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Weekly Journal for the Instruction and Entertainment of the People.

No. 16.

SATURDAY, APRIL 18, 1846.

Price 14d.

CONTENTS. Over Civility,

. - 291 | Literary Controversies.-No. I. Ode on the Burial A Day with a Double Times, . . . 292 of Sir John Moore, .

300 Authors of the Nineteenth Century.-No. IV. Dr Perils of the Preventive Service,

302 Arnold.—The Labourers of Britain, - 295 Keep upon the Pavement,

304 Sir Richard Arkwright, - 296 / Miscellaneous,

305 The Importance of Chemistry, - - - 298 | Original Song,

306

OVER CIVILITY.

must be sold, and a shrewd fellow like M'Culloch

may spin where another would spoil." The best of things are rendered bad by excess. Jus « Quite true.” tice intensified becomes severity, mercy unduly. “I should not be surprised if M'Culloch were to magnified becomes remissness, economy degenerates make money after all.” into niggardliness, and civility resolves itself into “I have not the least doubt he will." meanness, a very indifferent virtue indeed, and one There is nothing new under the sun ; had there which prevails more extensively in the world been, Shakspere would have picked it up; as it is, than is generally imagined. We do not refer to he has anticipated our portrait of the over-civil man. the species of servility which is exemplified in the Witness Hamlet and Polonius. Wandering Jew in the case of Rodin, who stoops and Hamlet. Do you see that cloud that's almost in cringes to all around him for the sake of accomplish- shape like a camel ? ing a given amount of self-aggrandisement that is Polonius. By the mass, 'tis like a camel indeed. wilful servility from the first what we wish to refer H. Methinks it is like a weasel. to is involuntary servility at the beginning, inasmuch P. It is backed like a weasel. as it is exercised without any selfish object being H. Or like a whale. immediately in view, and continues to be exercised P. Very like a whale. when partly discovered, because, supposed to be good Now, the over-civil man may think that he is policy for gaining an end in itself just and proper. playing an amiable part; and having few, if any The servility in question is exhibited in the person quarrels, he regards himself as a most useful member of an over-civil friend. He is your familiar whoin of society. But what is his real position. He either you have long known, and whom you never omit to agrees with his friends or he disagrees with them, invite to family entertainments. He is a pleasant while in words he uniformly accords with them. If fellow and never contradicted you all his life. No he really changes his opinions every time that his matter what is the topic broached, be it the weather, friends do so he is a fool ; if he does not change politics, religion, railways, or the American war, he them, and yet says that he does, he is a rogue. echoes every thing you have got to say. If you lay Neither of these dilemina horns may suit him, and down a proposition dogmatically, and plant it like a he will try to escape by saying that he speaks man-trap firm in the ground, he agrees to it; if you without thinking. Let this be granted, is he greatly start a doubt he sees it in a moinent ; if you veer a benefitted by the concession ? The clapper of a bell point or two he is after you like your shadow ; if you never moves until it is put in motion, is his tongue turn completely round he adventures a gyration, a to become a similar mechanical contrivance for the la Jim Crow, and will flatly declare that he never purpose of wagging precisely as other people wish it? thought of that before, and that he is utterly con- Let him not mistake his facile weakness for courtesy, founded how the idea had not struck him sooner. for as he contradicts nobody he must needs often con

“Ah, Dawson ! how d'ye do ? So M'Culloch has tradict himself, and so prove in the end a dissembler. turned sharebroker, well he'll not make much at In morality there should be no mincing of matters, and that business?

this is the plain upshot of the system of everything “ That he will not."

to all men. The accommodation of St Paul was quite “ He'll ruin himself to a certainty."

of a different character, he yielded minor points that "He's a gone man, what a pity for his wife and he might gain important objects ; but the over-civil family.”

man yields everything; or what is worse, pretends to " You may say that ; but still, notwithstanding yield everything, and for what? a morbid lack-aall that has happened something may yet be made of daisical idea that it is best to be civil. Weak men that business."

may be imposed on by toadyism, but the world at “There might as you say.”

