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and by unanimity of pursuit ; it was, above all, im- | proved and sweetened by an unreserved interchange
“ Like the sun, thy presence glowing,
Clothes the meanest things in light; of thought on those subjects which affect our eternal
And when thou, like him, art going, interests, and open to us the prospects of friendship
Loveliest objects fade in night. which death can only suspend but not destroy."
All things look'd so bright about thee, Mr Wolfe had not been long at the university ere
That they nothing seem without thee, he began to distinguish himself. His high classical
By that pure and lucid mind
Earthly things seem too refined. attainments early obtained notice, and procured him
Like the sun, &c. many academical honours. In addition to the pursuit of his more immediate studies, he did not neglect the cultivation of light literature ; and, while at
* Go, thou vision wildly gleaming, college, he wrote an English poem of some merit,
Softly, on my soul that fell; entitled “Jugurtha.”
Go, for me no longer beaming-
Hope and beauty! fare ye well! poet obtained his scholarship with the highest
Go, and all that once delighted honours. He was also chosen to deliver the opening
Take, and leave me all benighted; address before the Historical Society, a distinction
Glory's burning, generous swell, only given to students of considerable talent.
Fancy and the poet's shell. While at the university, the studies of Mr Wolfe
Go, thou vision, &c." were much interrupted, and his time occupied by the Shortly after his unsuccessful love, he was afflictintrusion into his apartments of impertinent acquaint-'ed with a new trouble--the loss of a most intimate ances. He was much too good-natured to be angry at friend and fellow-student, Mr Hercules Graves. this. His affectionate biographer saysin speaking about 1 Amid the gloom of mind caused by these events, he it :-“Even in the midst of the most important engage
removed to a remote and obscure curacy in the north ments, he had not resolution to deny himself to any of Ireland, a place where he could meet no person visitor. He used to watch anxiously for every knock possessed of one quality in common with himself. at his door lest any one should be disappointed or At first, he had but a temporary situation at Ballydelayed who sought for him; and, such was the good clog ; but he was soon removed to a more permanent natured simplicity of his heart, that, however sorely he one at Castle Caulfield. sometimes felt the intrusion, he still rendered himself. The following extract from one of his letters affords so agreeable, even to his most common-place acquaint- us a very pleasing glimpse into the routine of his daily ances, as to encourage a repetition of their importu- | life while settling down to the duties of his situanities. He allowed himself to become the usual de tion :-“Alas! I have no disasters now to diversify my puty of every one who applied to him to perform any life--not having many of those enjoyments which of the routine collegiate duties which he was so much render men obnoxious to them, except when my foot qualified to discharge ; and thus his time was so sinks up to the ancle in a bog, as I am looking for a much invaded, that he seldom had any interval for stray sheep. My life is now nearly made up of visits continued application to his own immediate busi- | to my parishioners, both sick and in health. Note ness."
withstanding, the parish is so large, that I have yet It is probable that the celebrated ode on the to form an acquaintance with a very formidable burial of Sir John Moore was composed while : number of them. The parisi
number of them. The parish and I have become Wolfe was at college ; at all events, Mr Russell, very good friends; the congregation has increased, first saw the MS. there. The literary controversies and the Presbyterians sometimes pay me a visit. to which it gave rise form too curious an episode in There is a great number of Methodists in the part of his history to be summarily dismissed in our brief the parish surrounding the village, who are many of sketch, and we shall therefore make the ode and its them very worthy people, and among the most regular pretended authors the subject of a separate paper. * attendants upon the church. With many of my
Although naturally of a gay disposition, Mr Wolfe flock I live upon affectionate terms. There is a fair was often a prey to a pensive sort of melancholy, proportion of religious men amongst them, with a which he could not at times easily shake off. A due allowance of profligate. None of them rise so disappointment in love served but to add to and high as the class of gentlemen, but there is a good confirm the tendency. The following verses have number of a very respectable description. I am relation to this affair of the heart. They ought to particularly attentive to the school : there, in fact, i be considered among the best he has written. They I think most good can be done, and, besides the obhave somewhat more in them than mere prettiness vious advantages, it is a means of conciliating all of versification, and to us they appear exceedingly sects of Christians, by taking an interest in the wel beautiful.
