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CHRISTIAN REVENGE.-A few years ago I met an! REMINISCENCES FOR THE DYING HOUR.--Never forelderly man in the Hartford stage, whose conversation | get the thought, which is now so clear to thee, that the led me to reflect on the baseness and iniquity often con- | individuality of man lasts out the greatest suffering and cealed behind the apparent glory of war. The thumb of the most entrancing joy alike unscathed, while the body his right hand hung down as if suspended by a thread, and crumbles away in the pains and pleasures of the flesh. some of the passengers inquired the cause. “A Malay | Herein are souls like marsh-lights, which shine in the woman cut the muscle with her sabre,” was the reply. storm and the rain unextinguishable. Canst thou for“A Malay woman!” they exclaimed; “how came you get, in the dark hour, that there have been mighty men fighting with a woman ?” “I did not know she was a amongst us, and that thou art following after them ? woman, for they all dress alike there,” said he ; “I was | Raise thyself like the spirits which stood upon their on board the United States ship Potomac when it was mountains, having the storm of life only about, and sent out to chastise the Malays for murdering the crew never above them. Call back to thee the kingly race of a Salem vessel. We attacked one of their forts, and of sages and of poets who have inspirited and enlightkilled some 200 or more. Many of them were women; ened nation after nation. Remember Jesus Christ, in and I can tell you the women were as good fighters the dark hour-remember him who also passed through as the men.” After answering several questions con- life-remember that soft moon of the infinite sun, given cerning the conflict, he was silent for a moment, and then to enlighten the night of the world. Let life be haladded with a sigh, “Ah! that was a bad business. I do lowed to thee, and death also, for he shared both of not like to remember it; I wish I never had had any- | them with thee. May his calm and lofty form look down thing to do with it. I have been a seaman from my upon thee in the last darkness, and show thee his Father. youth, and I know the Malays well. They are a brave -J. P. Richter. and honest people. Deal fairly with them, and they will treat you well, and may be trusted with untold gold. The Americans were to blame in that business. The truth is, Christian nations are generally to blame in the outset in all their difficulties with less civilised people.
COMPOSED TO AN OLD BORDER MELODY. A Salem ship went to Malacca to trade for pepper.
THERE are storms in the sky when the dark clouds are They agreed to give the natives a stated compensation
gathered, when a certain number of measures full of pepper were
And the sad breezes sigh when the green leaves are delivered. Men, women, and children were busy pick
withered ; ing pepper, and bringing it on board. The captain pro
The sad breezes sigh and the scene is uncheery posed that the sailors should go ashore and help them,
When the wild mountains lie between me and my deary. and the natives consented with the most confiding good nature. The sailors were instructed to pick till evening,
'Tis weary thro' the day the lang hours to number, and then leave the baskets full of pepper among the
And lanelier aye when love cheats us o'slumber; bushes, with the understanding that they were to be
It is lane night and day when the loved come na near ye, brought on board by the natives in the morning. They
And the cauld rivers stray between us and our deary. did so, without exciting any suspicion of treachery. But in the night the baskets were all conveyed on board,
Sweet swims the swan in the high streams o' Yarrow, and the vessel sailed away, leaving the Malays unpaid
When the bird sings its sang wi' nae notes o' sorrow; for her valuable cargo. This, of course, excited great
But there's cold frost and snow, and the moon shining indignation, and they made loud complaints to the com
eery, mander of the next American vessel that arrived on
And the cauld rivers flow between me and my deary. their coast. In answer to a demand of redress from the government, they were assured that the case should be
The dowie glen is deep, and lofty the mountain, represented, and the wrong repaired. But ‘Yankee cute
And the heart winna sleep aye the lane moments ness' in cheating a few savages was not sufficiently un
countin'; common to make any great stir, and the affair was soon
The mountains are high, and the moorlands are dreary, forgotten. Some time after, another captain of a Salem
And the cauld rivers run between me and my deary. ship played a similar trick, and carried off a still larger quantity of stolen pepper. The Malays, exasperated be
I would build love a bower if down here were given yond measure, resorted to Lynch law, and murdered an
The green leaf and flower frae the gardens o' heaven ; American crew that landed there about the same time.