large will not, and hence those sweet people never “There's a great deal of scrip in the market which obtain situations of public importance. They

do very well for third or fourth fiddle, but they can give good dinners, they will soon be talked they are never asked to conduct the orches- | into the idea that they really are the leaders of the tra. In Scotland they are called mealy mou'd, age. This class, somewhat different from the other signifying that they are so habitually given to parties, whom we have been describing, are movement smoothness of speech, that their very lips are bespat- not stationary men ; but then they move upon rails, tered with the national aliment. Go thy ways then and consequently they contract only one set of ideas, sugar-tongue. People who do not like an odd number and beyond those ideas they cannot go. They have of guests at dinner may ask thee to ply the vacant written some scraps of poetry, and poetry humanises ; spoon, and thou mayest carve potatoes as well as a they have proposed certain alterations on a police better man, but unstable as water thou shalt not wheelbarrow, and prison discipline is a humane thing; prevail, and thy mind and all about thee is unsavoury. they have given an old globe to an infant school, and

No intercourse that is entitled to be called ra- education is the fulcrum of the world ; they have tional can be held with the over-civil, for if a man caused gimblet holes to be bored in the floor of a sale is to have his thoughts echoed every time he speaks, room, and the Carlisle bills of mortality will therefore he had as well construct a whispering gallery in his require to be altered. In fact they have been man own house, or go forth to the rocks where nature improvers all their days, and how the earth is to go furnishes acoustical mysteries ready made. Advice round or the sun to rise when they go the way of all cannot be asked of these india rubber gentry, for flesh, nobody knows. Falstaff belonged to this order. their first care is to find out your own views, which “Go thy ways old Jack," apostrophized he, “ die in ninety-nine out of a hundred cases of pretended when thou wilt, if manhood, good manhood, be not advice-asking may be done without difficulty, and forgotten upon the face of the earth, then am I a then they take care that the wish be father to the shotten herring. There live not three good men thought, and that the course recommended be the unhanged in England, and one of them is fat and one which the party had previously resolved on grows old." following. If the steel of your own mind strikes To undeceive such people many experiments might flint, sparks will be produced, and the same result be tried. If they are so great and good as their will follow when steel meeting steel, the Greek tug worshippers asseverate, they should not hesitate to of war ensues; and this shows that in the intercourse offer their services as the representative in parliament of life mental improvement may be accomplished of a county or a district of burghs, and then the not only by associating with your superiors and your number of votes recorded in their favour would equals in intellectual attainment, but also by coming probably open their eyes as to their real status. in contact with your inferiors in education and Nay, we have an idea that some lower platform in mental training. The doubts, prejudices, and igno- real life would correct the illusions of their vision. rance of your less favoured brother, should act as a Let them try to get into a town council or even a whetstone to you; and collision with him so far from police commission; and supposing they get into deteriorating, should invigorate and strengthen your either of these institutes, let them further try to be ideas. What a man understands best he explains best, re-elected, and before they do all this, they will find and as granite itself can be cut through, no one should themselves changed men. But even granting them ever hesitate to adventure a rough contest with the some little credit for expertness at their own hobby, most mechanical mind that he ever comes in contact do they not fall short of the advance made by others with. Steel is never lost when expended on flint, but it in the same path ; or even further supposing that is lost when exercised on a piece of cork, and this is they actually have advanced far in that path, is it the what is done when one converses with an over-civil only and sole avenue to glory? Clearly not ; it is man. If you are rich, or an invalid, over-civil men only one of many, and perhaps a footpath and not a will as certainly spoil you, as a sluggish water course turnpike after all. Byron had a silly lad for secrewhich accumulates filth and corruption from want tary who asked the bard what he could do which he of speedy locomotion, will poison the inhabitants (said secretary) could not do also. “Three things," said who live on its banks. Surrounded by these locusts Byron: “I have swam across the Hellespont, snuffed you will hear and see nothing but your own views out a candle with a pistol bullet at six paces, and and crotchets; and shut out from the purifying have written a poem of which ten thousand copies influence of indiscriminate intercourse with society, were sold in one day.” The Cockney great should your mind will become stagnant and contracted. | try either of the three exploits, they might also How many men are there of the discreet age of sixty attempt to speak for an hour at a public meeting, and upwards, who literally have degenerated into a or write for a quarterly review, and if none of all state of dotage from the palliative treatment of smooth these things will convince them that they are little, tongues. They get frightened at every wind that we hesitate not to say that the following recipe, will, blows, a sneeze throws them into hysterics, the in the language of Professor Holloway,“ infallibly" mending of a street is coming revolution, an election produce the desired result. is the knell of the constitution, the world at large is Invest your whole property in shares of a railway composed of fanatics and pickpockets, and every line which has not complied with the Standing thing seen through green spectacles becomes grim Parliamentary orders, go penniless to your overand ghastly as an ascending spectre.

civil friends and they will draw your portrait with Good King Canute was troubled with these civil all the fidelity of the daguerrotype. people, and he heard them quietly for a time ; but he put their logic completely to the test at last when he went to the sea side and wet their feet as well as

