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at the botanical garden at Paris, I was not surprised to France to every Frenchman. But all that I want to show hear that the people in the late revolution respected is the right of property at all ; that is, that some have a generally the works of art, and that such things were greater right to the possession of a thing than others; for looked upon really as national property which every man if this be once allowed, we need not talk any longer about had a common interest in protecting.

a state of nature, as it is foolishly called; we have done This then, such as I have described it, is the state of with beast's nature, and are living according to man's the rich and poor in England. But what has led to it? nature—that is, according to Law and RIGHT, not accord--and what will cure or mend it? These are two great | ing to BRUTALITY and MIGHT. It is LAW and right questions, which require a great deal of thought, and which say that although France produces wine and oil, knowledge, and calmness to answer properly. And he and England can produce neither, yet that Englishmen certainly cannot have any one of these qualities who must either get the wine and oil from France with the pretends that any single cause has brought about the evil, consent of Frenchmen, or else they must go without or that any single remedy can remove it.

them. And it is just the same law and right, which say I have met with some writings upon this subject which that although Northumberland has plenty of coal and profess to remedy the distresses of the poor in a manner Kent has none, yet that the men of Kent must cither sufficiently summary. According to them the land belongs persuade the Northumbrians by fair means to let them to every body alike, and as the poor are the most numerous have their coal, or they must go without it; or again, class, it will be perfectly easy for them to seize their due which say that although the soil of Bagshot Heath is share of it, and they will have a perfect right to do so. very poor, and that round about Farnham is very rich,

Now it is very true that every christian, and indeed yet that the parishes on Bagshot Heath may not touch every man of common sense and honesty, feels instinc- the hops of Farnham without the owners' leave; or again, tively that this is robbery, and that robbery can never be to come down a step lower, it is the self same LAW and right. A poor woman gave me, a few weeks since, the right which will not let the man who has no land eat best and simplest answer to all such wicked folly : when the corn of his neighbour who has land, unless he can speaking of her landlord wanting his rent, she said quite persuade his neighbour, either for love or money, to let naturally that she could not blame him—" for own's own, him have a share of it. whether to rich or poor.” And whether the writers who You may say however further, “we would have the preach up these doctrines belong to some of those large law divide all England equally amongst Englishmen, and gangs of pickpockets and thieves which infest London, and surely the law of the land may do what it likes with the are thus only recommending to others what they are daily land.” But the law of the land and the law of property practising themselves—or whether they belong to those are as old as one another, and one of these cannot upset still more miserable wretches, who not only are doing the the other. The holders of property may doubtless make devil's service, but confess their master openly, and call laws about their own property, but those who have none themselves after his name—there is no serious fear of can never make a law about that of others, because the such preaching gaining many converts. But yet an law of property is as old as society itself, and if this be honest man, when in great poverty himself, and when done away with, we go back at once to the state of seeing others around him in great comfort, may be some- BRUTES, when every man got what he could, and kept times sorely troubled and perplexed at the sight, and his what he could. As men in a savage state may not kill understanding may not find so ready an answer as his one another, because the right to life is as old as the very conscience to a doctrine which his distress renders so existence of man at all; so men in society may not take tempting. I should be glad therefore to lay the matter, | away property, because the right to hold property is as if possible, clearly before the eyes of such men--to explain old as the very existence of society itself. what the right of property is, and how it is neither just But are persons without property to starve rather than nor expedient to violate it.

