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shopmen, the very parties who, receiving my regular | to you, but not one word what you are to do with custom, were bound to protect her.
the public. And what do you want from the pubCase second. My nephew from the country is in lic? You want their hard capital paid down upon lodgings, and, following my advice, he pays his land- the nail, and you want them to ask no questions of lady, as he himself is paid, weekly. He calls at your you—for this is the plain English of the phrase enshop for a pair of braces, and forthwith your myr- titled “ No Abatement." You did not like the old midons set upon him and do not let him go, until they plan of cheapening chattels pursued by a certain have mulcted him of six or seven shillings for a stock class of customers-it wasted your time and your with flaps to it; he cannot, in consequence, settle patience. Now, Sir, what is sauce for the goose is with the landlady, and here again is a poor woman sauce for the gander, and what is good for the seller pinched because of you and yours.
is good for the buyer. Does it never occur to you Case third. My servant Betty goes out with five that I require to economise my time and patience as shillings, two of them to buy stockings, and three well as you? Add, therefore, to your golden capitals to put into the savings' bank. An over-dressed lad the following equitable vocables ; with red hair, and enormous breast-pin bullies her into the purchase of a veil, and the threshold of the NOBODY ASKED TO LOOK AT, OR BUY ANYTHING, savings' bank is never crossed.
EXCEPT WHAT HE WANTS. Your system, then, touches not only my pocket but it affects all around me, and I cannot, and will I use the term “ look at " advisedly, because one not, be silent under such a reign of extortion. You of the spider's webs which you spread to catch the may look over your sales-book at night, and you unwary is, the false and felonious allegation, that may chuckle at the money drawn, and you may you do not want your customers to buy, but merely think Jenkin a smart fellow, and Tunstall a regular to look at your commodities-overlooking that this go-a-head brick, and other such thoughts and still attempt to convert your shop into a museum is a more quaint phraseology may mount to your lips : “weak invention." Again, do not imagine that I but the business you have done is not of the right wish to prevent you from pushing business, as it is sort, and like some of your own fabrics, " it will not called. Far from it. Decore your windows, counwash." Do you think that my wife, nephew, or ters, and shelves, as you will, but do not add the servant, will ever enter your shop again? They will magic of your living voices to augment attractions pass it, saying, “that's the shop where people are already powerful enough for gentle woman and made to buy what they don't want and the whole spooney young men. Puff on in newspapers, emabout it are an impudent set." This is what will ploy locomotive advertisers, and human placardbe done, and what is done every day.
bearers, bespatter all the walls and lamp-posts of For my part, I am determined to do as Benjamin the city with shop-bills. Do any or all of these, Franklin did with the American innkeepers. When but do not take me by the button. The tide of I enter a shop I intend asking if this be an establish- public opinion is rising against you, and woe to the ment where people are solicited to buy what they man who opposes it. "Can I not," says Sir John don't want. If answered in the affirmative, I shall Falstaff, “take mine ease in mine inn, but I must walk off—if in the negative, I shall stop and make be robbed ?" And can I not go into a bookseller's my purchase. More than that, if I were persuaded shop for a cookery-book without being importuned that that shop would maintain its integrity, I should to buy a family bible ? can I not go into a saddler's buy everything from it, and recommend all my for a pot of polishing paste without being asked to friends and enemies to do the same.