But the flowers o' earth die, and the green leaves grow The United States ship Potomac was sent out to punish
sear aye, them for this outrage, and, as I told you, we killed some
And the frost and snaws lie between me and my deary. two hundred men and women. I sometimes think that our retaliation was not more rational or more like Chris- |
The spring will come again wi' the green bud and gowan, tians than theirs.” “Will you please," said I, “to tell
And the Lower will no be lane where the clear rill is me what sort of revenge would be like Christians ?" He
rowin'; hesitated, and said it was a hard question to answer. “I
And we'll woo night and day, and never yet be weary, never felt pleasantly about that affair,” continued he; “I|
| When nae cauld rivers stray between me and my deary. would not have killed her if I had known she was a wo
HENRY SCOTT RIDDELL. man.” I asked why he felt more regret about killing a woman than a man. “I hardly know why myself,” an
TERMS FOR “THE TORCH."
Single numbers, 1 d.; or free by post, swered he; “I don't suppose I should, if it were a com
Per quarter of 13 Nos., delivered to subscribers, ls. 7 d. mon thing for women to fight. But we are accustomed | Per quarter, free by post,
28, 60, to think of them as not defending themselves; and there
Monthly Parts, each
7d. is something in every human heart that makes a man
AU Subscriptions payable in advance. unwilling to fight those who do not fight in return. It
The back numbers of the Torch can be had at the reduced
rate of three halfpence each. seems mean and dastardly, and a man cannot work himself to do it.” “Then, if one nation would not fight, another Printed by THOMAS MURRAY, of No. 2 Arniston Place, and WILLIAN could not,” said I; “ what if a nation, instead of an indi
GIBB, of No. 26 Royal Crescent, at the Printing Office of MURRAY
and GIBB, North-East Thistle Street Lane; and Published at No. 58 vidual, should make such an appeal to the manly feeling,
Princes Street, by WILLIAM AITCHISON SCTHERLAND, of No. 1 which you say is inherent in the heart?” “I believe Windsor Street, and JAMES Knox, of No. 7 Henderson Row; all other nations would be ashamed to attack her,” he re in the City and County of Edinburgh, plied; "it would take away all the glory and excitement
Edinburgh: SUTHERLAND & KNOX, 58 Princes Street; and of war, and the hardiest soldier would shrink from it as
sold by HOULSTON & STONEMAN, Paternoster Row, London; W. from a cold blooded murder.” “Such a peace establish BLACKWOOD and J. M'LEOD, Glasgow; L. SMITH, Aberdeen; and ment would be at once cheap and beautiful,” rejoined I;
may be had by order of every Bookseller in the United Kingdom. and so we parted.-Mrs Child.
Edinburgh, Saturday, April 18, 1846.
Weekly Journal for the Instruction and Entertainment of the People.
SATURDAY, APRIL 25, 1846.
CONTENTS. Milliners and Dressmakers.. 307 | On the Price of Money,
318 Educational Reform-Schools and Gymnasia, 309 AUTHORS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.-No. V. Adventures of a Boat's Crew,
311 I WILLIAM COBBETT-Economy and Education Mary Morison, an Original Tale, 313 in Families,
320 Samuel Crompton, and the Mule Jenny, 316 Miscellaneous,
321 Notes by a Biography Reader.-Industry of Genius, 317 | POETRY.-Sleep,
MILLINERS AND DRESSMAKERS. mitted to consist of the movement of a fore leg.
