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cross the Ocean at his bidding. Or mark, above all, 1 " spiritual hero that ventures forward into the gulf for that “raging of the nations," wholly in contention, our deliverance.” The gulf into which this man ventured, desperation, and dark chaotic fury; how the meek voice which he tamed and rendered habitable, was the greatest of a Hebrew Martyr and Redeemer stills it into order, and most perilous of all, wherein truly all others lie inand a savage Earth becomes kind and beautiful, and the cluded: The whole distracted Existence of man is an age of habitation of horrid cruelty a temple of peace. The true Unbelief. Whoso lives, whoso with earnest mind studies Sovereign of the world, who moulds the world like soft to live wisely in that mad element, may yet know, perwax, according to his pleasure, is he who lovingly sees haps too well, what an enterprise was here ; and for the into the world; the “inspired Thinker,” whom in these Chosen Man of our time who could prevail in it, have days we name Poet. The true Sovereign is the Wise Man. the higher reverence, and a gratitude such as belongs to
However, as the Moon, which can heave up the no other. Atlantic, sends not in her obedient billows at once, but How far he prevailed in it, and by what means, with gradually; and the Tide, which swells to-day on our what endurances and achievements, will in due season be shores, and washes every creek, rose in the bosom of the estimated. Those volumes called Goethe's Works will great Ocean (astronomers assure us) eight-and-forty now receive no farther addition or alteration ; and the
hours ago; and indeed all world-movements, by nature record of his whole spiritual Endeavour lies written there, | deep, are by nature calm, and flow and swell onwards --were the man or men but ready that could read it
with a certain majestic slowness: so too with the Impulse rightly! A glorious record; wherein he who would of a Great Man, and the effect he has to manifest on understand himself and his environment, who struggles other men. To such a one we may grant some generation for escape out of darkness into light as for the one thing or two before the celestial Impulse he impressed on the needful, will long thankfully study. For the whole world will universally proclaim itself, and become (like chaotic Time, what it has suffered, attained, and striven the working of the Moon) if still not intelligible, yet after, stands' imaged there; interpreted, ennobled into palpable, to all men; some generation or two more, poetic clearness. From the passionate longings and wailwherein it has to grow, and expand, and envelope all ings of Werter, spoken as from the heart of all Europe; things, before it can reach its acme; and thereafter onwards through the wild unearthly melody of Faust, mingling with other movements and new impulses, at like the spirit-song of falling worlds; to that serenely length cease to require a specific observation or designa- wisdom of Meisters Lehrjahre, and the German Hafiz, tion. Longer or shorter such period may be, according what an interval; and all enfolded in an ethereal music, to the nature of the Impulse itself, and of the elements as from unknown spheres, harmoniously uniting all! A it works in; according, above all, as the Impulse was long interval; and wide as well as long; for this was a intrinsically great and deep-reaching, or only wide-spread, universal man, History, Science, Art, human Activity superficial, and transient. Thus, if David Hume is at under every aspect; the laws of Light in his Farbenlehre; this hour pontiff of the world, and rules most hearts, and the laws of wild Italian Life in his Benvenuto Cellini ;guides most tongues (the hearts and tongues, even of nothing escaped him; nothing that he did not look into, those that in vain rebel against him), there are, neverthe-that he did not see into. Consider too the genuineness less, symptoms that his task draws towards completion ; of whatsoever he did ; his hearty, idiomatic way; simand now in the distance his successor becomes visible. plicity with loftiness and nobleness and ærial grace! On the other hand, we have seen a Napoleon, like some Pure works of Art, completed with an antique Grecian gunpowder force (with which sort, indeed, he chiefly polish, as Torquato Tasso, as Iphigenie ; Proverbs; worked) explode his whole virtue suddenly, and thunder | Xenien; Patriarchal Sayings, which, since the Hebrew himself out and silent, in a space of five-and-twenty years. Scriptures were closed, we know not where to match ; in While again, for a man of true greatness, working with whose homely depths lie often the materials for volumes. spiritual implements, two centuries is no uncommon To measure and estimate all this, as we said, the time period ; nay, on this Earth of ours, there have been men is not come; a century hence will be the fitter time. He whose Impulse had not completed its devolopment till who investigates it best will find its meaning greatest, after fifteen hundred years, and might perhaps be seen and be the readiest to acknowledge that it transcends still individually subsistent after two thousand.