lay hands on the property of their neighbours? I will It is said that the land belongs to every body. This is ask, in return, what do we think of those dreadful causes the original falsehood of the whole doctrine. Nothing in which men in the extremity of famine have even killed belongs to everybody; but it either belongs to somebody or one of their number to be food for the rest? We cannot to nobody at all. The air belongs to nobody-the open judge of acts of the last dreadful necessity; but we do sea belongs to nobody, and for this reason-because man know that the extremest necessity is no rule for common has done nothing, and can do nothing, to make them cases, and that if absolute starvation be allowed to be better for his use than God made them from the begin- stronger than the law of property, it does not follow that ning. The very first day after men were made upon the the same excuse should be allowed to distress and inconearth, the sea would carry ships, and the air would supply venience. I will not speak of the right of a starving them with breath, just as perfectly as at this moment. | man, or a man with a starving family, to help himself to Man has had nothing to do with them but to use them food if it is denied him, till I shall know that there are as he found them; and therefore over these God has found to be any so wicked as to deny it him. But what given him no dominion—they are not his property at all. is to the purpose to speak of, and what, with God's blessBut with the earth or land, and with all things in it, it is ing, I hope to speak of, is the wickedness of those who quite different. Men were to subdue the earth-that is, would persuade the poor that poverty, not starvation, to make it by their labour what it would not have been may be relieved by robbery; and the equal wickedness of by itself; and with the labour so bestowed upon it came those, who being aware of the poverty of their neighbours, the right of property in it. Thus every land which is are yet disposed to make no sacrifices to relieve it by inhabited at all, belongs to somebody—that is, there is means at once rightful and effectual. either some one person, or family, or tribe, or nation, who have a greater right to it than any one else has : it does not and cannot belong to everybody. But so much does the right of property go along with labour, that civilized

SIR RICHARD ARKWRIGHT, nations have never scrupled to take possession of countries inhabited only by tribes of savages--countries which have | This extraordinary man, whose mechanical genius accombeen hunted over, but never subdued or cultivated. It is plished for the cotton manufacture what Newton did for true they have often gone further, and have settled them- physics, or Adam Smith for political economy, was born selves in countries which were cultivated, and then it of humble parentage in Preston, Lancashire, on the 230 becomes a robbery; but when our fathers went to America | December 1732. He was the youngest of thirteen chil. and took possession of the mere hunting grounds of the dren, and did not receive any thing but the most limited Indians--of lands on which man had hitherto bestowed education. He was brought up to the trade of a barber; no labour, they only exercised a right which God has an occupation which could not generate, and, indeed, inseparably united with industry and knowledge. had rather a tendency to eradicate, an independent spirit

But you may say —we know that France does not (if such did exist), and keep a person in an inferior posibelong to us, nor England to Frenchmen; all that we | tion in society. But innate force of genius cannot easily mean is, that England belongs to every Englishman, and I be extinguished, but will ultimately vindicate itself, and

raise its possessor to distinction. Such was the case with This may be regarded as the commencement of what is Richard Arkwright. While he followed this servile called “ The Factory System” in England. trade, he felt that his employment was not a congenial! The two inventions, of the spinning-jenny by Harone ; and his mind wandered amid thoughts and specu- l greaves (whose biography we gave in our last Number), lations of another and higher kind. But his means and of the water-frame by Arkwright, broke down the were humble, and he could not easily or suddenly make barrier which had previously obstructed the advance of any marked change in his mode of life. About the year the cotton manufacture. The water-frame spun a hard 1760, however (when twenty-eight years of age), he and firm thread fitted for warps; and from this time the abandoned his orginal employment and its petty cares, warps of linen-yarn was abandoned, and goods were, for though he adopted one not much more dignified. But the first time, woven wholly of cotton. The jenny was an active mind, not satisfied with its present bent, is peculiarly adapted for spinning weft, so that the two equally relieved and stimulated by a change, though machines, instead of coming in conflict, were brought comparatively the new line may not afford the intellect into use together. much more scope than the old. In short, he became a Arkwright followed up his great invention by various dealer in hair. He travelled the country buying the improvements and combinations of machinery, and took article; and when he had dressed it, sold it in a prepared out a second patent in 1778. He also took out a patent state to wig-makers. It is said that he discovered a for carding, and for the crank and comb. But his patents process for dyeing hair, which increased equally his busi were pirated, particularly his water-frame : and so extenness and his consequence.

sively were his privileges invaded, that he raised actions But neither of these employments satisfied the active against no fewer than nine manufacturers. But having and inventive mind of Arkwright, or could keep his failed in the first of them, on the ground that the specimechanical genius longer dormant. It may safely be fication or description of the invention was not sufficiently predicated that, while he was engaged in these ignoble minute and full, he abandoned the others. Four years pursuits, he felt an energy and a noble longing in his afterwards (namely, in 1785), having raised another breast which could not be satisfied till he discovered the action, and led evidence as to the efficiency of his specifield which nature had meant him to cultivate, and in fication, he was reinstated in the possession of his monowhich he was fitted to achieve distinction.