Let this treatment be persevered in for a period of WOMEN OF ENGLAND,—Many of the sufferings which time equal in extent to the season" of the milliafflict society in this country are traceable to mennery establishments in this country, and we predict entirely, some to men and women conjointly, and that, if the horse does not sink under the experiment, others to women exclusively. That the collier does he will infallibly be disabled. Women do not imme. not live more than half the time that nature intended, diately die under it-for they have souls, and an is the blame of man—that children are starved and immortal spirit will for a time give energy to wasted uneducated, is the fault of both sexes; but that mil- bones and shrunk sinews. The sword keeps the liners and dressmakers live the lives of slaves, is scabbard from falling in ; but it cannot keep it from your doing and yours alone. They work for you, decaying. The fear of starvation-aged parents or are employed by you, paid by you, fed by you, and helpless brothers and sisters at home--the consciousclothed by you; and therefore, whatever guilt ness of loving and being loved by one, who may rescue attaches itself to the treatment of those persons, from thraldom, and give the joys of a humble hearth must lie at your doors, and at the doors of none else. and happy home—that love of life which buoys up We have all heard of “ man's unkindness to man,” | all human beings, and makes the light of the sun which is great and unpardonable. Let us now listen
pleasant-and, may we not add, in some cases, meek to" woman's unkindness to woman," and see what resignation to the decrees of a Providence which is are the fruits which it produces.
known to slumber not nor sleep, which hears the Thousands of delicate young females in this coun- ravens when they cry, and careth for the lilies of the try are obliged to perform an amount of labour field,—these may all sustain and bear up the sufferers under circumstances which an eminent medical under their hard lot. But the end cometh at last. authority has declared would kill a horse or an The bloom which the country girl brought with her elephant! These are strong words, and they sound disappears, and the yellow, not the white cheek of somewhat like exaggeration, but nevertheless they the sentimental novelist, saddens her face—the light are susceptible of rigid proof. During what are step of health is succeeded by the limping gait of called the busy seasons, namely, the two periods weakness and disease—and the merry laugh is heard immediately preceding the introduction of the spring | no more for ever. and autumn fashions, milliners and dressmakers have
Now spring returns; but not to her returns been known to work eighteen to twenty hours per
The vernal joy her better years have known.
Dim in her breast, life's dying taper burns, day for a week running, and during this time, they
And all the joys of life with health are flown. are huddled in large numbers into small apartments, where, what with glaring gas-light and their own She falls a poor dressmaker girl, and she falls, as breaths, pure air is unknown— their posture is all of us will fall, the mere descent of a leaf in the almost uniform, being varied only by the movement forest of death. of one arm-their food is scanty-their beds are Criminal indictments contain what logicians call a hard-their occupation is dull and monotonous- major and a minor proposition ; the first sets forth and it is miserably remunerated at one shilling a that murder is a crime and punishable, and the day. Now, try the horse or elephant with the second goes on to state that A B has committed same course of labour, and mark the result. Those murder, and that therefore he ought and should be animals have performed great feats, and anecdotes punished. Few counsels ever meddle with the major innumerable are on record regarding their fidelity proposition, but the minor is almost always objected and hardihood ; but in one point their efforts differ to; and it may be that some ladies who run their materially from those of milliners and dressmakers eyes over this paper may treat the sufferings of mil-the quadrupeds perform their labour in the open liners and dressmakers in this very way. “ It is air-the bipeds in a hot room or garret ; and this quite true,” they may say, " that these unfortunate most seriously alters the case. Let a horse be taken persons are wretched and miserable, but how can I into a stable crowded with other horses-- let him be help them. I inflict no hardship on them, and I made to lie down as long as milliners and dress- have no means of alleviating such as others lay upon makers sit, dozens of gas jets being farther introduced them.” In reply to this, we have simply to state, at night, food restricted, and the only motion per- | that if we had not thought that there was a possi
bility of lessening the misery of this class of unfor- , fancied conquest made by gauze, the victims of her tunates, we should never have put pen to paper on thoughtlessness would be plying their weary fingers the subject-for we can conceive nothing more un- to keep some other imperious belle from being discalled for or pernicious than gratuitously to dilate on appointed. horrors which cannot be remedied, or to expatiate But not only on special occasions are ladies on them one single sentence farther than is necessary unreasonably in haste for their garments — not to excite public attention to the necessary remedial only will summer's heat or winter's cold, or, what measures. Eugene Sué and his brother romancers is the same thing, the appearance on the paveoverstep this limit, and dwell on horrors which they ment of articles of dress representing the two know can lead to no good practical end-a course seasons, drive them post haste to the dressmakerwhich cannot be too severely reprobated. But, in but much do we fear that almost every article of this case, we hold that every lady, and the higher in female costume are by some people commissioned in ! rank the better, can do somewhat towards the lessen- breathless bustle. The female rage for dress is a ing of the heavy burdens which press on milliners strong passion, and, kept under proper restraint and and dressmakers. And here is one way by which duly regulated, it is one that adds to female loveliit can be done.