fare of their children. SONG,
“Our Sunday school is very large, and is attended
by the Roman Catholics and Presbyterians; the day “Go, forget me-why should sorrow
is never a Sabbath to me; however, it is the kind O'er that brow a shadow fling?
of labour that is best repaid, for you always find that Go, forget me-and to-morrow Brightly smile and sweetly sing.
some progress is made, --some fruit soon produced ; Smile-though I shall not be near thee :
whereas, your labours with the old and the adult Sing-though I shall never hear thee:
often fail of producing any effect, and, at the best, May thy soul with pleasure shine
it is in general latent and gradual." Lasting as the gloom of mine.
Wolfe was possessed of many of the qualities that Go, forget me, &c.
a country minister should have, but he was destitute
of the greatest of all blessings-good health. He * It will appear in an early number, and will be the first had a weak constitution, and the seeds of disease of a series of articles on the interesting subject of “Literary having been early sown, they took root in the form Controversies," which are preparing for our columns by a
of consumption, which soon made rapid progress, gentleman intimately conversant with their history. The
and, at no distant period, was the cause of his death. series will include papers on the Rowley Forgeries, the Junius question, the Ossian dispute, the Shakesperian agi
| The sphere of duty in which he laboured was extation, &c. &c.
I tensive, the duties arduous, and the labourer anxious.
His attention to his parishioners was great ; and in | For a short time he appeared to revive a little, and a short time, his great zeal, unfeigned piety, extraor- sometimes entered into conversation with almost his dinary exertion, and impressive style of preaching, usual animation, but the first unfavourable change began to gather round him a large congregation. of weather shattered his remaining strength. His
In the summer of 1821, he visited Scotland, having cough now became nearly incessant, and a distressing been persuaded by a warm friend and brother languor weighed down his frame. In this state he clergyman to consult some of the medical men for continued until the 21st February 1823, upon the whom at that time Edinburgh was celebrated. While morning of which day he expired, in the 32d year of in the capital of the north, he was persuaded by some his age. of his countrymen who formed a deputation from “During the last few days of his life, when his the Irish Tract Society, to give an address in pro- sufferings became more distressing, his constant exmotion of the object. Notwithstanding the debility pression was, 'This light affliction this light affilicof his body and the languor of his mind, he con- tion !' And when the awful crisis drew near, he sented, and made an eloquent speech.
still maintained the same sweet spirit of resignation. He did not remain long in the north. Finding that Even then, he showed an instance of that thoughtful little could be done for his complaint, he returned to benevolence, that amiable tenderness of feeling, his native country, and met with a cordial reception which formed a striking trait in his character : he from his warm-hearted parishioners.
expressed much anxiety about the accommodation of "On his return from Scotland, the writer (Mr an attendant who was sleeping in the adjoining room, Russell) met him at a friend's house, within a few miles and gave even minute directions respecting it. of his own residence; and, on the following Sunday, “On going to bed, he felt very drowsy : and soon accompanied him through the principal part of his pa after the stupor of death began to creep over him, rish to the church ; and never can he forget the scene He began to pray for all his dearest friends indivihe witnessed as they drove together along the road dually, but his voice faltering, he could only say, and through the village. As he quickly passed by, all ‘God bless them all!'_' The peace of God and of the poor people and children ran out to their cabin Jesus Christ overshadow them-dwell in themdoors to welcome him with looks and expressions of reign in them !'—My peace,' said he, addressing the most ardent affection, and with all that wild de- his sister * (the peace I now feel), be with you!”— votion of gratitude so characteristic of the Irish pea- 'Thou, O God! will keep him in perfect peace whose santry. Many fell upon their knees, invoking mind is stayed on thee. His speech again began to blessings upon him ; and, long after they were out fail, and he fell into a slumber ; but whenever his of hearing, they remained in the same attitude, senses were recalled, he returned to prayer. He showing by their gestures that they were still offer- | repeated part of the Lord's Prayer, but was unable ing up prayers for him; and some even followed the to proceed; and, at last, with a composure scarcely carriage a long distance, making the most anxious credible at such a moment, he whispered to the dear inquiries about his health. He was sensibly moved relative who hung over his deathbed, Close this by this manifestation of feeling, and met it with all eye-the other is closed already—and now, farewell !' that heartiness of expression, and that affectionate | Then, having uttered part of the Lord's Prayer, he simplicity of manner, which made him as much an fell asleep. - He is not dead, but sleepeth.'” object of love as exalted virtues rendered him an We have to lament none of those earthly stains on object of respect.”.