buy a pair of stirrups ? can I not go into an apotheWhoever attempts to reform this abuse (and I cary's for an ounce of tooth-powder without being make no doubt that some will try to do so), will bullied into the purchase of a packet of stickinghave much head-way to make against custom, that plaister ? can I not go into a seedsman's for a Dutch enemy of all improvement. Waiters are so much in hoe without being goaded into the buying of carrot the habit of saying “ Yes, Sir," that if told to do the seed ? into a pawn-broker's for a Queen Anne's most diabolical acts, or to proceed to the most ques- farthing without having a German flute thrust into tionable of all localities, they will complaisantly my hands ? can I not order a pair of gaiters without signify acquiescence ; and so, in like manner, were requiring a Codrington ? because I need a mustardBaron Rothschild to go into your shop and order all pot do I desiderate a tureen? If I really cannot be the wares that it contains, including the gas lustres allowed to know my own wants better than any and shop-fittings, most probably you would ask him, Shopman behind a counter, Where is British “ Anything else wanted ?” And supposing that Liberty ? eminent capitalist were, in compliance with your Franklin ingeniously shows, that in every state polite request, to enlarge his order to the extent of there is a greater amount of taxation levied volunsoliciting you to send to his hotel the calico wealth tarily than is exacted compulsorily; and, as we hear of Glasgow, your ambition would not be satisfied, a great deal about the rudeness of Government clerks, and you would repeat your cuckoo song. Nay, if railway money-takers, and others over whom we have the Baron and his friends were to order of you the little direct control, it is worth while attempting to whole world, and it were possible for you to sell it, suppress annoyances which we can in some measure you would sit down like another Alexander, and take into our own hands. Let the people first free blubber because “ Nothing Else could be Wanted." themselves from the taxes of idleness, dissipation, Such a nuisance as this you must see, on calm reflec- and luxury, and then national taxes will reform tion, ought and should " cease and determine.” You themselves. Let them also, each in their own are very fond of putting such words as the following sphere, give and exact reasonable civility, and then in large gold letters, on some conspicuous post or Government officials will partake in the general impillar of your temple, gallery, saloon, or whatever provement. But until we put down “ Counter Irrielse your shop may be named :
tation," I do not see that we should complain of
other kinds of relative troubles—we should first READY MONEY, AND NO ABATEMENT!
reform those which lie within the province of our In other words you tell what the public is to do own control.
IMPROVEMENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF | tendency to violence, the most soothing treatment is
now applied instead of the severe coercive measures THE INSANE.
of former times. Instead of the manacles, and straps, Of late a great change has taken place in the feelings and strait jackets once in use, the judicious attendregarding insanity, and this has happily led to ance of a keeper, and proper arrangements of the great changes in the mode of treating this disease. cells and apartments, joined to the quiet and cooling Formerly insanity was looked upon with extreme treatment, are found to be much more efficacious. aversion, as something almost disgraceful, and the In all other milder cases of insanity, the great object unfortunate victims were huddled out of sight with is to afford occupation and constant exercise both for as much secrecy as possible. The malady, in almost the body and the mind. In this consists the great all its forms, was deemed incurable, or all but hope improvement of modern asylums. Instead of being less, and, after one or two trials at first, few perse- gloomy prisons, and little better than living tombs, vering efforts of cure were made afterwards. Now, as formerly, they are now fitted up with great order however, the unfortunate victims of this disease are and comfort,- with large airy apartments,—with looked upon with more kindly feelings; and, under gardens and airing-grounds, with workshops, with all its varieties, this malady, like others afflicting libraries, with musical instruments, and, in short, human beings, is found either susceptible of cure or with every kind of occupation and amusement with of many alleviations. As those changes which have which the patients were familiar in their days of been brought about have arisen in a considerable health. Two great objects and purposes are thus degree from a more correct knowledge of insanity aimed at by such modes of treatment. In the first and its treatment having been diffused among the place, this kind of discipline is found best suited to public generally, it is with a view of still forwarding the recovery of sound mind in the most hopeful kind this good work that we offer the following remarks of cases; and, in the next place, the constant amusein further elucidation of the subject : For there are ment and excitement of such a life prevents many three important subjects affecting society most inti- from sinking deeper and deeper into states of conmately-Crime-Pauperism-and Insanity,—which, firmed idiocy, or total loss of their intellect. Even the more they are inquired into and discussed, the in extreme cases of melancholy and depression, it is more warmly will they come home to the business highly pleasing to witness the temporary effects and bosoms of true philanthropists.