ness. Awkwardness in dress will spoil a fine form, ArticLES OF DRESS SHOULD NOT BE ORDERED ON and even counteract the influence of mental accom- " SHORT NOTICE.
plishments. No woman can be inattentive to her This is a golden rule, and the non-observance of it dress—for simplicity itself must to a certain extent entails much misery on the female operative. Many be the result of studied effort. But, then, the ladies are so thoughtless as to delay giving their sweetest flowers do not burst at once they first orders till the eleventh hour, and then insist on bud, then blossom, and, at last, expand into the full their being executed without the least loss of time, flower-and, to be true to nature, ladies, if they do under pain that, if their dresses are not ready by a not wish to covet the distinction of being female given hour, their custom and patronage will be for- fops, should not too closely follow the monthly feited. Now, in nine cases out of ten, there is no fashions. The woman who possesses the ornament necessity for such haste. A ball, a marriage, a con- of a meek and quiet mind can afford to be behind her cert, a dinner party, a spring or winter day, or a neighbours for a day or two in donning the most death, are all panic times with those whose interests stylish skirt or polka that ever appeared in the we are now pleading-days when runs are made not | World of Fashion; and those who make the best for the gold that perisheth, but for the energies and wives are those who, on special occasions, do not efforts of helpless wasted girls. Who has not been hesitate to appear in an old gown - for, singular appalled by the trick-slider of a magic lantern when although it may appear, that much libelled article the face of a figure is suddenly removed, and the cannot hide a lady. grinning skull of a skeleton glares upon you in | After all the noise made about Hood's Song of the hideous deformity-and who that is dazzled with the Shirt, it should not seem too much for us to entreat tinsel and show of a ball-room, would not shudder, ladies to comply with the simple request, that they could the lath and plaster walls fall down by some should allow time for their dresses being made. pantomimic stroke, and reveal the women “in un- That song was written by poor Hood on his deathwomanly rags,” and “in poverty, hunger, and dirt,” | bed, and whenever it appeared in Punch, it was by whom these gorgeous trappings were fashioned ? copied into all the newspapers in the kingdom ; it It were a sight not only for sentimentalists falling was set to music, and sung by ladies titled and into hysterics, but for the sober-minded to weep. The untitled; but what good effects has it produced ? It stroke of death often comes suddenly, but when it proclaimed the existence of a social evil, with trumpetcomes slowly, and gives long warning of its approach, tongue, but the clear notes gradually fell in the diswe cannot think of the paraphernalia of the grave tance, and at last the echoes died away ; and so will beforehand—“inky cloaks" therefore must always, it ever be with sentimentaliststhey will whine and for at least often, be commissioned in haste ; but this shed tears, but they do nothing in the shape of is the only instance in which the actual want of action, and they leave the evil precisely as they time can be pleaded. The ball is fixed on long found it. Let no lady who reads this give herself before the inarriage is fixed on long before, or, if it over to simpering and sentiment; but let her do and be not, ceremony should be curtailed in proportion act by following the simple hint which has just been to the brevity of the warning—the dinner party is thrown out. long announced, and so. generally are spring and It is obvious, however, that this will not do all, winter. But supposing that such were not the case, Supposing time were to be allowed for the execution what woman, deserving the name, will have her of all the orders in the kingdom, the giant evil still dignity compromised by appearing at a ball, church, remains behind, and consists in this, that there is a or drawing-room, with a gown or shawl which were superabundance of female labour in Britain. The not " sent home" precisely half an hour before she unprovided females rush in millions to one or other wore it in public? And yet we lately heard of a of the following professions-service in families or silly person, who, having received an invitation to a | factories, dressmakers, and governesses. Where all dinner