Wolfe's moral character which have too often marred The habits of his life while he resided on his cure the loveliness of young genius, and made us regard it were in every respect calculated to confirm his con- with disgust, fear, and pity. He was strong, serene, stitutional tendency to consumption. He seldom and secure in his innocence. Preserved in his youth thought of providing a regular meal ; and his humble from all evil by a native disposition towards cheerful cottage exhibited every appearance of the neglect of and tranquil enjoyments; and in his manhood by a the ordinary comforts of life. A few straggling piety as profound as ever possessed a human soul, rush-bottomed chairs, piled up with his books,-a his course through life was pure and unstained, and small rickety table before the fire-place, covered his latter end was peace. with parish memoranda,-some trunks containing all his papers, serving at the same time to cover the broken parts of the floor, constituted all the furni
THE AUTHORS OF THE NINETEENTH ture of his sitting-room.
CENTURY. The mouldy walls of the closet in which he slept were hanging with loose
No. II.—Rev. SYDNEY SMITH. folds of damp paper ; and between this wretched cell
AMERICAN CHARACTER. and his parlour was the kitchen, which was occupied by a disbanded soldier, his wife, and their numerous
THERE is a set of miserable persons in England, who are brood of children, who had migrated with him from
dreadfully afraid of America and every thing American
whose great delight is to see that country ridiculed and his first quarters, and seemed now in full possession
vilified-and who appear to imagine that all the abuses of the whole concern, entertaining him merely as a
which exist in this country acquire additional vigour and lodger, and usurping the entire disposal of his small chance of duration from every book of travels which plot of ground, as the absolute lords of the soil. pours forth its venom and falsehood on the United States.
His life was now drawing to a close : a few We shall from time to time call the attention of the sentences more, and we will have told all we public to this subject, not from any party spirit, but becan tell ; but it will be better to allow Mr Russell cause we love truth, and praise excellence wherever we himself to tell the story of his death. “ About
find it; and because we think the example of America the end of November, it was thought advisable,
will in many instances tend to open the eyes of Englishas the last remaining hope, that he should guard |
men to their true interests. against the severity of the winter by removing
The Economy of America is a great and important ob
ject for our imitation. The salary of Mr Bagot, our late to the Cove of Cork, which, by its peculiar situation,
ambassador, was, we believe, rather higher than that of is sheltered on all sides from the harsh and prevailing
the President of the United States. The Vice-President winds. Thither he was accompanied by the writer receives rather less than the second clerk of the House of and a near relation, to whom he was fondly attached. 'Commons; and all salaries, civil and military, are upon
the same scale ; and yet no country is better served than I would have fitted out an armament against the EdinAmerica! Mr Hume has at last persuaded the English burgh and Quarterly Reviews, and burnt down Mr Murpeople to look a little into their accounts, and to see how ray's and Mr Constable's shops, as we did the American sadly they are plundered. But we ought to suspend our Capitol. We, however, remember no other anti-Americontempt for America, and consider whether we have can crime of which we were guilty, than a preference of not a very momentous lesson to learn from this wise and Shakspeare and Milton over Joel Barlow and Timothy cautious people on the subject of economy.