him. Let the reader have seen, before he attempts to But, as was once written, “though our clock strikes oversee. A poor reader, in the meanwhile, were he who when there is a change from hour to hour, no hammer in discerned not here the authentic rudiments of that same the Horologe of Time peals through the universe to pro New Era, whereof we have so often had false warning: claim that there is a change from era to era.” The true Wondrously, the wrecks and pulverized rubbish of Beginning is oftenest unnoticed, and unnoticeable. Thus ancient things, institutions, religions, forgotten nobledo men go wrong in their reckoning; and grope hither nesses, made alive again by the breath of Genius, lie here and thither, not knowing where they are, in what course in new coherence and incipient union, the spirit of Art their history runs. Within this last century, for instance, working creative through the mass; that chaos, into with its wild doings and destroyings, what hope, grounded which the eighteenth century with its wild war of hypoon miscalculation, ending in disappointment! How crites and sceptics bad reduced the Past, begins here to many world-famous victories were gained and lost, be once more a world.—This, the highest that can be said dynasties founded and subverted, revolutions accom of written Books, is to be said of these: there is in them plished, constitutions sworn to; and ever the "new era" a New Time, the prophecy and beginning of a New Time. was come, was coming, yet still it came not, but the time The corner-stone of a new social edifice for mankind is continued sick! Alas, all these were but spasmodic laid there; firmly, as before, on the natural rock : farconvulsions of the death-sick time: the crisis of cure and extending traces of a ground-plan we can also see; which regeneration to the time was not there indicated. The future centuries may go on to enlarge, to amend, and real new era was when a Wise Man came into the world, work into reality. These sayings seem strange to some; with clearness of vision and greatness of soul to accomplish nevertheless they are not empty exaggerations, but this old high enterprise, amid these new difficulties, yet expressions, in their way, of a belief, which is not now of again: A Life of Wisdom. Such a man became, by yesterday; perhaps when Goethe has been read and Heaven's pre-appointment, in very deed the Redeemer of meditated for another generation, they will not seem so the time. "Did he not bear the curse of the time? He strange. was filled full with its scepticism, bitterness, hollowness, Goethe reckoned Schiller happy that he died young, in and thousandfold contradictions, till his heart was like to the full vigour of his days; that we could " figure him as break; but he subdued all this, rose victorious over this, a youth for ever.” To himself a different, higher destiny and manifoldly by word and act showed others that come was appointed. Through all the changes of man's life, after, how to do the like. Honour to him who first, onwards to its extreme verge he was to go ; and through “through the impassable, paves a road!” Such indeed them all nobly. In youth, flatterings of fortune, uninteris the task of every great man; nay, of every good man rupted outward prosperity cannot corrupt him ; a wise in one or the other sphere, since goodness is greatness, observer has to remark: “None but a Goethe, at the Sun and the good man, high or humble, is ever a martyr and of earthly happiness, can keep his Phenix-wings un
singed.”—Through manhood, in the most complex rela- | was now on the eve of being married to her sixth hustion, as poet, courtier, politician, man of business, man | band—this was a Master Simon Shard, a draper of Corneof speculation ; in the middle of revolutions and counter- | hille, who had a well-filled purse, a rather corpulent revolutions, outward and spiritual; with the world loudly figure, a round and ruddy face, and was about two-andfor him, with the world loudly or silently against him; thirty years of age. After living for about six months in all seasons and situations, he holds equally on his way, on the most seemingly loving and comfortable terms, Old age itself, which is called dark and feeble, he was to Master Shard was one morning found dead in his bed, render lovely : who that looked upon him there, venerable without any previous illness or indisposition : this was in himself, and in the world's reverence, ever the clearer, strange, at least strange it will probably seem to the the purer, but could have prayed that he too were such reader, though it was not so to Mrs Alice's neighbours, an old man? And did not the kind Heavens continue for, wonderful to relate, all her other husbands had died kind, and grant to a career so glorious, the worthiest end? | in the same way, and under the same circumstances.