party, learned, on the forenoon of the day of run, all cannot win the race; and water does not the festival, that a certain individual was to be there, more surely run down the sides of a mountain, than and immediately changed all her ideas as to costume. over-supply of any thing, whether labour or comThe gown she had first thought of would not now modity, always produces lowness of price. If females answer--she purchased a new piece of finery, and were to invade the professions of the other sex, & told her dressmaker, that, if not ready by six o'clock temporary advantage might be secured; but if fol. that evening, it would be the last thing she should lowed by seasons of depression, what would it avail ever get from her. In vain the tradeswoman pleaded us that we had starving men as well as starving the multiplicity of pre-engagements, and entreated women? The problem is one of difficult solution, mercy-the pleas were one and all unheard-the and we cannot now speculate on it; but enough has gown was made within the prescribed time and been said to show that, if we cannot cure the diswhile the vain butterfly would be dreaming of a lease, we may smooth the pillow.
arithmetic may not be obtained. And many people EDUCATIONAL REFORM-SCHOOLS AND
may think this sufficient. They may agree with
Stone, the well-known mathematician, that “we GYMNASIA.
may learn every thing when we know the twenty
four letters of the alphabet.” And, had all persons THERE is no better sign of the present age than the the genius and application of Stone, this might interest now taken in all quarters on the subject of indeed be true. But common minds require more education. The time is past when the whole matter
opportunities. If, therefore, a higher standard of could be settled with a sneer, or the profound remark
education is desirable, the means of attaining it must that the more ignorant the people, the better sub
be brought within the reach of all. And this, we jects they would be. We would refer the admirers
believe, can only be done by establishing a class of of such wisdom to the Canterbury riots, where a higher schools intermed
higher schools, intermediate between the parishwhole mob of people were led into rebellion by a schools and the universities. This is absolutely madman, who had persuaded them that he was the essential to the success of any attempt to raise the Messsiah, and invulnerable. Such gross ignorance character of the latter institutions, and to place would not be found in Scotland, where our parish them on a level with those of other lands. At schools, imperfect as they may be in many points, present our universities are little more than upper have yet raised the mass of the native population schools, and the highest qualities looked for in a above being deceived by insane pretenders to mira
ceived by Insane pretenders to mira- professor are those of an efficient schoolmaster. culous power. Of her parish schools, as institutions More than this is even regarded with suspicion, and more than a century old, Scotland has good reason looked on as a positive disqualification. But of this to be proud ; as institutions existing unchanged at more subsequently. the present day, her pride might be turned into
Assuming, then, that an education higher than shame. The character and position of her school- that furnished by parish schools, more elementary, masters has not been rising in proportion with that more adapted to the wants, capacity, and condition of other classes of the community. They have not of the mass of the community than that which been treated with that respect and consideration ought to be furnished by universities is needed, the which their situation deserved ; their emoluments
questions arise-how is it to be furnished, and what have not been raised in conformity to the expense of
ought to be its extent and character ? In answering living, and to the position they ought to occupy in these questions, we must look first at the persons for society. An intelligent mechanic, or small shop- whom it is designed. These upper schools, or gymkeeper in a country village, can make more income nasia as they are named abroad, should not be mere than most of our country schoolmasters; and yet it intermediate stepping-stones to the university-mere is expected that men of learning and intelligence institutions for the elementary education of future shall devote themselves to this difficult and laborious lawyers, doctors, and clergymen. They should be occupation.