Dwight. That opinion we must still take the liberty of America is exempted, by its very newness as a nation, retaining. There is nothing in Dwight comparable to from many of the evils of the old governments of Europe. the finest passages of Paradise Lost, nor is Mr Barlow It has no mischievous remains of feudal institutions, and ever humorous or pathetic, as the great Bard of the no violations of political economy sanctioned by time, | English stage is humorous and pathetic. We have and older than the age of reason. 'If a man finds a part always been strenuous advocates for, and admirers of, ridge upon his ground eating his corn, in any part of America-not taking our ideas from the overweening Kentucky or Indiana, he may kill it, even if his father vanity of the weaker part of the Americans themselves, is not a Doctor of Divinity. The Americans do not but from what we have observed of their real energy and exclude their own citizens from any branch of commerce wisdom. It is very natural that we Scotch, who live in which they leave open to all the rest of the world. a little shabby scraggy corner of a remote island, with a
Though America is a confederation of republics, they climate which cannot ripen an apple, should be jealous are in many cases much more amalgamated than the of the aggressive pleasantry of more favoured people; various parts of Great Britain. If a citizen of the United but that Americans, who have done so much for themStates can make a shoe, he is at liberty to make a shoe selves, and received so much from nature, should be flung any where between Lake Ontario and New Orleans, - into such convulsions by English Reviews and Magazines, he may sole on the Mississippi--heel on the Missouri - is really a sad specimen of Columbian juvenility. measure Mr Birkbeck on the little Wabash, or take (which our best politicians do not find an easy matter), American coaches must be given up; so must the the length of Mr Munro's foot on the banks of the Pó- roads, and so must the inns. They are of course what towmac. But woe to the cobbler, who, having made these accommodations are in all new countries; and Hessian boots for the aldermen of Newcastle, should much like what English great-grandfathers talk about as venture to invest with these coriaceous integuments the existing in this country at the first period of their recolleg of a liege subject at York. A yellow ant in a nest of lection. The great inconvenience of American inns, red ants-a butcher's dog in a fox-kennel-a mouse in a however, in the eyes of an Englishman, is one which bee-hive,-all feel the effects of untimely intrusion ;-but more sociable travellers must feel less acutely-we mean far preferable their fate to that of the misguided artisan, the impossibility of being alone, of having a room sepawho, misled by sixpenny histories of England, and con rate from the rest of the company. There is nothing ceiving his country to have been united at the Heptarchy, which an Englishman enjoys more than the pleasure of goes forth from his native town to stitch freely within the sulkiness -of not being forced to hear a word from any sea-girt limits of Albion. Him the mayor, him the alder-body which may occasion to him the necessity of replyman, him the recorder, him the quarter-sessions would ing. It is not so much that Mr Bull disdains to talk, as worry. Him the justices before trial would long to get that Mr Bull has nothing to say. His forefathers have into the tread-mill; and would much lament that, by a been out of spirits for six or seven hundred years, and, recent act, they could not do so, even with the intruding seeing nothing but fog and vapour, he is out of spirits tradesman's consent; but the moment he was tried, they too; and when there is no selling or buying, or no busiwould push him in with redoubled energy, and leave him ness to settle, he prefers being alone and looking at the to tread himself into a conviction of the barbarous insti fire. If any gentleman was in distress, he would willingly tutions of his corporation-divided country.