Such was Goethe's Life; such has his departure been. Master Shard had been a man of great influence in the He sleeps now beside his Schiller and his Carl August of city-his connexions stood high in the eyes of men, and Weimar; so had the Prince willed it, that between these he had a cousin who was sheriff at the time of his death, two should be his own final rest. In life they were and who declared when he heard it, “ by cock's marrow, united, in death they are not divided. The unwearied he would see into the matter that very moment," and Workman now rests from his labours ; the fruit of these accordingly next morning, for he was just going to sit is left growing, and to grow. His earthly years bave | down to dinner when he made the above declaration, he been numbered and ended : but of his Activity, for it presented himself with a posse comitatus at Mrs Alice's stood rooted in the Eternal, there is no end. All that door-and then the neighbourhood, as with one voice, we mean by the higher Literature of Germany, which is spoke out against her: for their long held opinion of her the higher Literature of Europe, already gathers round now found the countenance of power-her piety had been this man, as its creator; of which grand object, dawning hypocrisy, and they had thought so all along-even those mysterious on a world that hoped not for it, who is there that had benefited by her goodness, now found some that can measure the significance and far-reaching hole to pick in her conduct, and in plain and pithy Enginfluences ? The Literature of Europe will pass away ; ! lish they called her a murderess. Europe itself, the Earth itself will pass away: this little They found the widow by the bed-side of her departed life-boat of an Earth, with its noisy crew of a Mankind, husband; she not only did not fly from, but courted inand all their troubled History, will one day have vanished; vestigation, and accordingly the body was investigated, faded like a cloud-speck from the azure of the Alli but not the slightest sign of violence was found upon it; What then is man! "What then is man! He endures no trace of steel or poison-all was right, and as unacbut for an hour, and is crushed before the moth. Yet in countable as it ought to have been. In a few days, the being and in the working of a faithful man is there orders were given for the burial of the late Master Shard already (as all faith, from the beginning, gives assurance) in Mrs Alice's family vault, which was in St Michael's a something that pertains not to this wild death-element church, and which vault, though one of considerable exof Time; that triumphs over Time, and is, and will be, tent, Mrs Alice seemed in a fair way of filling choke full when Time shall be no more.
with her husbands. And now we turn back into the world, withdrawing St Michael's church stood at the period of this tale at from this new-made grave. The man whom we love the eastern end of Cornhill; and about mid-way between lies there: but glorious, worthy; and his spirit yet lives this church and Mrs Alice's house, there was a pothouse in us with an authentic life. Could each here vow to do or tavern, known by the name of the “Sevenne Starres ;" his little task, even as the Departed did his great one; in in the tap-room of this tavern, upon the afternoon when the manner of a true man, not for a Day, but for Eter- Master Shard was to be carried to his long home, there nity! To live, as he counselled and commanded, not was assembled a very merry company of some dozen commodiously in the Reputable, the Plausible, the Half, worthy citizens, who were getting full of good things and but resolutely in the Whole, the Good, the True: gratitude towards the giver of the feast, Master Martyn
Lessomour, a young merchant, whose safe return from a “Im Ganzen, Guten, Wahren resolut zu leben .'”
long and successful voyage to the Mediterranean they were met to celebrate. Master Lessomour was not yet
thirty, though hard upon it; tall, strongly, and well-built. THE WIFE OF SEVEN HUSBANDS.
On the afternoon in question, he and his boon comA LEGEND OF LONDON.
panions were at the height of their merriment, when one
who was sitting in the bay window, that jutted out into In the beginning of the reign of Edward the First, of the street, observed the funeral of Master Shard approachlong-legged memory, there lived upon Corne-hille, over ing, and gave notice thereof to the others. Most of the against the spot where the water-tonne was a few years party present being acquainted with the circumstances of afterwards built, a certain blythe and buxom widow, very the case, at once recognised whose funeral it was, and the wealthy, and as fair withal as she was wealthy ; she was ignorant and anxious ears of Master Lessomour were only in her twenty-eighth year, of a tall and stately shape greedily drinking in sundry marvellous tales of the rich and bearing, and with commanding and yet right modest widow of Corne-hille, when she herself passed immefeatures. Her father, and his fathers before him, for diately by the window, looking becomingly downcast and many generations back, had been rich and respectable sorrowful. goldworkers, citizens of London.