adapted for the education of many who may never Such things should not be. It is not just either proceed further,—for farmers, shopkeepers, mechato ourselves or to posterity. The schoolmaster is nics, manufacturers, for the whole body of the one of the most important persons in the community, middle classes, who constitute the bone and sinew of next to-in some respects even more than—the mi- the state. For this purpose they must be dispersed nister. He is the great mean of educating not only over the country, and brought within easy reach of the young, but the old, -of transfusing new ideas, every person in it. There would be no difficulty in elevated sentiments and feelings, from the upper and selecting twenty large towns in Scotland, to confine learned classes into the lower and less educated por- our remarks at present to the northern part of the tions of the community. The words of truth and island, to which the various districts of the country wisdom which he speaks to the young may not only might send their youth for a higher education withabide with them during their whole subsequent life; out much inconvenience. Such places would form, but the infinence be then acquires may continue as it were, foci of light, whence knowledge and long after they have left his charge, and enable him science would be diffused over the whole surroundto counsel and advise with more efficacy than one ing community. whom they have never learned to respect. In re The persons for whom they were designed would mote parts of the country, the minister and school- also show the nature of the instruction to be commumaster are the only learned, often the only travelled nicated. The higher elements of classical learning men in the place, and from them the little community should not be neglected ; but branches of a more acquires its tone and character. This is especially practical, a more generally useful, character should true of the schoolmaster, who from circumstances is also be introduced. There is, perhaps, no more brought into more familiar intercourse with the remarkable feature in the character of the British people. Hence arises the high importance of elevat- population, than the variety of the employments on ing his character, and raising him from the position which they depend for support. We are not a mere of a mere every day drudge to the rank which a nation of agriculturists or manufacturers, or of merman of learning and intelligence ought to occupy. | chants, but of all these and more, commingled This can only be done by increasing the minimum together in various proportions in different parts of salary to such a sum as will enable them to live in the country. The prosperity of the people depends comfort, and abolishing the absurd regulation of a on the skill and success with which all these occupamaximum, as there is no danger of people taxing tions are pursued, and this skill and success must themselves too highly, especially for an object where depend on the intelligence and ingenuity of the perthere is so much profit, and so little show to recom sons engaged in them. The commercial and manymend it.
facturing supremacy of Britain does not depend only But the elementary education in Scotland is far on the extent of her fields of coal and iron, or on the less deficient than that a step immediately beyond. excellency of her harbours. It is not these things There is no part of the country, except perhaps alone that has spread her ships over every sea; her some of the remoter highland glens, where the means hardwares and cottons over every land. It is the of acquiring the elements of reading, writing, and intelligence and moral character of her people, deyeloped and educated by her free institutions. It much for themselves as a despotic king for his is this that makes the work of an English mechanic subjects ? worth twice that of a Frenchman or German, and It is perhaps too much to look for any assistance of five times more value than that of a Russian serf. from the government, though the annual sum would Yet let us not pride ourselves on this. In the New be less by far than the cost of a regiment of soldiers. England states, the higher education of their people Were there twenty institutions, with four teachers enable them not only to compete, but to excel our in each, for Latin and Greek, for Mathematics and countrymen; and we have seen it stated, on good au- Natural Philosophy, for Natural History and Che. thority, that in the manufactories at Lowell, English mistry, for English Literature and History, each workmen cannot find employment, on account of with a salary of L.150, the whole sum would only their inferiority to the natives. Now, such things be L.12,000 per annum; surely no great amount to should not be ; and our educational institutions elevate the whole educational character of the counshould be adapted not only to maintain, but to try. Were the people truly in earnest on the elevate, the position of our people in all branches of subject, it might soon be procured. But the means industry. They should give to the mass of the of procuring the whole, or at least a large part of the people that instruction, in matters of science con- sum, without injury or burden to any one, seems nected with their employments, which men intended now offered to us. It is now almost universally for the learned professions find, or ought to find, in allowed that there are more hospitals for the support the universities.