which cheerful society, music, dancing, and other We do not wish to harrow up the feelings by de amusements have, in rousing for a time the mind to scribing the state of lunatic asylums in former times, some sense of pleasure and enjoyment. There is no not only of those devoted to the reception of paupers, class of persons who require the aid of constant embut those wherein the sons and daughters of luxury ployment and mental excitement more than the and refinement, who had known better days, and insane. Regular exercise and bodily activity, as had been accustomed to all the delicacies of domestic conducing to physical health, are absolutely necesaffection and tenderness, were consigned for life. sary; hence in well-regulated asylums, gardening, Neither shall we pause to describe the numerous walks in pleasure-grounds and short but frequent instances of deranged persons transformed by neglect excursions around the neighbouring country, are into confirmed cases of madness and idiocy, and who regularly had recourse to. Besides these, various were permitted to roam at large among society, the mechanic arts are practised. Many of the patients sport, and too often the sad victims, of the thought- feel happy in assisting in the domestic labours of the less, and the unfeeling. It is sufficient, in general establishment, while the turning-lathe and various terms, to state, that the former system was defective scientific pursuits occupy the attention of the higher in the hopeless view which was taken of insanity ; classes of patients. Besides the daily occupation of that little effort was made at any attempts at cure, reading, musical concerts, dances, theatrical entereither by physical or mental regimen ; and that the tainments, and the composition and printing of madhouse was simply a prison, a place of corporeal re- literary periodicals, have all been introduced and straint, a solitary cell, where the violent were chained persevered in with the most cheering and beneficial and manacled, or where the meek and submissive were effects. Religious instruction has also been afforded, immersed in heartless seclusion, without bodily or and the attendance on such has been productive of mental occupation, and without all those soothing the best results ; while schools, both for junior and companionships and attentions to the diseased and adult patients, have been regularly persevered in often lacerated feelings which their unfortunate situa- and cheerfully attended by all classes. Even in cases tions so much required. We need not add to this
apparently of the most hopeless description, it is the physical discomforts,—the cold, the filth, the astonishing how great a mental stimulus has been want of ventilation, and too often the unnecessary imparted in this way. In the Bicêtre in Paris, there sternness and cruelty with which such unfortunate be- is a school for the training of idiots and epileptic ings were surrounded and treated. We would rather patients, and it is wonderful what is there done for dwell upon the improvements of the new method. persons apparently in the most hopeless degrees of
Insanity may consist either of a total disturbance imbecility. We shall give one instance of a boy of of the mind, both as regards its intellectual and fifteen, who was admitted there in 1843. He was in moral functions, in which case the individuals exist a state of almost complete idiocy, with the few reas in an abstract dream, and act and speak as if un- maining faculties which he possessed in a state of conscious of everything around them; or they are extraordinary activity, rendering him dangerous to only partially deranged, having just enough concep-himself and to others. He had a voracious and tions of certain things, but diseased apprehensions indiscriminate appetite for food, and a blind and and feelings with regard to others. In some cases terrible inclination for destruction. He had no one or more of the intellectual faculties are disor-attachment for his kindred, and no regard for anydered, in others the feelings or affections, or what thing around him. He was brutally sensual and more properly belongs to the moral attributes of the passionate, breaking, tearing, and burning every mind. Hence the variety of treatment which the thing which came in his way, and attacking his various cases demand. In those extreme cases which brothers and sisters indiscriminately with strangers. are usually accompanied by much excitement and a By dint of perseverance and judicious attentions, this boy became docile in his manners, decent in his , on all points, and yet receiving the most correct and habits, and capable, though not without some visible rational answers. At last Dr Sims entered the court, effort, of directing his vague senses and wandering and suggested to the counsel a question to be put, attention to the objects before him. It is true his which he knew would discover his weak point. It general appearance remained still idiotic, and his was put accordingly, and, to the astonishment of all looks and actions betrayed his limited faculties ; yet present, this apparently sane person declared himself he would come forward, when called, and sing, in the to be “the Saviour of mankind.” Individuals of best way he could, a little solo. He had learned to this description frequently manifest a great degree write, and had obtained some notion of arithmetic by of cunning. An instance of this kind is related by ineans of marbles and small pins of wood, or by lines Lord Mansfield. “A man of the name of Wood had and marks upon a board ; in short, he was reclaimed indicted Dr Munro, the proprietor of an asylum at as much as his nature would permit, and was certainly | Hoxton, for detaining him a prisoner when he was a different being, and had more varied enjoyments sane. This man underwent the most severe examinthan if he had been allowed to remain in his original ation by the defendant's