poly. But the manufacturers again combined against His first effort in mechanics was an attempt to discover him, and succeeded by a writ of scire facias to get his the perpetual motion. Soon discovering the absurdity | patent altogether cancelled! He applied for a new trial, of this object, he turned his attention to the study of but was refused by the court. Meanwhile he had pubmachinery in connexion with the cotton manufacture, lished what is called his “ Case," calling on the legislature a subject which had begun to excite great interest, and to afford him protection ; but this appeal had no effect, in which several inventions had been already made. and Arkwright received no public reward or public supMeanwhile he formed an acquaintance with John Kay, port, but was left unaided to fight his own battles. watchmaker, residing at Warrington, whose services he The conduct of the rival cotton manufacturers towards retained for four or five years; and in connexion with Arkwright was sufficiently selfish and malicious; but it this individual, he devoted his time, from 1767, exclu- was not confined to invading his monopoly. They sively to the subject of inventions for spinning cotton. formed a combination not to purchase his yarn, and thus At this time Arkwright's poverty was such, that, being a to effect, so far as they could, the ruin of an ingenious burgess of Preston, he could not go to the polling booth and meritorious man. In consequence of this, a consitill the friends of the candidate whom he meant to sup derable stock of yarn lay on his hands. But ingenuity port presented him with a decent suit of clothes. But, and merit are not easily put down. They possess in poor though he was, he entertained noble thoughts in themselves the elements of permanence and success. his mind, and gilded his humble lot by his ingenious Arkwright and his partners were themselves driven to efforts and contrivances. “ He was impatient," says Mr undertake the manufacture of their own yarns. They Baines, “ with whatever interfered with his favourite first made them into stockings, and afterwards into calipursuits; and the fact is too strikingly characteristic not coes, such as are made at the present time. The oppoto be mentioned, that he separated from his wife not sition, indeed, on the part of the rival manufacturers was so many years after their marriage, because she, convinced great, that Arkwright states in his “Case," that "it was that he would starve his family by scheming when he not till upwards of five years had elapsed after obtaining should have been shaving, broke some of his experimental his first patent, and more than L.12,000 had been exmodels of machinery."-(Hist. of Cotton Manufacture, pended in machinery and buildings, that any profit p. 196.) In 1768, his first machine was constructed, | accrued to himself and partners.” and set up in Preston. But apprehensive of meeting But though the commencement of his manufacturing with the same hostility which, the year previous, had career was inauspicious, he ultimately overcame all the driven James Hargreaves from that town, he left it, and selfish opposition which was directed against him. He took up his residence in Nottinghanı. Here he luckily enlarged his works at Cromford. He formed other estaformed a connexion with a man who could appreciate | blishments; and even extended his speculations to Scothis invention, namely, Mr Jedediah Strutt of Derby, the land, founding, along with Mr Dale, the New Lanark celebrated improver and inventor of the stocking-frame, mills, in which he was a partner for several years. He and who then was in partnership with Mr Need of was now rapidly making a large fortune, not merely by Nottingham, as stocking manufacturers. In 1769, Ark his several manufactories, but by the sale of his patent wright obtained his first patent for spinning by rollers; machines, and of licenses to use them. He granted this and Messrs Need and Strutt became his partners in the permission on condition of receiving a certain sum for manufacturing concerns which it was proposed to carry each spindle. His partnership with Mr Strutt terminated on under it. Before this great invention, carding and | about 1783; but he retained the works at Cromford, spinning were executed in cottages by the hand. Now, which are still carried on by his family. both processes were effected by machinery. Previously, In 1786, he was appointed High Sheriff of Derbyshire; calico was made of cotton and linen; the warp being and having presented an address of congratulation from linen, the weft cotton. The reason was, that, tiil Ark that county to the King on his escape from the attempt wright's machine was invented, it was found impossible of Margaret Nicolson on his life, he received the honour by any means then known to spin the fibres of cotion into of knighthood : and certainly never was such honour a thread sufficiently strong to be used as warp.