"Be she what she may,” exclaimed my young merBut be this as it may, Mistress Alice was a very hand-chant, “ by the pillars of St Hercules, she is a lovely some woman, and, as has been before said, very wealthy, wench, and steps out like an emperatrice.” for her father always petted her, and although he had “ A witch, Master Martyn,” replied one, the oldest of two other children, sons, he quarrelled with them both his companions, “a wicked witch is she, take an honest and turned them out of doors, and very solemnly vowed man's word for it, who should know something about he would disinherit them; and there is little doubt he
and there is little doubt he such things.” would have kept his vow, but that they prevented him, He requested the company to tell him something more the eldest by being drowned in the Fleet river, and the about her, as they seemed to know so much, and he noother by getting murdered in an affray with the city watch. thing, having been so long away from home--and accordAt the old man's death, therefore, he left all his property ingly, Master Andrews, with the assistance and interrupto his “deare daughter Alice," who was then twenty-one | tion of his companions, when they thought he had not years old, and had lately been married for the first time made enough of a good point, went through a relation of in her life. She has been already introduced to the Mrs Alice's life and adventures. During all this while, reader as a widow, and if he was tempted to be surprised Martyn Lessomour spoke not a word; and, when at at her being so young a one, what will he think when he length the narration was ended, he slapped his hand lusreads that she was a widow for the fifth time?-ay, and I tily on the window-sill, and cried out-" By the seven
stars, and they are ruling ones now," casting up his eyes He strove, both by caresses and assurances, to soothe to the sign over the door,“ but it is a strange talcmand her ; but it was sometime before he could do so. The whether true or false I will soon know-for if the mind conversation was not resumed, and they retired to bed. of man hold good within me for four-and-twenty hours, But Martyn's mind continued very restless, and he lay I will somehow or other scrape knowledge with this said awake long after his wife had gone to sleep. He could witching widow."
not dismiss her words from his brain, nor efface the imAt this observation, there was a general outcry, some pression they had made thereon; and, after turning the declaring he would not do as he said, others that he could | matter over a great many times, he came to the resolunot; and some presuming on long intimacy with him, or tion that he would see a little into the matter. At last on their greater advance in years, vowed he should not. he fell asleep, but it was only to wake soon from a wild
As Alice, on her return with a few attendants, was dream. He thought he and his wife were still sitting on about to cross the road, some horsemen riding by at the the low settle, as they had been that evening; and that moment, prevented her from doing so; whereupon Master their faces were lit up, as they then had been, by the fit
Lessamour, stepping to her side, said, “Fair dame, will ful glimmering of the dying embers—that her's wore the you let a stranger do his poor duty here, and see you same livid hue, and her eyes glistened in the same snakesafely over.” She curtsied, and accepted the arm he like manner that had then so frightened him ; and that offered her, and after escorting her across the road, where they were fixed, as then, upon his; and, though her look they again exchanged courtesies, he left her, and joined was most shocking, that he was fascinated by it, and his companions, who, from the window, had bebeld with could not move away his glance from her's. He woke astonishment his bold gallantry.
up in alarm and agony, and found his wife's long hair, Intending to visit her, he selected a few pieces of gray indeed, around his neck-and her arms too; and her bombazin, as the species of silk then chiefly manufac- head was lying on his chest, and she was sobbing viotured in Sicily was termed, which he had himself brought lently. He asked her what ailed her; and she said she home on his last voyage, and tied them up with a silken had had a dreadful dream, all of which that she could cord—and having broken his fast, he sallied forth to her recollect was that she had seen him murdered. residence. Mrs Alice very graciously vouchsafed to Martyn slept no more that night; and the next mornaccept his handsome present—and they parted mutually ing, he rose betimes, and pretending business, he went pleased with each other.
out at an early hour. He walked forth at the CrippleHe visited her, however, again and again, and so agree gate, and strolled through the Finsbury fields, and so able did they find each other, that as soon as decency away into the country without any knowledge of whither would permit, they married ; neither, it would seem, at he was going. It was a drizzly day, too; but he seemed all deterred by the fate that had attended all Mrs Alice's unconscious of it, though he was soon drenched to the former husbands. The preparations on this occasion skin. It was long after sunset when he returned home, were as splendid and expensive as possible, every citizen and he went straight to bed, pleading cold and weariness. of any importance that was at all known to either of the The next day, he sat all the forenoon with his wife; but parties, graced the ceremony with their august presence, in spite of her kindness and attentions, he could not overbringing with them, too, a host of wives, sons, and daugh- come the disagreeable feeling that was upon him. He ters, kinsfolk, friends, and acquaintance.
