferior parts are left for the birds and the •Le Bleu.' The case was important; a blow was neces- wolves. The rapidity with which the buffaloes are dissary to be struck; and although he prized the horse appearing is remarked by all travellers in the western above all his chattels in the Indian country, he at once prairies; two circumstances combine to their destruction;




--the Indians every year making fresh lodges of their | in any particular locality, the post established there is skins, and the business of the American trading posts temporarily relinquished; and so strictly is this policy being almost exclusively confined to them. The average adhered to, that Lieutenant Wilkes exonerates even annual number of skins traded is given by Mr Fremont, their migratory trapping parties in Lower Oregon and as follows:

the borders of California, and round Fort Hall, from the

blame which has usually attached to them of killing all American Fur Company ...................... 70,000

fur-bearing animals without respect to age, although they Hudson's Bay Company

10,000 cannot hope to retain those districts long in their own Other Companies

10,000 hands.

“ One source from which skins may be obtained has

90,000 been as yet comparatively untries. The coast swarms “But to this large number must be added those killed with amphibious animals of the seal kind, known by the without their skins being taken. The Camanchees, vulgar names of sea-lion, sea-elephant, and sea-cow; but, whose country abounds in buffalo, trade in skins, and above all, with the common seal : the traffic to be derivthe greatest number killed on the prairies is during the ed from these in skins, oil, &c., could not but be lucrative. summer months, when their skins are valueless to traders, To this may be added the whale-fishery, both the black as it is only from November to March that they are fit and spermaceti whales being found in the North Pacific, for dressing: the skins of bulls are never taken or dress- and from which large supplies of oil and cetine may ed. From these data some notion may be attained of always be obtained." the number killed annually. West of the Rocky Mountains, the buffalo is now only found to the south of the

NEWSPAPER PUFFING. Great Pass; formerly the hunting-grounds extended over all the south and west head-waters of the Columbia as DURING the height of the late railway excitement, far as the Dalles. It is probable, however, that the the speculating world was thrown into consternation period of their first crossing the mountain is not very by a rumour, that certain newspapers had gratuiremote, as in the region to the west the 'great highways' tously received allocations in given lines, on the made by them in passing from river to river or across understanding that they were to puff these lines in the mountain ranges are never met with. The Snake leading articles, copiously adorned with the editorial Indians attribute their crossing to the American trappers. To the south, on the Colorado and head-waters of Rio

The age was not prepared for such unblushdel Norte, they never extended any considerable distance. ing profligacy, and loud were the protestations made At the present time they are for the most part confined against it; and not the least indignant of the parties to a very limited range along the east base of the Rocky concerned were the newspaper editors themselves, Mountains, sometimes extending into the plains of the who disclaimed the venality in terms both " loud Platte and Arkansas, and along the eastern frontier of and deep.” Their disclaimer and the public indigMexico as far as Texas. Of the animal productions of nation corroborates the existence of this curious Oregon the fur-bearing animals are at present of most principle in human nature, that error, which is deimportance, their skins forming the staple trade of the liberately indulged or tolerated in one class of cases, territory; but many considerations combine to induce the is at once denounced and reprobated when alleged to conclusion that it will not long continue so: indeed the exist in others. operations of the Company by which it is carried on

Thus, the newspapers have, from impress this forcibly upon the mind; for while in its con

time immemorial, inserted hired puffs of new books duct economy is the order of the day, and the receipts -- the editors persevering in the traffic, and all the are said to be on the decrease, insomuch that the expense time harping on independence in other matters ; of procuring the fur is not much exceeded by the pro- while the public stands tamely by and says nothing. ceeds of its sale, the farming and grazing operations of It would be difficult to show wherein the disits offspring, the Puget's Inlet Agricultural Society, are honesty of this differs, except in degree, from the carried on with much spirit, and it has its agents not unprincipled puffing of railways which all parties only in England, but in California and the Sandwich denounce. A. invests money in a certain line of Islands. Latterly, however, the Company has reduced railway. B. does the same in a certain book. A. is the expenses of collecting furs by supplying the trapping threatened with opposition, so is B. A goes to the parties with food from the Company's farms. The present annual value of the furs exported from the Columbia

newspaper and says, “ Here is a paragraph lauding has been very differently stated; it may, however, safely my line, put it into your paper, and I will send you be reckoned as between forty and fifty thousand. This a monster advertisement." No,” says the editor, is, however, a large amount when the smallness of the that would not be honest.” B. goes to him and means employed is considered. The number of the says, “ Here are certain puffs of my publications, Company's forts has been already stated as about thirty. insert them, and you shall also insert my advertiseIt has on the coast six vessels and a steamer, and its ments.” “Thank you,” replies the grateful editor. immediate servants and dependants do not probably ex- That there may be no mistake about such matters, ceed fifteen hundred. " But whatever be the state of this branch of trade at from one of the most respectable newspapers in the

we insert four specimen puffs, bona fide, selected present, it cannot continue long in it. Every new settler every fresh location, reduces, if but a little, the number empire, nothing being altered except the suppression

of names :of fur-bearing, animals ; and though the marten tribe, frequenting principally the mountainous districts, espe

PUFF 1.-—“The Q- of D- (sister of George cially New Caledonia, may continue to be, for some time, III.,) an historical novel, edited by Mrs Gof importance in commerce, the beaver and all animals Considerable interest has been excited by the aninhabiting the more fertile districts must soon become nouncement of the above tale of royal life, edited by extinct. That this is the inevitable consequence of the the most popular of our female novelists.

We occupation and cultivation, the constant occurrence of understand that the work possesses startling claims deserted beaver-dams and entire absence of the animal to public attention, not only as a well told and initself from the eastern shores of the continent, sufficiently teresting story, but as a most curious and credible tant period the fur-trade of the Oregon will be carried narrative of historical events of the highest interest, on in the smaller animals only.

and a faithful picture of the manners of the court " It is, however, obviously the policy of the Hudson's of Christian VII. So truthful are said to be the Bay Company to prevent this, and accordingly great style and sentiments, that instead of feeling ourselves care is taken not to exhaust any district by over hunting; to be perusing a novel, or even a romantic series of so that, when the fur-bearing animals have become scarce historical memoirs, we could fancy 'the Q


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