more deserved or more appropriate. The first mill erected for spinning cotton by this The most marked traits in the character of Arkwright, method was at Nottingham, and was worked by horse from his earliest years, was his wonderful ardour and power; but, in 1771, another mill was built at Crom- perseverance. His plans, too, were all laid with skill as ford, Derbyshire, to which motion was given by water; well as prosecuted with energy; and amid all his ingenuity, and hence the machine was called the water-frame, and he possessed the utmost tact, judgment, and discrethe thread water-twist. In both these mills Arkwright tion. During the later years of his life, in particu. had an interest as a partner of Messrs Need and Strutt. I lar, he laboured in his multifarious concerns from

five o'clock in the morning till nine at night; and, ing passages from one of the letters will most likely be when considerably more than fifty years of age, feeling new to many of our readers. that the defects of his education placed him under great difficulty in conducting his correspondence and in the “We have only to look around us to perceive at general management of his business, he encroached on once that the science to which we are devoted, his sleep in order to gain an hour each day to learn Eng Chemistry,-has by no means been favoured, in an lish grammar, and another hour to improve his writing equal degree, with other sciences, such as botany, minerand orthography! He was a severe economist of time; alogy, geology, or geography; that hitherto no adequate and, that he might not waste a moment, he generally encouragement has been extended to it, no sacrifices travelled with four horses, and at a very rapid speed. made to ensure its advancement, no efforts commenHis concerns in Derbyshire, Lancashire, and Scotland, surate with its importance to extend its cultivation, and were so extensive and numerous, as to show at once his to make it an essential element in popular education. astonishing power of transacting business, and his all Herein lies a great disparity between chemistry and other grasping spirit. So unbounded was his confidence in the sciences. It is not, however, difficult to discover the success of his machinery, and in the national wealth to causes of this comparative neglect of chemistry. The be produced by it, that he would make light of discussions literary man and the statesman have not been impressed, on taxation, and say that he would pay the national debt. ) in the course of their early studies, with the principles His speculative schemes, in short, were vast and daring. indispensable to the successful study of nature. CheHe contemplated entering into the most extensive mer- | mistry was long known only as it was subservient to the cantile transactions, and buying up all the cotton in the physician for the preparation of his purgatives and his world, in order to realize an enormous profit by the emetics. Whilst it was thus engrafted on the medical monopoly.

sciences it could obtain no independent position. The But this unremitting attention to business, and the physician was but slenderly furnished with chemical mental excitement which he necessarily underwent, were truths, and yet the science had no existence except for not favourable to health. Besides, his constitution had him and the apothecary. When, however, those who never been entirely sound. From his early years he had framed the systems and guided the practice of education, been afflicted with severe asthma ; and this complaint, saw the great advantages which agriculture, arts, and with a complication of other disorders, accelerated, if not manufactures might derive from chemistry and natural produced, by the extent of his business connexions, philosophy, they admitted these sciences to a certain brought him to a comparatively early grave on the 3d of rank, and bestowed on them a certain measure of attenAugust 1792, before he had completed his sixtieth year, tion. From being merely an instrument of the physician, leaving behind him a fortune of half a million sterling, chemistry then became one of the main levers of comand works equally extensive and profitable. Considering mercial industry. The measures adopted to ensure this the deficiencies of his early education, and the whole extended application of the science, however, were imcircumstances of his life, Sir Richard Arkwright may perfect, and inadequate to the purpose. But chemistry be justly regarded as an extraordinary man; and cer- is susceptible of being made subservient to far higher tainly the unrivalled manufacturing eminence of England offices; it may be employed as a means of cultivating is more indebted to him than to any other individual. the mind, of training the human faculties for the univerHis genius and successful enterprise have thrown a lustre sal investigation of nature. In this point of view it has over his name and family. One of his sons recently died, not been contemplated. Many well-informed people reckoned to be the wealthiest commoner in the empire ; | still regard chemistry as the art of making experiments and another of his descendants has a seat in the House according to certain rules, very useful in the manfacture of Commons as member for Leominster. No human of soda and soap, in fixing good and permanent colours being of proper feeling will grudge or envy the distinction upon silk and cotton fabrics; but as an investigation of to which any descendant of Richard Arkwright can at nature, or as an universal guide to its study, it is to most tain ; but, on the contrary, will regard that name as one persons altogether unknown. of the proudest of which the country can boast.*