remained reserved, and almost sullen ; and, at last, Mrs This day seemed to have been the beginning of a new Alice seemed infected with the same manner. At noon life to Mrs Alice; she became from that time a gayer he left his house, and went straightways to Master woman, and mingled more in company than ever she had Andrews, who lived not far off, with the purpose of elidone before. They had been married for nearly four citing from him a recital of some of those marvellous months, when, one evening, as they were sitting together tales wherewith he had, on a former occasion regaled silently, upon a low stool or settle in shape something him. His purpose was, however, so far forestalled, for like a modern settee, only with quaintly carved frame and when he came there, he found he had some friends with elbows), gazing upon the dying embers of a wood fire, him, and, of course, he was not anxious to make his wife's that had been piled up between the brazen dogs on the conduct matter of public talk. He sat, therefore, the brick hearth, that Mrs Alice fetched a sigh.
whole evening nearly in silence ; for which, however, “ Why dost sigh, sweetheart ?" said her husband, “ art they made full amends by their boisterous and drunken not happy?”
noise. He sat as late as any, and left them with the full " I knew not that I sighed, dear Martyn," she said. determination of putting his plan into effect that very “ Certes, it was not for lack of happiness, for I am right night. On his way home, he trod casually upon a piece happy."
of apple rind lying in the path, and slipping, fell in the *I am glad to hear thee say so, and think thou sayest mire ; for it had been raining all that day too. At first sooth-if I may at all judge from mine own heart—for I he was not a little put out; but, after a little reflection, am happier than I ever yet have been.”
remembering that the very mischance might be made " And so, in truth, am I, Martyn-for I am happy serviceable to his scheme, with disordered dress (assum. now; and, indeed, I never knew happiness till I knew ing, as much as he could, the bearing of a drunken man),
he presented himself at his door. His wife, although it “Nay, thou art surely cajoling me, sweetest. Meanest was now late in the night, had sent the servants to bed, thou, thou wert never happy ere now ?”
and had herself sat up for him. Nothing could have "I say, till I knew thee, never-never !” As she happened more to Lessomour's wish. The moment his said this with great stress on the word never, Martyn, wife saw him, her face flushed even to darkness, and her whose arm was girdling her, felt her shudder strongly, and large black eyes widened to a greater size, as she said in he shook too.
a tone half of anger, half of dread, "Why, Martyn, what After a short pause he resumed,—“ Didst thou, then, is this? what has befallen thee?”' not love thy other husbands, Alice ?”
“I've been with some friends, my love,” he replied, “Love them! No, Martyn-no; I hated them speaking thickly. hated them with a deadly hate.” And at these words " Martyn! Martyn!” she answered, and bit her lip, her face grew lividly pale, and her eyes fixed on her and shook her head ; “a-get thee to thy bed; I will folhusband's with a strange and snake-like glistening, that low quickly.” his marrow thrilled again, and his heart beat thick. He He went accordingly; but it was some time before she spoke to her, however, in a meek voice, and said
did follow him, and she lay down by his side without " Why didst thou hate them so, Alice?”
speaking a word to him. He pretended to be asleep, “By cause--that they were drunkards and faithless, though he did not really sleep all that night; nor more, Martyn; and, therefore, I hated them so; and therefore, he thought, did she-for she tossed about, and seemed were it possible, thou should'st be such, I should even so very restless, now and then muttering to herself; and as hate thee, much, very much as I do now love thee.” soon as morning broke, she rose, and dressed herself, and She uttered these words in a tone of deep tenderness, and left the room. The whole of that day he staid at home, fell weeping on his neck.