of children in Edinburgh than are at all needed, Of this kind of study, mathematics and natural even were it certain that these institutions are really philosophy probably hold the first place. Not only productive of beneficial results. But this is by no do they train the mind to accurate and connected means the case : and the general feeling of the pubthought; but they teach the mechanic the nature lic rather demands the abolition of the old, than the and use of his tools, the principles of the art he pur- foundation of new hospitals. Now, it is well known sues, the manufacturer learns from them the struc- that a very large sum of money was lately left by ture of his machinery, and the mode in which it Sir William Fettes for charitable purposes—" for operates to produce the designed end ; the sailor the maintenance, education, and outfit of young knows from them how to navigate his ship; and people," as it is stated in the almanacs, which sum even to the farmer they are not without benefit. has never yet been appropriated to any special object. To the last, chemistry and natural history may seem It seems no very wide departure from the will of the more directly useful, and the advantages of the for- testator, no grievous encroachment on his benevolent mer branch of study, at least, to all classes is now purposes, to alter the destination of this from an very generally recognised. English literature and object which the good sense of the community concomposition is no less suited to form a branch of siders injurious to one of which it highly approves. general instruction ; and if it brings fewer imme- | The memory of the founder would be equally prediate results in money or money's worth, its ten- served, and a greater blessing conferred on his dency to elevate, the minds of the people, to country. Even were the authority of Parliament withdraw them from low, base, and degrading required for the change, this would, there can be no pursuits and enjoyments, to give them desires doubt, readily be granted, were the public to move above the ale-house, and pleasures of a higher in the matter. But the public must help themselves kind than cock-fighting or horse-racing; these here; they must let their mind and will be known, may surely compensate for the want of more pal or nothing will be done for them. The money will pable results.
be spent in some other way ; probably in building a But some may say, “ It is all well enough theo- palace for charity children, which the growing intelrising, and speculating on the advantages of these ligence of the people will before many years compel things. We are well enough aware of that. But its guardians to shut up. how is all this, or even a portion of it, to be attained ? The way and manner in which these schools are Now, it would be a sufficient answer to say, that the to be supported is, however, of minor importance. difficulty of attaining any desirable object does not Let the country be but once convinced of their render it the less desirable or the less beneficial. utility, and we are assured that twelve or twenty Even though we may now see no means of obtaining thousand pounds per annum would be no obstacle to all this, other persons, by having their attention their erection. Scotland has too long prided herself drawn to the subject, may see some means. Besides on the high scale of her people in education and other nations have acconiplished this, and why morality, now to fall behind in the glorious career. should we despair. In Prussia, with a population of We are convinced, that when once she sees that about fifteen millions, and with twenty-three thou- her laurels are in danger, the effort to retain them sand elementary schools, there were, in 1837, nearly will not be wanting, and that such schools are eight hundred upper schools, and one hundred and needed there can be no doubt. The mechanic's thirteen gymnasia, the latter in some branches giving institutions rising up in every part of the land, show an education equal or superior to that of our univer how strongly one class of the community feel the sities. And these gymnasia were frequented by a want. But these institutions can effect little, comlarge number of scholars who never carried their pared to what might be done by regular teachers education further. In the whole state, of twenty- residing constantly in a place. A few popular lectwo scholars in the gymnasia, only one proceeded tures, on chemistry or mechanics, given occasionally to the universities, showing how many persons were in a season, rather destroy curiosity than excite it : disposed to take advantage of this higher education, rather show than supply the want. It is only by who bad no view to any learned profession. And appointing efficient teachers of these various branches we entertain no doubt that the same desire for of science in various parts of the country, whose a better education exists in our own country, fixed salary would enable them to offer instruction were there equal opportunities of gratifying it. at a rate accessible to all, that the wants of the And why, we may ask, should not these exist community can be supplied, and the national in Scotland, in Britain, as well as in Prussia ? character of Scotsmen as an educated people mainSurely the people of a free country can do as tained.