“It is so congenial to the human mind to inquire into the causes of the natural phenomena existing around us,

and presented to us in the daily changes taking place in THE IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY.

all visible objects, that those sciences which gave satisBARON LIEBIG has recently published two volumes of factory explanations and correct answers to our inquiries,

exercise more influence on the advancement of mental deep interest, called “Familiar Letters on Chemistry,"

| cultivation than any other. Thus the relations of light the Enguish editions of which have been edited by Dr to the earth, the succession of day and night, the variathe English editions of which have been edited by Dr Gardner. We have no fault to find with the translations, tion of the seasons, and the differences in the temperature except the price, which excludes them from the people—a

of different climates, gave birth to astronomy. As the

mind advances in knowledge, as it becomes enlightened circumstance all the more to be regretted, as they are not

by the influx of truths, no matter from what source, its likely to be found in circulating libraries. The follow capabilities are increased, its powers strengthened and sure; that glass and porcelain were manufactured, stuffs | is, as is well known, an apparently very simple theory of dyed, and metals separated from their ores by mere the phenomena of combustion. We have now experiempirical processes of art, and without the guidance of enced the great benefits and blessings which have sprung correct scientific principles. Even geometry had its and been diffused from this view. Since the discovery of foundation laid in experiments and observations; most oxygen the civilised world has undergone a revolution in of its theorems had been seen in practical examples, manners and customs. The knowledge of the composibefore the science was established by abstract reasoning. tion of the atmosphere, of the solid crust of the earth, Thus, that the square of the hypothenuse of a right- and of water, and their influence upon the life of plants angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the and animals, was linked with that discovery. The sucother two sides, was an experimental discovery, or why cessful pursuit of innumerable trades and manufactures, did the discoverer sacrifice a hecatomb when he made the profitable separation of metals from their ores, also out its proof?

elevated, and its progress in all other directions propor• « Richard Arkwright, it would seem, was not a beautiful man; tionately facilitated. When we obtain a correct knowno romance hero with haughty eyes, Apollo lip, and gesture like

ledge of the link which connects certain associated the herald Mercury; a plain, almost gross, bag-cheeked, pot-bel. lied Lancashire man, with an air of painful reflection, yet also of phenomena, when we have made an acquisition of a new copious free digestion, a man stationed by the community to truth relative to causation, it becomes equivalent to a shave certain dusty beards in the northern parts of England at a

new and additional sense, enabling us to perceive innuhalfpenny each. To such end, we say, by forethought, oversight, accident, and arrangement, had Richard Arkwright been, by the

merable phenomena which had previously escaped our community of England and his own consent, set apart. Neverthe. notice, and which still remain mysterious or altogether less, in strapping of razors and lathering of dusty beards, and the

invisible to others. contradictions and confusions attendant thereon, the man had no. tions in that rough head of his ; spindles, shuttles, wheels, and con.

“In the progressive growth of astronomy the other phytrivances plying ideally within the same; rather hopeless-looking; sical sciences were developed, and when these had been, which, however, he did at last bring to bear. Not without difficulty!

to a certain degree, successfully cultivated, they gave His townsfolk rose in mob around him for threatening to shorten

birth to the science of chemistry. And now we may labour, to shorten wages; so that he had to fly with broken waslıpots, scattered household, and seek refuge elsewhere. Nay, his anticipate that ORGANIC CHEMISTRY will perfect our wife, too, as I learn, rebelled; burnt his wooden model of his spin.