| feigning to have a bad headache. She was very atten
tive to him, but in no way hinted at his conduct of the her bed, and leaning her head upon Martyn's shoulder, foregoing evening. In two or three days he repeated the sighed and sobbed, not loudly indeed, but as if her heart experiment, and with nearly the same success, saving that were cracking-and he-he lay deadly still by her side, Mrs Alice seemed a little more gloomy the following for he really feared to speak to her. In the morning he day. He tried a third time, and a fourth, and that night took care to rise before her, and woke her in so doing; she did not come to bed at all. The next morning she he went up, as if by accident, to the table, and saw that spoke to him for the first time, upon the subject; she ex- beside the knife there lay a smallish round dump of lead. pressed more sorrow than anger-talked kindly to him “What is this for, Alice ?" he said in a careless tone, —said she had hoped once, twice, and even thrice, that his for he knew she was watching him. coming home full of liquor might have been a mishap; “What is it?" she replied. He took it to her bedside. but she now felt forced to fear that drunkenness was be “That,” she continued, is a weight from the sleeve of my coming an usage with him; and she begged him, with gown; I cut it out last night, to put in a smaller, for I tears in her eyes, as he prized her happiness, to stop in find it too heavy." good time ere it did in truth become an usage. He was | Martyn laid it down, and presently left the room. It moved by her earnestness and promised her,and, at the same was some time before his wife joined him below stairs, time, determined to disquiet her no further on this head ; and when she did at last come, her eyes looked so swollen but an impulse, which somehow he could not resist, urged and red, that Martyn was pretty sure she had been weephim in two days to break his word. Twice more his ing: he said nothing about it, however, but in a few miconduct called forth pressing entreaties from his wife nutes rose, and took down his cap and said, “I am bidden the last time, indeed, they were mingled with some re-forth to dinner again to-day, Alice.” “Good bye, then, proaches; but it all was of no effect upon Lessomour Martyn, good bye,” was all her answer, and that was said he continued in the career he had begun. The day after in a low, very solemn, and yet kind tone of voice. He he had returned home, for the seventh time, in a pre went at once to his next door neighbours, and requested tended state of drunkenness, his wife said to him, “Mar- them to hold themselves in readiness, in case he should tyn, I have prayed thee till I am wearied : I now warn want for their assistance in the night, for he had some thee-take heed. As my husband, I owe thee love and idea, he said, that there would be an attempt to rob, or duty; but I can pay neither to a drunkard. Heed my perhaps to murder him that night. This greatly alarmed warning, or woe upon us both!”
his neighbours, and they promised to do what he requested, And did Martyn still go on with the pursuit of his ex and the moment he had left them they sent for a reinperiment? He did. Again, therefore, he transgressed, forcement of their friends, and also begged of the fitting and was again threatened ; again he reiterated his offence, authorities that there might be an additional watch set and then his wife said to him the next day, “Goest thou in the neighbourhood that night. forth to-day, Martyn?”.
Lessomour returned earlier by some hours than usual, “I must, indeed, Alice,” he answered, “I have weighty and, to his wonder, found his door was not fastened business to do to-day.”
within. He entered, and called—but no one answered“Then mark me, Martyn. I am not going to pray he fastened the door, and went up to his bedroom, where thee; but I have warned thee once, and I have warned he found his wife already in bed, and seemingly fast thee twice, and I now warn thee for the third and for the asleep :this was the first time she had not sat up for last time."
him. Really believing she was asleep, he got into bed, “Nay, nay, I needs must go, Alice”
and pretended himself to sleep, and to snore_still she “There needs no plea, Martyn, but thine own will— lay quiet. For two hours after he got into bed she never thine own stubborn will--that will not bend to thy wife's moved, but then she quickly but silently slipped from the prayer. Ay! I said I would not pray thee, but I do now. bed, hurried, but still without noise, to a stool near the Look! see, Martyn! I am on my knees here to thee- fire, took from under one of the cushions, a small iron and there are tears in mine eyes !-and, kneeling and ladle, and, what Martyn knew again for the leaden weight weeping thus, I pray thee go not forth to-day. I have he had seen in the morning; this she put into the ladle, had dreams of late-dreams of bad foretoken, Martyn; and kneeling on one knee, set it upon the fire; in about and only last night I did truly dream that—" (Here she a minute she turned her face to the bed, and then raised gulphed, as if for breath.] « Thou wilt lose thy life, an it up, and Martyn saw that though her features were thou go forth to-day, Martyn.”