A DAY WITH A DOUBLE “ TIMES.” his own. None of your modern honey merchants A wet day at an inn, has been done such ample juswill go so far as to say that old Ocean should recede tice to by the inimitable Geoffrey Crayon, that it at the bidding either of Queen Victoria or King would be very great presumption for an inferior pen Hudson, but as we live in times when it is the fashion to attempt to improve the picture. Although I had to benefit the people and advance civilization, a great not long ago the misfortune, as I at the moment many persons half believe that they are the men who deemed it, to be overtaken by a severe storm which are bearing up the pillars of society, and provided confined me for an entire day to a road-side public house in —

I have no catalogue of miseries puff with an ease and boldness, that go far to take to display in consequence, and am therefore absolved the reader by storm. Puffs of a similar nature which from all intention of having the hardihood to try a appear in our papers, are generally the production fall with the author of the Sketch Book. The rain of strangers ; when Sawney ventures upon anything continued to descend, after I got housed, as if it pro- of this sort, he sets about it with a timidity that ceeded from a fully manned fire-engine, and I made half defeats his purpose. He does not like the thing, up my mind to be truly miserable. I felt satisfied and is desperately afraid that he shall get laughed at that to find a book that would interest, under such | by his neighbours for his pains. circumstances, was out of the question ; and as to What an amount of materials for writing a social enlivening conversation with any of the weather- | history of the Great Metropolis, is contained in these bound inmates, that was not to be thought of. A frequently recurring forty columns of advertisements man may now and again throw himself upon the which the Times presents! Let us glance hastily at a resources of his own mind, and take to busy medita- few of those which came under my notice during tion, or indefatigable day-dreaming, but these efforts my temporary imprisonment at —

There are only occasional and for fair weather indulgence; are many people in the present day so satisfied that he can no more compel himself to think comfortably we have fairly distanced the ancients left them hull or dream happily when he is ill at ease with himself down as the sailors say—that they have their mouths and all around him, than he could swallow swords, continually filled with such phrases as “ in the nineor disgorge miles of ribbon without the necessary teenth century," " in this enlightened age," and so appliances. I say, therefore, that I had made up forth; here is a nut for them to crack from the very my mind to be as miserable " as the circumstances first column :would permit," when my eye chanced to fall upon & packet resembling a newspaper made up in an “ To CarTaiNS OF VESSELS and others going out to sea. en velope. I naturally concluded that it was a copy -A child's Caul to be disposed of, immediately, of the county paper, left here, probably, for the for L.12." purpose of being forwarded to some address in the neighbourhood. I was well pleased to meet with Happily this, we believe, will be unintelligible to this waif, although, to my shame I confess it, I never many of our readers, and we have therefore to inform could bring myself to admire the overgrown cab- them that the caul is a little membrane found on bages, precocious pigs, or wonderful eggs, which some children encompassing the head when born. forin the staple of such productions, nevertheless, We are told that these cauls were eagerly purchased when compelled to it, I have always managed to by the Roman advocates, as it was believed that he draw some amusement from even the dullest county who had one on his person carried with him a force paper. The presentation of a pair of bands to the of persuasion which no judge could resist. It was minister, or of a horn snuff-box to the precentor of also supposed that a caul on board of a vessel would a rural parish, is chronicled with all becoming

preserve it from shipwreck. The lawyers have long gravity, and the speeches on the occasion, from the

ago rid themselves of this superstition, and now rely opening, wish that the duty “had fallen into abler solely for success upon their native brass ; but with hands," down to " want of words to express my feel sailors and others who go down to the sea in ships," ings," and " happiest day of my life,"—are given at we see that it is still considered to be as potent a full length, and possess a raciness and an earnestness charm as it was hundreds of years ago. “Verily, highly amusing, and proving the speakers, at all when people can yet be found—and people of some events to have been fully iinpressed with the over-station, too,—who will pay a large price for such a whelming importance of their tasks. Occasionally trumpery relic of superstition, and pin their faith to too, there is an amusing incident” given among it, I am very much inclined to think that this boasted the local news, under the pretence that it" occurred nineteenth century-this " enlightened” age-has the other day to Mr Watt of Auchterflap," which really no intellect to spare. turns out to be a venerable Joe Miller, so worn out Two columns from this, we met with the following by repeated hashing and dishing up, as to have be- advertisement, which, no doubt through the stupidity come quite pointless enough to pass for an original. of the compositor, is made to occupy a place amongst Notwithstanding these attractions, I seldom take to those referring to " bakers' shops, doing ten sacks per this species of polite literature except from necessity, week ;" and eligible beer shops." and the reader therefore will judge of my satisfaction when, on stripping off the cover, I found that “ CHAPEL WANTED.—A large or middle-sized chapel is my prize was a mammoth from Printing-House wanted to rent, either in the metropolis or in any Square-a veritable double “ Times," not quite a populous town in the country. The person for week old.