lend an helping hand; but he thinks it no part of neighToo much praise cannot be given to the Americans for bourhood to talk to a person because he happens to be their great attention to the subject of education. All the near him. In short, with many excellent qualities, it public lands are surveyed according to the direction of must be acknowledged that the English are the most Congress. They are divided into townships of six miles disagreeable of all the nations of Europe,-more surly square, by lines running with the cardinal points, and and morose, with less disposition to please, to exert consequently crossing each other at right angles. Every themselves for the good of society, to make small sacritownship is divided into thirty-six sections, each a mile fices, and to put themselves out of their way. They are square, and containing 640 acres. One section in each content with Magna Charta and Trial by.Jury; and think township is reserved, and given in perpetuity for the they are not bound to excel the rest of the world in small benefit of common schools. In addition to this, the behaviour, if they are superior to them in great instituStates of Tenessee and Ohio have received grants for the support of colleges and academies. The appropriation The curiosity for which the Americans are so much generally in the new States for seminaries of the higher laughed at, is not only venial, but laudable. Where men orders, amount to one-fifth of those for common schools. live in woods and forests, as is the case, of course, in reIt appears from Seybert's Statistical Annals, that the mote American settlements, it is the duty of every man land in the states and territories on the east side of the to gratify the inhabitants by telling them his name, place, Mississippi, in which appropriations have been made, age, office, virtues, crimes, children, fortune, and remarks: amounts to 237,300 acres ; and according to the ratio and with fellow travellers, it seems to be almost a above mentioned, the aggregate on the east side of the matter of necessity to do so. When men ride together for Mississippi is 7,900,000. The same system of appropria- 300 or 400 miles through woods and prairies, it is of the tion applied to the west, will make, for schools and col greatest importance that they should be able to guess at leges, 6,600,000 : and the total appropriation for literary subjects most agreeable to each other, and to multiply purposes, in the new States and territories, 14,500,000 their common topics. Without knowing who your comacres, which, at two dollars per acre, would be 29,000,000 l panion is, it is difficult to know both what to say and dollars. It is impossible to speak too highly of the value what to avoid. You may talk of honour and virtue to and importance of those facts. They quite put into the | an attorney, or contend with a Virginia planter that men back ground every thing which has been done in the Old of a fair colour have no right to buy and sell men of a World for the improvement of the lower orders, and dusky colour. confer deservedly upon the Americans the character of a It is a real blessing for America to be exempted from wise, a reflecting, and a virtuous people.
that vast burthen of taxes, the consequences of a long It is rather surprising that such a people, spreading series of foolish just and necessary wars, carried on to rapidly over so vast a portion of the earth, and cultivat. please kings and queens, or the waiting maids and ing all the liberal and useful arts so successfully, should waiting lords or gentlemen, who have always governed be so extremely sensitive and touchy as the Americans kings and queens in the Old World. The Americans are said to be. We really thought at one time they l owe this good to the newness of their government; and
though there are few classical associations, or historical | with cart-whips, and bind with chains, and murder for recollections in the United States, this barrenness is well the merest trifles, wretched human beings who are of a purchased by the absence of all the feudal nonsense, in- more dusky colour than themselves; and have recently veterate abuses, and profligate debts of an old country. admitted into their Union a new State, with the express
Fanaticism of every description seems to rage and permission of ingrafting this atrocious wickedness into flourish in America, which has no Establishment, in their constitution! No one can admire the simple wisabout the same degree which it does here under the nosedom and manly firmness of the Americans more than we of an Established Church ;-they have their prophets do, or more despise the pitiful propensity which exists and prophetesses, their preaching encampments, female among Government runners to rent their small spite at preachers, and every variety of noise, folly, and non- their character ; but on the subject of slavery, the consense, like ourselves. Among the most singular of these duct of America is, and has been, most reprehensible. fanatics are the Harmonites. Rapp, their founder, was It is impossible to speak of it with too much indignation a dissenter from the Lutheran Church, and therefore, of and contempt; but for it we should look forward with course, the Lutheran clergy of Stutgard (near to which unqualified pleasure to such a land of freedom, and such he lived) began to put Mr Rapp in white sheets, to prove a magniticent spectacle of human happiness. him guilty of theft, parricide, treason, and all the usual crimes of which men dissenting from established churches are so often guilty,—and delicate hints were given re