knowledge of the laws of life-the science of physiology. ning wheel; resolute that he should stick to the razors rather; “But it must not be forgotten that our predecessors for which, however, he decisively, as thou wilt rejoice to under. stand, vacked her out of doors. Oh! reader, what an historical determined the duration of the year, explained the phenomenon is that bag-cheeked, pot-bellied, much-enduring, and changes of the seasons, and calculated eclipses of the much inventing barber! French revolutions were a brewing; to

moon, without any acquaintance with the laws of graviresist the same in any measure, imperial kaisers were impotent

tation ; that people have built mills and constructed without the cotton and cloth of England, and it was this man that had to give England the power of cotton.'-Thomas Carlyle. 1 pumps without knowing anything of atmospheric pres.

stand in the closest connexion therewith. It may well “How different now is the aspect of the discoveries of be said that the material wealth of empires has increased the naturalist, since the spiritual impetus of a true philo-many-fold since the time oxygen became known, and the sophy urges him to investigate phenomena in order to fortunes of individuals have been augmented in proporunderstand their causes and laws, whether in natural tion. Every discovery in chemistry has a tendency to philosophy, chemistry, or in other sciences. From one bring forth similar fruits. Every application of its laws sublime genius—from NEWTON~more light has pro- is capable of producing advantages to the state in some ceeded than the labour of a thousand years preceding way or other, augmenting its powers, or promoting its had been able to produce. The true theory of the move- welfare. ments of the heavenly bodies, the law which regulates “In many respects chemistry is analogous to mathethe fall of bodies, i.e. gravitation, has become the parent matics. On the one hand, the application of this latter of innumerable other discoveries. Navigation, and, in science enables us to measure land, to erect buildings, consequence, commerce and industry immediately felt and to raise weights, and, as in arithmetic, becomes an its influence, and every individual of our species has de instrument, the skilful employment of which secures most rived, and will continue to derive, as long as mankind obvious and universal advantages; on the other hand, exists, incalculable benefits therefrom, both intellectual mathematics enable us to draw correct logical concluand material.

sions according to definite rules, teach us a peculiar “Without an acquaintance with the history of physics language, which allows us to express a series of such it is impossible to form any correct opinion of the effect conclusions in the most simple manner, by lines and which the study of nature has exercised upon the culti- symbols intelligible to every one who understands this vation of the mind. In our schools mere children are language : give us the power to deduce truths by means now taught truths, the attainment of which has cost of certain operations with these lines and symbols ; and immense labour and indescribable efforts. They smile furnish us with an insight into relations of things formerly when we tell them that an Italian philosopher wrote an obscure or unknown to us. The mechanician, the naelaborate treatise to prove that the snow found upon tural philosopher, the astronomer, employ mathematics Mount Etna consists of the same substance as the snow as an indispensable instrument for the attainment of their upon the Alps of Switzerland, and that he related proof ends. They must, indeed, be so practised in its manageupon proof that both these snows, when melted, yielded ment that its application becomes a mechanical habit, water possessed of the same properties. And yet this requiring only the exercise of memory. But it is not the conclusion was really not so very palpable, since the tem- | mere instrument which plans and executes the work, but perature of the two climates so widely differ, and no one the human intellect. You will admit that without the in those days had any notion of the diffusion of heat over power of observation, without judgment, without sagacity, the surface of the earth. When a schoolboy takes a glass- all mathematical knowledge is useless. You may imagine ful of liquid, and placing a loose piece of paper over it, a man who, favoured by a good memory, has rendered inverts the glass without spilling a drop of the contents, | himself intimately acquainted with every theorem of mahe only astonishes another child by his performance, and thematics, who has obtained an eminent degree of skilyet this is the identical experiment which renders the fulness in handling this instrument, but who is altogether name of Torricelli immortal. It is a variation of that unable to invent a problem for solution. If you propose experiment with which the burgomaster of Magdeburgh to him a problem, and give him the conditions for the (Otto von Guerike) threw the emperor and the princes of solution of a question, he will succeed in obtaining an the empire at Ratisbon into speechless astonishment. answer by performing the current operations with which Our children have more correct notions of nature and he is familiar, and express it in a formula consisting of natural phenomena than had Plato! they may treat with certain symbols, the meaning of which, however, is perridicule the errors which Pliny has committed in his fectly unintelligible to him, because he is deficient in Natural History!