whom the advertiser wishes it is highly respectTo my taste, the advertisements in a newspaper, able,” &c. and more especially in the Times, are really the most interesting portion of the contents. I do not This " highly respectable" gentleman's mission, it care to read of the everlasting changes of ministry in will be observed, is not to a rural district, no matter Spain—the sickening iteration of the speeches con- | how great its destitution ; there is something in his cerning the Corn Laws, or the harrowing minute- breeches pocket, or elsewhere, that tells him that his ness with which the details of a fresh murder, or scene of labour is not amongst the scattered and other enormity is narrated. In the advertisements poverty-stricken peasants, but in that thrice-hothere is a constant succession of novelties, with much noured "populous” locality which shall chance to to amuse and instruct, and nothing to disgust. The possess a vacant “large or middle-sized” chapel. advertisements of the Times differ widely from those Were we to believe common report, we would be usually to be met with in Scottish papers, both in led to think that the metropolis swarmed with subjects and manner of handling. In England, money-lending Jews and equally usurious Gentiles, many things are offered to the public through this ever ready to take advantage of the necessitous. medium, that would never be thought of with us, and That this is a popular error will be sufficiently then again as to style, the Englishman dashes off his proved by the advertisements we subjoin :

“WANTED, to borrow 27 guineas, on an emergency, . It is no easy task to paint one's own portrait

for 21 days. Security ample and satisfactory will satisfactorily in pen and ink-to touch it off so debe transferred to ensure repayment, together with licately that we shall have no cause to blush, when a satisfactory rate of interest. Apply,” &c.

we acknowledge ourselves to be the artist. In like

manner, there are great difficulties in the way of “ MONEY WANTED.-The loan of L.100 for six months.

giving a just enumeration of our own qualifications, Goods to double the amount will be handed over |

so as neither to exaggerate nor under-rate. I never as security, and L.10 will be given for the accom- tried either operation but as Lamanite satisfied modation. Address," &c.

that I would fail were I to attempt it, I feel a great A foreign gentleman, who travelled through this respect for those who can handle the thing successcountry, and published the result of his observations fully. Here, for example, is a fairish specimenon his return home, mentions in his work that la

“ As Coachman and Groom, a respectable married thieves are so scarce in England, that rewards are

man, age 30, height 5 feet 8 inches, with four years' occasionally offered for their discovery, and I think

character, and has no objection to wait at table that usurers must be equally scarce in London, else

and make himself useful, or go to the country. He there had been no need of these advertisements. I was at first puzzled to account for the following

understands gardening, and knows town well." being placed amongst advertisements referring to What a treasure this individual would be to a education, but a second glance cleared up the genteel family of limited income! Why, in his own mystery.

person, he is a complete establishment-groom, “ To Coal and Wine MERCHANTS.—The proprietor

coachman, butler, footman, and gardener! Not to of a first-class school, towards the west end of

of speak of the additional characters that may be intown, will be happy to receive as pupil, on terins

cluded under the head of making himself useful. of mutual advantage, the son of either a coal or

Butlers, it would appear, like recruits, must be up wine merchant. Address," &c.

to a certain standard. There is something very satisfactory in this ar

“ As Butler, in a gentleman's family, a respectable rangement-exchanging Greek for double-screened

single man, age 34, height 5 feet 10 inches, who Wallsend or best Newcastle, and Mathematics for

perfectly understands his business, and brewing, Madeira. It would be desirable, however, to carry

if required. He has lived four years in the situaout this exchange principle more generally, so that

tion he is about to leave, and has no objection to

the country a parent who felt desirous of giving his children a ! first-rate education, but who chanced to have more Now, in my opinion, the precise height of a butler bricks than sovereigns, or furniture than funds, might to half an inch, is not the only thing regarding his find himself accommodated.

personal appearance that requires to be known. It The promise of a douceur for a situation or govern- is quite as important to know the colour of his hair, ment appointment, is a very common subject of or the shape of his nose, and more especially whether advertisement. The promised gifts vary exceedingly, the latter be a genuine Roman, or an unmistakeable ranging from L.3000 to L.20; here is one of the latter. pug. It is worthy of remark, that, “ if necessary," “ A Douceur from L.20 to 1.60, or as many pounds

this gentleman “ perfectly understands" brewing. as the situation be worth shillings per week, will

Should it not be considered desirable that his accombe presented to any person who can procure for

plishments should include this acquirement, he will

be as ignorant of it as a Hottentot. the advertiser, a highly respectable young man, a

The following requires no preface : perinanent Government Situation.'