RESULTS OF MACHINERY. specting faggots! Stutgard abounds with underwood and clergy; and away went Mr Rapp to the United States, The term Machinery is of very extensive application, and, with a great multitude of followers, settled about meaning all those tools or utensils of which man avails twenty-four miles from our countryman Mr Birkbeck. himself in productive industry. A bow and arrow, a His people have here built a large town, und planted a spade, a plough, a coach, a cart, a ship; these and all vineyard, where they make very agreeable wine. They such articles are machines. Man, without machines or carry on also a very extensive system of husbandry, and tools, can scarcely do any thing ; without them, he is are the masters of many flocks and herds. They have a the feeblest of all animals. He has no tools which are a distillery, brewery, tannery, make hats, shoes, cotton and part of himself, to build houses like the beaver, or cells woollen cloth, and every thing necessary to the comfort like the bees. His power is in his mind; and that mind of life. Every one belongs to some particular trade. teaches him to subject all the physical world to his doBut in bad weather, when there is danger of losing their minion, by availing himself of all the forces that are crops, Rapp blows a horn, and calls them all together. spread around him. In proportion, in truth, Over every trade there is a head man, who receives the avails himself, or in proportion to his invention and intromoney and gives a receipt, signed by Rapp, to whom all duction of machinery, he rises in the scale of being, and the money collected is transmitted. When any of these commands the necessaries, comforts, and luxuries of life. workmen wants a hat or a coat, Rapp signs him an order The object of machinery is to abridge labour, and renfor the garment, for which he goes to the store, and is der it more productive; that is, to cheapen goods. It is, fitted. They have one large store where these manufac- in fact, attended with the same results as if a correspondtures are deposited. This store is much resorted to by ing improvement had taken place in the skill and industry the neighbourhood, on account of the goodness and cheap
of the labourer. Now, nobody reckons it an unfavourDess of the articles. They have built an excellent house able circumstance, if, by division of labour, or from any for their founder, Rapp,-as it might have been predicted other cause, the labour of men become more p they would have done. The Harmonites profess equality, On the contrary, such a result is hailed as the most happy community of goods and celibacy; for the men and occurrence. Suppose that the same object is gained, not women (let Mr Malthus hear this live separately, and by the increased skill of the labourer, but by machinery, are not allowed the slightest intercourse. In order to What would be the difference? There would, in point of keep up their numbers, they have once or twice sent over fact, be no difference at all. The question, therefore, for a supply of Germans, as they admit no Americans, of respecting the introduction of machinery, is at bottom any intercourse with whom they are very jealous. The the same as the question respecting the improvement of Harmonites dress and live plainly. It is a part of their the dexterity and science of the labourer. creed that they should do so. Rapp, however, and the Recourse, it is evident, is never had to machinery unless head men have no such particular creed for themselves; with the view of abridging labour, and of rendering it and indulge in wine, beer, grocery, and other irreligious more productive. If such a result was not gained, madiet. Rapp is both governor and priest,-preaches to
chinery would never be used. No man would ever think them in church, and directs all their proceedings in their of investing capital in a machine, if he could not thereby working hours. In short, Rapp seems to have made use produce the same quantity of goods at a cheaper rate. of the religious propensities of mankind, to persuade one
He has reconurse to machinery solely because, by do or two thousand fools to dedicate their lives to his ser so, he can supply the existing demand for his goods at a vice; and if they do not get tired, and fling their prophet cheaper rate, and with greater profit. into a horse-pond, they will in all probability disperse as Before the art of printing was invented in 1440, books soon as he dies.