other attainments essential for judging of its truth. Such "By the study of history, of philosophy, and of the a man is a mere calculating machine. But as soon as classics, we obtain a knowledge of the intellectual world, he possesses the capacity and the talent of proposing a the laws of thought, of mental inquiry, and of the spiritual question to himself, and testing the truth of his calculanature of man. Whilst we hold communion with the tions by experiment, he becomes qualified to investigate spirits of the great and good of all ages, we derive from nature. For from whence should he derive his problems the experience of past centuries the power of soothing if not from nature? He is denominated a mechanician, and governing the passions, and of softening the heart; an astronomer, or a natural philosopher, if starting from we are enabled to comprehend man as he exists at the observation, he is able to ascertain the connexion of present time, since his moral nature remains ever the certain phenomena and the causes producing them; and same. We are taught to embellish, and present, in the then is capable, not merely of expressing the results in a most engaging form, the principles of truth, of right, and formula, in the language of the mathematician, but of of religion, and thus to make the most enduring impres- making an application thereof, exhibiting his formula in sion upon the minds of others. History and philosophy, the shape of a phenomenon or external fact, thereby however, could not prevent men from being burnt for testing its truth. The astronomer, the mechanician, the witchcraft. For when the great Kepler went to Tubingen natural philsopher, therefore, in addition to mathematics, to save his mother from the stake, he succeeded only by which they use only as an instrument, still require the proving that she possessed none of the characteristic signs art of observing and interpreting phenomena, the ability essential to a witch!

to present the results of abstract reasoning in a visible “Only sixty years ago was chemistry, like a grain of shape by means of a machine or some form of apparatus ; seed from a ripe fruit, separated from the other physical in fact, to prove the correctness of their conclusions by sciences. With Cavendish and Priestley its new era experiment. The natural philosopher proposes to himbegan. Medicine, pharmacy, and the artisan's workshop, self the solution of a problem-he endeavours to ascerhad prepared the soil upon which this seed was to ger- tain the causes of a given phenomenon, the variations it minate and to flourish. The foundation of the science | undergoes, and the conditions under which these changes take place. If his questions have been correctly put, and I. LITERARY CONTROVERSIES. all the circumstances (the factors) taken into account, he succeeds in obtaining, by the aid of mathematical pro- | No. I.---THE VERSES ON THE BURIAL OF SIR JOHN MOORE. cesses, a simple expression for the unknown quantity or relation which has been the object of his search. This “Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note, expression or formula, translated into ordinary language,

As his corpse to the ramparts we hurried; explains the mutual connexion of the observed pheno

Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot mena, or of the experiments which he has instituted ; and

O'er the grave where our hero was buried.” the formula is correct, when it enables him to produce a certain series of new phenomena which are its corollaries. No piece of modern fugitive poetry has created so " You may now perceive how the mathematics stand

much controversy, or attracted so much notice in connected with the study of nature; and that, besides the literary world as the beautiful lines on the burial mathematics, a high degree of imagination, acuteness,

of Sir John Moore. These verses, first caught the and talent for observation, are required to make useful

public eye about thirty years ago in the newspapers discoveries in astronomy and other physical sciences. It is an error to ascribe discoveries to mathematics. It

and magazines of the day. Upon their appearance, happens with this, as with a thousand other things, that

considerable curiosity was excited to find out by the effect is confounded with the cause. Thus, effects

whom they had been written ; but being published which have been ascribed to the steam-engine, belong

anonymously, no certain information could be proproperly to fire, to coals, or to the human mind. The cured. At the time they were ascribed to various emitrue discoveries in mathematics are the successive steps nent literary men, such as Mr D.M. Moir (the Delta towards the perfection of the instrument, by which it is of Blackwood's Magazine), Mr Hailey, Mr Wolfe, rendered capable of innumerable useful applications, but and many others. mathematics alone make no discoveries in nature. They This uncertainty continued until Captain Medwyn work upon data furnished to it, upon what has been ob

published his “ Conversations of Lord Byron," in served by the senses, and ideas created by the mind. Experimental natural philosophy stands in this sense in

which work occurs the following passage :" The contrast with mathematical natural philosophy. It is the

following is his Lordship’s opinion of Campbell.former which discovers, examines, and prepares facts for

The conversation turned, after dinner, on the lyrical the mathematician. The task of experimental physics is poetry of the day, and the question arose as to which to express the laws, the general truths deduced, in the was the most perfect ode that had been produced. form of phenomena, to illustrate the mathematical for- Shelley contended for Coleridge's on Switzerland, mulæ by experiments, to make them manifest to the beginning “ Ye clouds,' &c.; others named some of senses.