frightfully writhen with bad passions, there were tears in But Martyn Lessomour, like Julius Cæsar, was not to her eye that bespoke an inward struggle. Just as she be frightened from a fixed purpose by a wife's dreams, brought this forward so as to pour it into her husband's and he answered her
ear, he started up with a loud outcry, seized her hand, “ Wife, wife, thou art a fearful woman, and makest me and jumped out of bed, at the same time saying, “ Shamefear thee; but, natheless, I shall go."
less assassin! have I caught thee? Help, ho! help, “Go, then,” she said, and rose and left him; and he neighbours! Help-murder!” Alice did not screamshortly after went from the house. He returned in the nor start even-but stared in her husband's face, and evening in the same assumed state as before, and went to with a strong effort freed her hand, flung the ladle into bed. He was aroused by his wife's getting up; yet, al- the fire, sank on a stool behind her, and hid her face in though he at once started into thorough wakefulness, he her hands. Lessomour continued calling for help, which had the presence of mind to pretend to be still asleep, call his neighbours, to do them justice, were not slow to and lay still and watched her. She had thrown a night obey--but to the number of two score and odd, well gown around her, and held a small knife in one hand. armed, they forced the outer door, and were hastening up Slowly and stilly, like a ghost-she glided on--but away stairs. As they were close upon the bed-room door, from him ; and going up to the place where she had hung Alice took her hands from her face, and with a hollow her gown up when she undressed, she took it down, and voice said, “ Martyn Lessomour, before the ever living ripped open one of the sleeves of it, and took something God, I am glad this hath so happened.” Before he could out; she then went to the hearth, where there was a fire reply, his neighbours and the watch were in the room, burning, for it was winter, and having laid the knife and and, upon his charge, seized his wife. whatever else she held in her hand, beside the lamp upon The next day the coffins of her former husbands were the table, she seemed searching for something about the all opened, and in the skulls of each was found a quantity hearth. At last Martyn heard her mutter, “Not here--| of lead, which had plainly been poured in through one of how foolish-heedless of me-I must go and fetch it from the ears. Mrs Alice was soon after tried upon the evibelow." She moved towards the door-laid hold of the dence of her living husband, and that of her dead ones, latch, but did not raise it—and continued in a low which though mute was no less strong. She would say mutter, “Not here, mayhap it was for some good end nothing in her defence ; indeed, after the words she spoke that I forgot it-mayhap that I should give him one more to her husband in their bed-room on the night of her aptrial yet-shall I? I shall-one more trial I will give prehension, she never uttered another; only, in the court, thee, dear Martyn, dear still, though lost, I dread-one during her trial, when Lessomour was bearing witness more-one more ;" and saying this, she hurried back to that he had pretended drunkenness to try what effect it would have upon her-when he swore to this, Alice, i used gunpowder in considerable quantity, and all whose back had hitherto been towards him, turned expectorated carbon.” rapidly round, fixed her glazing eye upon his, and utter * It was long a very general belief with medical ing a shriek of piercing anguish, would have fallen, but
writers, that the various forms of discoloration in that her jailer caught her in his arms; and that look and that sound Martyn Lessomour never forgot to his dying
the pulmonary tissue were induced by some peculiar day. His wife was found guilty of petit treason, and was
change taking place in the economy or function of burnt to death in Smithfield, according to the law of the
secretion, independently of any direct influence from land.
without.” But Dr M.'s researches have put an end Martyn Lessomour lived to be a very old, and, as had to this idea. The men whose bodies were examined been foretold of him, a very rich man—but he never was by him had almost all been “ well formed, and a happy one.-[From a Collection of Pieces--Author's name robust in constitution;" but this does not last long. not given.]
His first example was, when he first saw him profes
sionally, only thirty-two. A few months previous CONSUMPTION AMONG MINERS, &c.*
to this, he had taken to the employment of stone
mining, “and soon after being so engaged, he began The Black PHTHISIS, or Consumption, is a disease
to complain of uneasiness in the chest, and troublechiefly incident to colliers, and proceeds from the some short cough, quick pulse, &c., especially at night matter they inhale into their lungs in the course of
and in the morning ;" and no wonder, when it is their operations in the mines, whether in digging
stated in a previous page, that “the air of the coalcoals, or blasting and removing rock. It appears to
pit is often so charged with carbon as to prevent the proceed chiefly from inhaling the soot of their lamps,
collier from distinguishing his neighbour when at mixed, no doubt, with the other impurities attend
work ;" and in other places, it is stated to be often ing their operations, but particularly from inhaling
so foul as that the lamps refuse to burn, when, of the vapours left by the explosion of gunpowder in
course, the collier must cease working! What is their ill-ventilated mines ; and the consequences are
the end of this ? On examining the body twentyso frightful so far as the colliers are concerned, and
four hours after death, “the lungs were removed the deductions from their very marked experience are
with difficulty, on account of the strong adhesive so generally important, that we cannot but solicit
bands attaching them to the ribs; and in handling attention to them in the most earnest manner.