were written by the hand, and were of course in manuAmerica seems, on the whole, to be a country possess. script. Though the copiers had low wages, books were ing vast advantages, and little inconveniences; they have dear, insomuch that a good copy of the Bible is stated as a cheap government, and bad roads; they pay no tithes, having cost L.30, even in the money of that time. Why and have stage coaches without springs. They have no were books so dear? They were dear because the cost poor laws and no monopolies--but their inns are incon- / of their production was dear; because they were produced, venient, and travellers are teased with questions. They not by machinery, but by the tedious process of manual have no collections in the fine arts; but they have no labour. But, by means of the noble invention in quesLord Chancellor, and they can go to law without abso tion, the state of matters in this respect was altogether lute ruin. They cannot make Latin verses, but they ex changed. A single printer, by means of this invention, pend immense sums in the education of the poor. In all could, even at first, it is computed, do the business of two this the balance is prodigiously in their favour: but then | hundred copiers. At first sight, this seems a hardship; comes the great disgrace and danger of America—the for one hundred and ninety-nine persons were thus thrown existence of slavery, which, if not timeously corrected, out of employment. But what were the consequences in will one day entail (and ought to entail) a bloody servile a year or two? Where one book in manuscript was sold, war upon the Americans—which will separate America a thousand printed works were required ; and, the price into slave states and states disclaiming slavery, and which of production being diminished, they would be sold at remains at present as the foulest blot in the moral cha- | comparatively low prices, and the number of readers and racter of that people. A high-spirited nation, who can purchasers increased in proportion. And not only were not endure the slightest act of foreign aggression, and books incomparably cheaper, but, by means of the printwho revolt at the very shadow of domestic tyranny--beat / ing press, they were infinitely more neatly, beautifully
and correctly executed. The copiers, it is true, had to machinery, and the use of cotton is now so universal, turn their hand to some other trade; but the trades of that, according to Mr Baines, if the quantity of cloth type-founder, printer, paper-maker, corrector of the press, now produced were the result of the old machinery book-binder, and bookseller, were called into existence, employed before 1767, “ the inhabitants of all Europe and several hundred, nay, several thousand times the would be quite inadequate” for the purpose. The quality number of persons were employed, by means of this noble of the cloth has also, by means of machinery, been much invention, that had been previously engaged. The copiers improved. These circumstances,-the diminished cost of generally adopted a far more agreeable and dignified cotton goods, and the improved nature of the quality, employment, that of correcting the press. There are at have rendered it impossible for the cheap labour of India, present above 25,000 persons engaged in London alone unassisted by machinery, to come into competition with in connexion with printing: a greater number than the the machinery of England. The trade in India-manuaggregate amount of copiers before the invention of factured cotton is completely gone. Not only is this the printing. The effects of this invention have been incal case, but we can beat the people of that country with the culably great. Without it, the knowledge of books must manufactured article in their own market. “ The British have been confined to a few, instead of being, as they navigator,” says M. Dupin, “ travels in quest of the now are, the guides, the best friends, the ornament of the 1 cotton of India, brings it home,--a distance of 12,000 millions, in every civilized country. Without it, there miles,-commits it to an operation of the machine of could have been no general literature,no diffusion of Arkwright, and of others that are attached to it, carries useful or entertaining knowledge among the great body back the produce to the East, making it again travel of the people; there could, therefore, have been no pro- | 12,000 miles; and, in spite of the loss of time, in spite of perly defined public opinion, which is alone formed and the enormous expense incurred by the voyage of 24,000 maintained by the art of printing ;-without that great miles, the cotton, manufactured by the machinery of auxiliary, indeed, public opinion, if it could be said to England, becomes less costly than the cotton spun and exist at all, must have been exceedingly rude and un-woven by the hand near the field that produced it, and tutored.