" TO THE BENEVOLENT.--A youth, age 19, the son of a There is something terribly rotten in this state of things—in thus making money the all-in-all. It is

farmer deceased, is in great distress he having been said to be the god of our idolatry, and we must also

robbed of all he possessed, by a man whom he bemake its possession the criterion of ability. By and

friended. He is left a friendless, as well as pennibye at this rate, to be eligible for any situation a

less, stranger, and is compelled to solicit pecuniary man must first become possessed of a certain amount

aid. He is in search of a situation as valet or of money, honestly, of course, if he can, but at all

general servant, or to the sick or insane, underevents he must have the money. But we must

standing shaving and waiting at table, also cooking, hurry onward, passing “ Hall and Allan's Dissolu

making bread, and pastry. He has travelled twice tion," which, however, merely refers to their part

round the globe. Temporary employment will be nership_“ Plain Footmen's Suits," which to our

acceptable. Gentlemen requiring a confidential surprise are exceedingly cheap, I always fancied that |

servant, at home or abroad, will find him a faithful a plain footmen required rather a superior dress to

one. Salary not an object. Address," &c. make him passable—“Sir Robert Peel and Free This is the very admirable Crichton of domestic Trade,” which proves to be an advertisement of car- life. Travelled twice round the globe, and only riages an interesting notice headed “ To pig-feeders nineteen years of age ! Oh! benighted Bentley. and others," and many besides, to arrive at those Oh! careless Colburn ! How has this prodigy important columns with the heading “ Wanted.” escaped your meshes? Surely he would have been If I can be said to have a preference at all in my good for at least a brace of volumes ; and this very advertisement studies, it is for this corner. Although advertisement alone would have sold the book, and I am possessed of no particular commodity that is saved you not less than a cool hundred for paid ever likely to be coveted, and although I am without | puffs. But perhaps, after all, this is only one of a hope that I shall ever stumble upon an advertise- these gentlemens' sly dodges, a sort of preliminary ment, the perusal of which shall cause me mentally announcement to excite the curiosity, which they to exclaim “ Yorke you're wanted !” Nevertheless, are fully prepared to gratify. If such be the fact, as I cannot rest contented until I have spelled through is quite probable, it increases my veneration for these the entire list, “ Wet Nurses," and · Small Steam benevolent wen who furnish the public gratis with Engines" inclusive.

| specimens of romance even in their advertisements. But I must draw to a close, although I could go on, I have never had any patience at hearing persons in the for a week stringing together gem after gem from rank of gentlemen in England complain of the burden of this one broad sheet. With the two following, I shall taxation. Undoubtedly our taxes are heavy, but they are for the present conclude.

but a cheap purchase-money for the unequalled civiliza

tion which we enjoy. Perfect freedom, perfect security, “ RailwAY..Wanted, by a young man, a situation unrivalled means of communication, unequalled excel

as guard, fireman, messenger, or any other situa- | lence in every article which can minister to the comfort tion, on any line. Respectable references to cha- of life, and the most abundant means of acquiring knowracter, competency, sobriety, &c. A liberal dou ledge, and of gratifying our taste and curiosity,--these are ceur will be given, if required, and the utmost

the blessings enjoyed in this conntry by all the higher secrecy maintained.

and middle classes; and the lighter taxation of other

countries would be but a poor exchange for the infinite This person, I take it, is an exceedingly modest superiority of civilization and comfort which the richer individual, albeit he is fully aware of the extent of classes can command in England. his own abilities. Although perfectly qualified to ! Together with this enjoyment-together with the exact as manager on any line," he has no objection to traordinary state of refinement which has flowed from it accept the post of stoker; and, though equal to the

—there exists in the daily sight of it, and feeling the accomplishment of all the duties required from a

contrast of it at every turn, an enormous mass of poverty

and ignorance. God forbid that I should speak of this secretary, he will not turn up his nose at a porter

ignorance proudly or reproachfully! In fact, it is a matter ship. Surely such a meritorious individual will not

of the deepest shame and humiliation to those who have be permitted to remain long without a situation, the knowledge that so many of their fellow-creatures should more especially that he is able and willing to pay be left thus destitute of it. Nor by ignorance do I mean for it.