counsel without exposing deplorable condition. In every thing that regards his complaint. But Dr Battye having come upon food, clothing, and warmth, the improvements of the bench by me, and having desired me to ask him modern asylums are very complete. Large, well- what was become of the princess whom he had corventilated apartments, where a number of the pa- | responded with in cherry juice, he showed in a tients can assemble together frequently during the moment what he was. He answered, that there was day, and thus share in the cheerful stimulus of nothing at all in that, because, having been, as every human sociality, are used ; and even the sleeping body knew, imprisoned in a high tower, and being apartments, instead of being constructed single and debarred the use of ink, he had no other means of solitary, are now formed of large dimensions, so as correspondence but by writing his letters in cherry to contain a considerable number of beds. In this juice, and throwing them into a river which surway the lonely solitude of the night, so generally rounded the tower, where the princess received them distressing to insane people, is thus relieved of its in a boat. There existed, of course, no tower, no terrors, and the presence of judicious keepers pro- | imprisonment, no writing in cherry juice, no river, duces that degree of restraint which could not be no boat, but the whole was the inveterate phantom commanded in solitude. In short, the great object of a morbid imagination. I immediately," continues of asylums is to assimilate the treatment of the in- Lord Mansfield, " directed Dr Munro to be acquitted ; sane as nearly as may be to that of beings in ordinary but this man Wood, being a merchant in Philpot life, having reference of course to their peculiar con- Lane, and having been carried through the city in dition, and, by all external means to endeavour to his way to the mad-house, he indicted Dr Munro render that condition as easy and comfortable as over again for the trespass and imprisonment in Lonpossible. How gratifying it is to dwell on such don, knowing that he had lost his cause by speaking efforts as these, and how soothing to the feelings of of the princess at Westminster; and such is the exrelatives, as well as to all who take an interest in traordinary cunning and subtilty of madmen, that suffering humanity, to know that beings thus afflicted when he was cross-examined on the trial in London, with one of the most awful and mysterious of visita- as he had successfully been before, in order to expose tions, are thus tenderly cared for and judiciously | his madness, all the ingenuity of the bar, and all the treated!
authority of the court, could not make him say & It is a well known fact, which long experience has single word upon that topic, which had put an end decided, that insane persons can be much better to the indictment before, although he still had the treated in asylums than under the most solicitous same indelible impression upon his mind, as he sigcare of the domestic roof. As soon, then, as this nified to them that were near him ; but, conscious disease manifests itself, a removal should, unhesitat- that the delusion had occasioned his defeat at Westingly, be resolved upon. It is a curious circumstance, minster, he obstinately persisted in holding it back. that it is not the intellect which first generally indi- His evidence at Westminster was then proved cates derangement in such persons, but rather the against him by the short-hand writer." moral affections, and that thus a change of temper or In general, it is useless to reason with monomadisposition becomes the first visible symptom of dis- niacs. Argument is either of no avail, or it tends ease. Thus the mildest and most affectionate of to irritate and confirm them in their delusions. beings will change into the most fretful, peevish, and Even in those cases called religious melancholy, where distrustful—the most generous and open-hearted into the most despairing views are adopted, they are not the most selfish and penurious—the gayest and most to be combated by reasoning, but rather by attempts cheerful into the most gloomy and morose. While at rousing the mind to other exertions, by constant all this is taking place, more or less suddenly, accord- cheerful talk, and a firm persuasive authority. In ing to circumstances, the reason or intellect all the short, the particular subject which engrosses the while may appear sound and untouched. Unfor- mind of the patient should never be dwelt upon by tunately, too, the excited and changed affections are conversation, but, on the contrary, every opportunity generally turned with great bitterness against those should be taken of occupying the thoughts with who were before regarded with the greatest love and some other ideas. Hence, in such cases, the use of esteem. In those cases called monomania, where the varied society ; travelling, or change of place, when mind seems to harp upon one subject of delusion, such is practicable, and continually presenting to the judgment and conduct in regard to almost all the mind something new or inviting, so as to disother circumstances may be correct and unaffected. abuse it of the all absorbing topic. Hence it becomes exceedingly difficult for strangers, In cases where the mind has been over-excited, by or the unpractised observer, to find out wherein the cares and anxieties of business; by sudden bereavedisease consists. Numerous cases of this kind arements of the affections, by excessive study, or anxiemet with every day, and some singular ones are on ties of any sort ; quiet, retirement, complete relaxarecord. Of this nature is the case related by the late tion of the mental powers, and sleep, induced by Lord Erskine, of a witness whom he questioned and natural means, are the most efficacious modes of cross-questioned for upwards of an hour, trying him I restoring its healthy tone.