sold at the nearest market. So great,” says he, " is the With regard to the stocking-manufacture, it may be power of the process of machinery!" mentioned that, previously to the invention of the knit Other means may be taken to show the effects of mating-frame, the luxury of stockings was unknown. Pre- | chinery. The following, as to the increase of population, viously to the time of this invention, in 1589, the stock may be given as an example:-In 1700, Lancashire, the ings, even of the royal family and nobility, were sewed great seat of the cotton manufactures, numbered only by the tailor, or consisted of bandages of cloth. Henry 166,200 inhabitants; in 1750, only 297,400; in 1801, it VIII. wore nothing but cloth hose, unless there came, had grown to 672,565; in 1831, to 1,336,854; and in 1841, “ by great chance," a pair of knit stockings from Spain. to 1,667,054 ; being about two-thirds of the whole popuWithout this invention, the greater number of us must lation of Scotland. That is to say, Lancashire is, at this have been without stockings, or have used cloth hose. moment, eight times more populous than it was 130 years But with this invention, how few of the millions of peo ago; and twice as populous as it was thirty years ago; rates ple, now in this country, are without stockings ? We of increase nearly on a parallel with the United States. look on a person devoid of this piece of dress as in the In the cotton districts in Scotland, similar results can be lowest state of misery and wretchedness. Indeed stock traced. Glasgow, which is the Manchester of the North, ings, by means of machinery, are now become so cheap, in 1763, contained 28,300 souls; in 1841, upwards of that it is a question whether it is worth while to mend 274.000, the increase being ninefold in ninety years. The them; particularly if the mending has to be paid for. Tak growth of Paisley is scarcely less striking. In 1782, it ing the population of the United Kingdom at 24,500,000; contained 1700; in 1841, 60,000, having more than and suppose that each individual, on an average, spends tripled in sixty years. three shillings a year on stockings—an estimate below Such are a few of the advantages—the vast advantages, the truth-the sum expended on this simple article which we owe to machinery. Machinery has abridged amounts to L.4,200,000 annually. Besides, the stocking | labour, and rendered it productive to a degree altogether manufacture gives employment and subsistence to up. surprising; and which, at one time, could not have been wards of 120,000 of our population, and affords profitable predicated. It thus renders all products made by it proinvestment to L.2,000,000 of capital,-circumstances that portionally cheap, and consequently extends the concould not have obtained without the invention of knitting- sumption of them. But yet a loud, and at one time a machinery.
very general outcry was raised against machinery, inasThe result as to the application of machinery in the much as it was supposed to displace human labour, and iron manufacture was scarcely less striking, a subject to throw workmen out of employment. The hollowness which we mean to discuss in a separate article.
of the objections in question are evident-if it displaced But the effects of machinery, in the cotton manufac- workmen at all, it did so only to a very limited extent; ture, are most triumphant. Before the invention of the and the worst that could happen was a forced change of spinning-jenny by Hargreaves, in 1767, the whole cotton employment. Machinery, instead of diminishing employgoods manufactured in England amounted only to ment, ultimately gives work to a far greater number of L.600,000 a year; while the number of persons employed hands, as proved by the figures already quoted; and no in the manufacture was only about 40,000. These are class of men are benefited more by the introduction of the estimates made by Mr Baines in his “ History of the mechanical force than the workmen themselves; besides, Cotton Manufacture;" and are considerably higher than a forced change of employment results from other causes. the estimates made by Mr M'Culloch and other authori- A change from war to peace may throw the half of those ties. Since the time of Hargreaves, the invention of engaged in the manufacture of powder out of employment, Arkwright, Crompton, Cartwright, Watt, &c., have been or force them to change their business. The extensive introduced, and have contributed essentially to the prevalence of temperance societies in America has forced triumphs of mechanical genius. Owing to those triumphs, hundreds to give up tavern-keeping, and to betake themthough the price of the article has fallen to a twelfth of selves to some new employment. A change of fashion, its former price, the quantity of cotton manufactured as a change from metal buttons to silk buttons, may have amounts to about L.40,000,000 annually, in place of exactly the same effects, and force thousands to cultivate L.600,000; and the number of people employed has risen a new profession. And yet no complaints are heard on from 40,000 to 2,000,000, exclusive of the sailors, carriers, those heads; at least complaints so loud and clamorous merchants, engineers, &c., that through it obtain a liveli- as these to which we have alluded. The truth is, every hood. Nay, the number of persons, such as engineers, prudent workman should so husband his resources, as to smiths, &c., now employed in the manufacture of cotton be prepared to meet every such contingency. He should machinery, are nearly three times greater than all other save, and have a little capital, so that he may be possessed persons engaged in the cotton manufacture itself before of an artificial power to prevent him from feeling the the days of Hargreaves and Arkwright. The commodity, inconveniences that would otherwise accompany these or indeed, is now so cheap, owing to the introduction of similar changes. But, taking the worst view of the case,