only an ignorance of what is called book-learning, but an Somehow or other, I do not like to read those ignorance of mankind and of many of those pleasures advertisements issued by ladies in search of situations which men under happier circumstances can enjoy. They as governesses. They always make me melancholy.

are ignorant of mankind, as all people must be who Even under the most favourable circumstances, their

neither read, nor travel, nor see a great variety of persons lot is not an enviable one; and, in too many cases,

at their own homes. The pleasures of poetry and music, it must be almost unbearable. Required to possess

of painting, of natural scenery, and of a knowledge of the accomplishments of no common kind, and to be

common objects which we see every day around us, and

of those laws by which they are governed, are either unexceptionable in character and manners, they are wholly unknown to many of the poor, or are at least most frequently treated more contemptuously than the imperfectly enjoyed. And the consequence is, that while veriest flunky. The governess is even looked down rich and poor all are born with one common nature, yet upon by the menials, who, seeing that she receives the tastes and faculties of each are so differently cultiless remuneration than they do, naturally conclude vated, that many things which the one must delights in, that she is treated according to her deserts, and is are not at all understood by the other, and are therefore consequently their inferior. Here is rather a favour

| ridiculed and despised. able specimen of these advertisements :

Here, then, are two classes of people in the same

country constantly coming in each other's way, yet with “ MORNING GOVERNESS.—8s. per week.-Alady,accus- very little sympathy in each other's feelings, or views, or

tomed to tuition for the last seven years, having a pleasures. They cannot understand each other, but yet portion of her time unoccupied, is desirous of they can see that the one class abounds, while the other obtaining a situation as morning governess to

is in want; that is, there are strong causes why one young ladies under twelve, to instruct in the usual

should, according to the well-known nature of man, envy routine of a thorough English education, with the

and dislike the other, and there are very few motives

existing to draw them cordially together. And this is an accomplishments. References unexceptionable."

evil which continually increases itself; for it is the naThink of an educated woman, of keen sensibilities, tural effect of wealth to get more wealth, and of poverty toiling at this harrassing task for a grudgingly be- | to become still poorer, and the wider the distance is bestowed pittance of 8s. per week. Think of it, and

tween the outward condition of the rich and poor, the

wider also will be the difference between their notions of blush for the nineteenth century—this enlightened

things and their feelings. Thus goes on for a long while age!

a daily increase of wickedness and misery, till the end is

at last so dreadful, that I gladly turn away my mind from THE AUTHORS OF THE NINETEENTH

the thought of it. CENTURY.

I lay a particular stress upon this separation of tastes

and feelings between the rich and the poor in England, No. IV.-DR ARNOLD.

because I ain sure it is the peculiar curse of our state of THE LABOURERS OF BRITAIN.

society. The most hurried viewer of the state of things on

the continent must at once be struck with the great difWHEN I call the great evil of England the unhappy ference in this respect between the rest of Europe and situation in which the poor and the rich stand towards ourselves. Abroad, the rich and the poor approach one each other, I wish to show that the evil is in our feelings another much more nearly in their habits, manners, and quite as much or more than in our outward condition. | in many of their favourite amusements. The richer Much greater states of actual suffering have often existed classes live more simply; the poor have opportunities in different parts of the world. War, pestilence, and afforded them of gaining a taste for the more refined actual famine have raged in former times through this pleasures. Nothing has given me more delight than to very land of ours, with a destruction which we now can see the crowds of persons of every condition who frequent hardly so much as fancy. In many parts of the world at the great botanical garden at Paris. It is open freely to this moment, even allowing for difference of climate, the every body, with all its walks, plantations, museums, and poor are quite as ill fed as in England, and far worse menagerie; and the consequence is, that the poor take clothed and lodged. But the great evil in us is, that there a pleasure and a pride in it; and, instead of disliking is so much suffering and so much enjoyment close along such things as the mere amusements of the rich, they side of each other: that although the poor in other enjoy them as much as the rich do; and common feeling countries may be as poor, yet the rich are nowhere so prevents all that wanton mischief which is so complained rich as in England; that if the one has elsewhere as much of in England, and which is made the excuse for shutting to suffer, yet the other has nowhere on the face of the up all our collections of pictures and other curiosities, and earth any thing like as much to enjoy.

| confining them to the rich alone. After what I had seen

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