All agree that it is of the utmost importance to take the spinners raised an outcry that it would throw multicases of insanity under treatment at the earliest stages, tudes out of employment,--and a mob broke into Harand, indeed, that the chances of recovery ultimately greaves' house, and destroyed the machine! So great, depend mainly upon this circumstance. For it is indeed, was the persecution he suffered, and the danger found, that habits of insanity, like all others, the
to which he was exposed, that this victim of popular
ignorance was compelled, with his wife and children, to longer they are confirmed, the more difficult they
ey leave Blackburn, and to endeavour to find that sympathy are to be overcome.
and support in a neighbouring county which had been Another important circumstance respects the ex-denied him in his native place. Thus the district where cellent legal regulations under which all asyluins for the machine was invented lost the benefit of it, owing to the insane are now subjected by the legislature of the ignorance of its inhabitants; and yet, as in every such this country. No person can now be committed to case, the invention could not be cancelled, and its general such places without the written certificates of two use ultimately prevented. regularly established medical men; and all asylums
Hargreaves, on leaving Blackburn, withdrew to Notare subjected to periodical visitations by the con- tingham, where he worked for a while in the employment stituted authorities, whose duty it is to see that no
of Mr Shipley, for whom he had made some jennies se
cretly in his house. He took out a patent for his invenabuses of any kind are practised. In this way the
tion in 1770; the patent being " for a method of making most perfect personal freedom is secured to the
a wheel or engine of an entire new construction, and community, and no ground is left, for even the most
never before made use of, in order for spinning, drawvague fears of the most sensitive and affectionate ing, and twisting of cotton, and to be managed by one relatives.
person only, and that the wheel or engine will spin,
draw, and twist, sixteen or more threads at one time, by a JAMES HARGREAVES, AND THE SPINNING
turn or motion of one hand, and a draw of the other."
Before quitting Lancashire, Hargreaves had, as we JENNY.
have already mentioned, made a few jennies for sale ; Having in our last number given an article on Ma- and the importance of the invention, though ignorantly CHINERY, and referred, as an illustration of the beneficial traduced by the operative spinners, being appreciated by effects of mechanical power, to the cotton manufacture, the manufacturers, it came into general use, in spite of all we think it proper to insert biographical notices of three opposition. A fresh and desperate attempt, however, was individuals, whose names are so honourably connected made in 1770 (two years after Hargreaves had left Blackwith the invention or improvement of machinery, parti. burn), to put down the machine. A mob rose, and cularly in the cotton manufacture. We allude to Har- scoured the country for several miles around Blackburn, greaves, Arkwright, and Crompton; men whose services demolishing the jennies, and with them all the carding to the public cannot be over-estimated, but whose bio: engines and every machine turned by water or horses. It graphies are not generally known. In this number we is said that the mob spared the jennies which had only shall confine ourselves to Hargreaves; and give Ark- twenty spindles, as these were by this time admitted to wright and Crompton, successively, in our two subse- be useful, but those with a greater number, being consiquent publications.
dered mischievous, were destroyed or cut down to the We may premise, that the most striking instance of prescribed dimensions. It may seem strange that not the efficacy of machinery is to be found in the cotton merely the working classes, whose interests were thought manufacture,-a department in which we surpass the to be more immediately concerned, but even the middle whole world, but which is yet of comparatively recent and upper classes entertained a great dread of machinery. introduction. Mr Baines, in his “History of the Cotton Not perceiving that machinery, by cheapening commodiManufactures," states, that the entire annual value of ties, and thereby extending the demand for them, never the cotton goods manufactured in Great Britain, in 1767, fails to augment the number of labourers employed, these was only L.600,000; and the number of men supported by classes were alarmed lest the poor-rates should be burthe manufacture not above 40,000. It now amounts to about dened with workmen thrown idle. They, therefore, conL.40,000,000 a year, and the number of workmen to nearly nived at, and even actually joined in, the opposition to 2,000,000. Indeed, above treple the number of men are machinery, and did all in their power to screen the now employed in the manufacture of machinery that rioters from punishment Manufacturers (among others were engaged in the cotton manufacture previous to the Mr Peel, grandfather to the present Sir Robert Peel, a days of Crompton ; not to speak of the sailors, carriers, skilful and enterprising spinner and calico-printer), were &c., to whom it gives employment. Assuredly, the va- driven from the neighbourhood of Blackburn to Manluable men, by means of whose inventive genius this stu- chester and other places; and it was many years before pendous result has been accomplished, are entitled not cotton-spinning was resumed at Blackburn. merely to a passing notice, but to the most grateful re- Hargreaves, after being for a while in the employment membrance.