Moore's Irish Melodies, and Campbell's Hohen“ Chemistry, in answering her own questions, proceeds linden ; and had Lord Byron not been present, his in the same manner as experimental physics. She

own invocation to Manfred, or ode to Napoleon or teaches the methods of discovering and determining the

on Prometheus, might have been cited. Like qualities of the various substances of which the crust of the earth is composed, and which form the constituents

Gray,' said he, ‘Campbell smells too much of the of animal and vegetable organisms. We study the pro

oil ; he is never satisfied with what he does; his perties of bodies, and the alterations they undergo in

finest things have been spoiled by over polish; the contact with others. All our observations, taken collec sharpness of the outline is worn off. Like paintings, tively, form a language. Every property, every alteration poems may be too highly finished. Their great art which we perceive in bodies, is a word in that language. is effect, no matter how produced. Certain definite relations are manifested in the deport “I will show you an ode you have never seen that ment of bodies toward each other, a similarity in form, I consider little inferior to the best which the present or analogy in properties, or diversities in both respects.

prolific age has brought forth;' with this he left Such diversities are as numerous and various as the words

the table almost before the cloth was removed, and of the most copious language, and they are no less varied in their signification and in the relations which they bear

returned with a magazine, from which he read the

well-known lines on Sir John Moore's burial. to our senses. “The verbal meaning conveyed by the properties of

“The feeling with which he recited the admirable bodies—to pursue the illustration-changes according to

ode I shall never forget. After he had come to an the mode in which these elements are arranged. As in end, he said it was perfect, particularly the lines, all other languages, we have in that language whereby

'But he lay like a warrior taking his rest material bodies hold converse with us, articles, substan

With his martial cloak around him.' tives, and verbs, with their variations of cases, declensions, and conjugations. We have also many synonymes; the “I should have taken,' said Shelley, 'the whole same quantities of the same elements produce a poison, a for a rough sketch of Campbell's.' remedy, or an aliment, a volatile or a fixed body, accord- l "No," replied Lord Byron, · Campbell would have ing to their manner of arrangement.

claimed it, if it had been his.' * When we would understand the meaning of the pro

“I afterwards had reason to think that the ode perties of bodies, that is, of the words in which nature speaks to us, we use the alphabet to decipher and to read

was Lord Byron's ; that he, piqued at none of them ; as, for instance, a fountain of mineral water in

his own being mentioned, and after he had praised Savoy cures that remarkable enlargement of the thyroid | the verses so highly, could not own them. No other gland denominated goître-I put certain questions to reason can be assigned for his not acknowledging that water, the combination of the several letters in its himself the author, particularly as he was a great answer informs me that it contains iodine. A man, hav- admirer of General Moore. ing partaken of some food, dies soon after, with all the “I am corroborated in this opinion lately by a symptoms of poisoning. The larguage of the phenomena, lady, whose brother received them many years ago which is familiar to the chemist, tells him that arsenic, from Lord Byron in his Lordship's own handor corrosive sublimate, or some other body, was mixed

writing." with the food. “ Hitherto scarcely any demand has been made upon

Upon the appearance of Captain Medwyn's work, the science of chemistry, by arts, manufactures, or phy

a host of new claimants for the authorship sprung siology, which has not been satisfied. Every question, up, and a great newspaper war was the consequence. clearly and definitely put, has been satisfactorily answered. One correspondent states as a fact that it was written It is only when an inquirer has no precise idea of what by a Mr Deacon, the author of the Innkeeper's he seeks, that he has remained unsatisfied."

| Album. Another corroborated Captain Medwyn's

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