them they conveyed the impression of partial soWe may premise that the disease is not new. It
lidity! In transecting the upper lobe of the left has long been known to medical men, though we
lung, it was found considerably hollowed out (to the are bound to think not so distinctly as it is now made
degree of holding a large orange), and containing a known, otherwise the public in general would have
small quantity of semi-fluid carbon, resembling thick heard more of it. Yet even now, they merely make
blacking.”—“The inferior lobe was fully saturated a few insignificant observations upon it, as if the
with the thick black fluid, and it felt solid under the disclosures furnished something rather curious than
knife! and several small cysts containing the carbon useful, but suggesting nothing of imminent practical
in a more fluid state were dispersed throughout its importance. And such, in general, seems to be the
substance, in which minute bronchial branches tersegnities, or apathy, of purely professional men.
minated, and by which this fluid was conveyed to " It is about thirty years (says Dr M.) since
| the upper lobe, and thence to the trachea. In exminers in this (the East Lothian) district adopted
amining the right lung, the upper and part of the the use of coarse linseed oil, instead of whale oil, to
middle lobe were pervious to air, and carried on, burn in their lamps, and it is very generally known,
though defectively, the function of respiration, while that the smoke from the former is immensely greater
the interlobular cellular tissue contained thé infilthan from the latter ; and many old miners date the
trated carbon. The inferior portion of the middle, greater prevalence of black spit to the introduction
and almost the whole of the under lobe, were densely of the linseed oil. This change took place entirely
impacted, so that, on a small portion being detached, on the score of economy! Any one can conceive how
it sank in water! Both lungs represented, in fact, hurtful to the delicate tissue of the respiratory organs
a mass of moist soot! How any blood could be must be an atmosphere thickened with such a sooty |
brought under the influence of the oxygen, and the
vital principle so long maintained in a state of such exhalation.” “All coal miners are engaged exclusively in either
disorganization, is a question of difficult solution.
“In tracing the various divisions of the bronchi, hewing coals, or in removing the various strata of stone, to open up roadways and break down ob
particularly in the inferior lobes, some of the constructing dykes, by the aid of gunpowder; and the
siderable branches were found completely plugged up peculiar disease to which each class is liable varies
with solid carbon ; and in prosecuting the investigaconsiderably according to the employment. The
tion still farther, with the aid of a powerful magnidisease is more severe and more rapid in those who
fier, the smaller twigs, with the minute structure work in the stone, than in those who are engaged in
of the cells, were ascertained to contain the same what is strictly coal mining, while, at the same time,
substance, forming the most perfect racemes, some of both ultimately perish in consequence of it!
them extending to the surface of the lung, and to be “ The fact of the disease being more acute in stone
felt through the pleura. miners, I am disposed to attribute to the carbon, and
“During the greater part of the period this man
was under my charge, he continued to expectorate other products of the combustion of gunpowder, being more irritating and destructive to the lungs."
black matter, of the consistency of treacle, mixed He gives in evidence the case of " a great number of
with mucus in considerable quantity; and I could young vigorous men,” employed at stone-mining in
suppose, taking the average of each week, that he a coal adit near Tranent, “every one of whom died
expectorated from ten to twelve ounces daily, of before reaching the age of thirty-five years! They
thick treacle-like matter. I had the curiosity, during
my attendance on him, to separate the mucus from ** An Investigation into the Nature of Black Phthisis, the carbon, by the simple process of diluting the or Ulceration induced by Carbonaceous Accumulation.” sputa with water, and thereafter separating and By ARCH. MAKELLAR, M.D.
| drying the precipitated carbon. I was enabled by