of Mr Shipley, formed a copartnery with Mr Thomas In 1767, James Hargreaves, a weaver, near Black- James in Nottingham, the latter raising money to build burn, in Lancashire, invented a machine known by the a small mill, where they spun yarn for the hosiers with name of the Spinning Jenny, by means of which a single the jenny. Meantime,' Hargreaves' patent was extenperson (boy or girl), is enabled to spin two hundred | sively pirated, and he raised actions against several maThreads of cotton at a time, instead as formerly, of a single nufacturers. Attempts at negotiation were tried, but thread. The Spinning Jenny at first spun only eight failed ; and the actions proceeded. But Hargreaves' atthreads, but its powers have since been almost indefinitely torney, being informed that his client, before leaving developed, and this invention is one of the most splendid, Blackburn, had sold some jennies to obtain clothing for as it may be reckoned the first whereby the cotton manu- his children, gave up the actions in despair of obtaining facture has been raised to its present magnificent state. a verdict. Thus was this poor but ingenious man robbed
With this admirable machine, Hargreaves and his fa- of any reward for his great invention ; an invention, mily spun weft for his own weaving. Aware of the value which, though it did not benefit him, and perhaps from of the invention, but not extending his ambition to a disappointment, made his life miserable, was of the patent, he kept it as secret as possible for a time, and greatest public importance, and essentially contributed to used it merely in his own business. But this ingenious that unrivalled manufacturing eminence to which this man, being a mere workman, was poor; and the wants country has now attained. of a numerous family (for he had seven children), in His invention being thus ungenerously wrested from duced him to make a few jennies for sale; and the merit him, Hargreaves continued to carry on a small business, of the invention brought it gradually into general use. with moderate success, in connexion with Mr James. A machine, indeed, of such power could not be long con- | But he did not long survive his disappointment. He cealed; but when it became the subject of rumour, in- died in 1778, within less than eleven years after his instead of gaining for its author admiration and gratitude, vention had been made public. Though others amassed wealth through the medium of his ingenious machine, it the material Sun is the eye and revealer of all things, so conferred no benefit on himself, except the proud con- | is Poetry, so is the World-Poet in a spiritual sense. sciousness that he thereby was a public benefactor, and Goethe's life too, if we examine it, is well represented in deserved, though he did not receive, public remunera- that emblem of a solar Day. Beautifully rose our tion. He left a widow and children behind him, in com- , summer sun, gorgeous in the red fervid east, scattering parative destitution; and some of his descendants still the spectres and sickly damps (of both of which there survive. At what age he died, it is not easy now to were enough to scatter); strong, benignant in his noon. know. His days were probably cut short, partly by the day clearness, walking triumphant through the upper ardour of genius devoted to mechanical invention, and realms; and now, mark also how he sets! “ So stirbt ein partly by chagrin and disappointment. He was a man, Held: anbetungsroll, So dies a hero; to be worshipped!" so far as is known, of good principles and of irreproach And yet, when the inanimate, material sun has sunk able character. As to his personal appearance, he is and disappeared, it will happen that we stand to gaze described by the son of his partner, as "a stout, broad into the still glowing west ; and there rise great pale set man, about five feet ten inches high, or more.” The motionless clouds, like coulisses or curtains, to close the name of James Hargreaves, though no public kindness flame-theatre within ; and then, in that death-pause of was ever shown to himself or family, will ever be men- the Day, an unspeakable feeling will come over us : it is tioned with honour in every country where the history of as if the poor sounds of Time, those hammerings of tired mechanical invention is known and appreciated.
Labour on his anvils, those voices of simple men, had become awful and supernatural; as if in listening, we
could hear them “mingle with the ever-pealing tone of THE AUTHORS OF THE NINTEENTH
old Eternity." In such moments the secrets of Life lie CENTURY.
opener to us; mysterious things flit over the soul; Life No. III.-THOMAS CARLYLE.
itself seems holier, wonderful and fearful. How much
more when our sunset was of a living sun; and its bright DEATH OF GOETHE.
countenance and shining return to us, not on the morrow, (1832.]
but “no more again, at all, for ever!" In such a scene,
silence, as over the mysterious great, is for him that has In the Obituary of these days stands one article of quite some feeling thereof, the fittest mood. Nevertheless by peculiar import; the time, the place, and particulars of silence, the distant is not brought into communion; the which will have to be often repeated, and re-written, and feeling of each is without response from the bosom of his continue in remembrance many centuries; this, namely, | brother. There are now, what some years ago there that Johann Wolfgang von Goethe died at Weimar, on were not, English hearts that know something of what the 22d March 1832. It was about eleven in the morn those three words, “Death of Goethe," mean; to such ing; “ he expired," says the record, “without any apparent men, among their many thoughts on the event, which are suffering, having, a few minutes previously, called for paper | not to be translated into speech, may these few, through for the purpose of writing, and expressed his delight at that imperfect medium, prove acceptable. the arrival of spring.” A beautiful death; like that of a “Death,” says the Philosopher, it is a commingling of soldier found faithful at his post, and in the cold hand Eternity with Time; in the death of a good man, Eternity his arms still grasped! The Poet's last words are a is seen looking through Time.” With such a sublimity greeting or the new-awakened earth ; his last movement | here offered to eye and heart, it is not unnatural to look is to work at his appointed task. Beautiful ; what we with new earnestness before and behind, and ask, What might call a Classic sacred-death; if it were not rather space in those years and æons of computed Time, this an Elijah-translation,-in a chariot, not of fire and terror, man with his activity may influence; what relation to the but of hope and soft vernal sunbeams! It was at Frank-world of change and mortality, which the earthly name fort on the Mayn, on the 28th of August 1749, that this Life, he who is even now called to the Immortals has man entered the world : and now, gently welcoming the
red the worla: and now, gently welcoming the borne and may bear? birthday of his eighty-second spring, he closes his eyes, Goethe, it is commonly said, made a New Era in and takes farewell.
Literature; a Poetic Era began with him, the end or So then, our Greatest has departed. That melody of ulterior tendencies of which are yet nowise generally life, with its cunning tones, which took captive ear and visible. This common saying is a true one; and true heart, has gone silent; the heavenly force that dwelt here with a far deeper meaning than, to the most, it conveys victorious over so much, is here no longer ; thus far, not Were the Poet but a sweet sound and singer, solacing the farther, by speech and by act, shall the wise man utter ear of the idle with pleasant songs; and the new Poet himself forth. The Endi What solemn meaning lies in one who could sing his idle pleasant song to a new air,that sound, as it peals mournfully through the soul, when we should account him a small matter, and his perfora living friend has passed away! All now is closed, mance small. But this man, it is not unknown to many, irrevocable; the changeful life picture, growing daily was a Poet in such a sense as the late generations have into new coherence, under new touches and hues, has witnessed no other; as it is, in this generation, a kind of suddenly become completed and unchangeable ; there as distinction to believe in the existence of, in the possibility it lay, it is dipped, from this moment, in the æther of the of. The true Poet is ever, as of old, the Seer; whose Heavens, and shines transfigured, to endure even so— eye has been gifted to discern the godlike Mystery of for ever. Time and Time's Empire; stern, wide-devour-God's Universe, and decipher some new lines of its ing, yet not without their grandeur! The week-day man, celestial writing; we can still call him a Vates and Seer ; who was one of us, has put on the garment of Eternity, for he sees into this greatest of secrets " the open secret :" and become radiant and triumphant; the Present is all, hidden things become clear; how the Future (both rest. at once the Past ; Hope is suddenly cut away, and only ing on Eternity) is but another phasis of the Present : the backward vistas of Memory remain, shone on by a thereby are his words in very truth prophetic; what he light that proceeds not from this earthly sun.
has spoken shall be done. The death of Goethe, even for the many hearts that It begins now to be everywhere surmised that the real personally loved him, is not a thing to be lamented over; Force, which in this world all things must obey, is is to be viewed, in his own spirit, as a thing full of Insight, Spiritual Vision and Determination. The greatness and sacredness. For all men it is appointed Thought is parent of the Deed, nay is living soul of it, once to die. To this man the full measure of a man's and last and continual, as well as first mover of it ; is the life had been granted, and a course and task such as to foundation and beginning and essence, therefore, of man's only a few in the whole generations of the world : what whole existence here below. In this sense, it has been else could we hope or require but that now he should be said, the Word of man (the uttered Thought of man) 19 called hence and have leave to depart, having finished still of magic formula, whereby he rules the world. Do the work that was given him to do? If his course, as we not the winds and waters, and all tumultuous powers, may say of him more justly than of any other, was like inanimate and animate, obey him? A poor, quite the Sun's, so also was his going down. For, indeed, as ' mechanical, Magician speaks; and fire-winged ships