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sluggish mass, and are rendered more conspicuous | ing fertility and beauty throughout their courses. by bands of harder ice, caused by the infiltration of Had the whole of this moisture fallen in rain, it water, the edges of which bands rising up above the would have soon been drained off by the wintry surface, collect sand and earth in the hollows. The torrents; but thus it is congealed and stored up, as edges of the glacier, as well as the ground on each it were, for use during the long and burning heats of side, are covered with a mass of fragmentary rocks summer. and sand, which the icy stream detaches and carries along in its progress. These are called moraines. It has now been ascertained that the glacier in its
THE AUTHORS OF THE NINETEENTH motion obeys the laws which are proper to a semi
CENTURY. liquid fluid such as that of which it is composed, and
No. VI.-ARCHBISHOP WHATELEY. that this motion is influenced chiefly by the degree of heat causing a more or less rapid liquefaction, and
RICH AND POOR. by the declivity of the ground over which the mass
BESIDES those who work for their living, some at a higher moves. Thus the motion is continuous and progres
rate and some at a lower, there are others who do not live sive, but greater in summer than in winter, and
on their labour at all, but are rich enough to subsist on
what they, or their fathers, have laid up. There are greater during the day than during the night. The
many of these rich men, indeed, who do hold laborious centre of the mass moves always faster than the offices; as magistrates, and members of parliament. But sides, and it is probable the top moves faster than this is at their own choice. They do not labour for their the bottom. The velocity of movement, all other subsistence, but live on their property. circumstances being alike, increases with the increase There can be but few of such persons, compared with of the slope. The greatest summer velocity in some those who are obliged to work for their living. But places of the glacier is about four feet in the twenty though there can be no country where all, or the greater four hours; in other places it is only about eight or
part, are rich enough to live without labour, there are nine inches.
several countries where all are poor. And in those In Europe the principal glacier mountains are
countries where all are forced to live by their labour, the the Alps. The extent of surface covered by gla
people are much worse off than most of the labourers are
in this country. In savage nations, almost every one is ciers in these mountains has been estimated at
half starved at times, and generally half-naked. But in 1400 square miles, and not less than 400 glaciers any country in which property is secure, and the people exist in this space. From their ever-flowing streams industrious, the wealth of that country will increase ; and several of the largest European rivers take their rise, those who are the most industrious and frugal, will gain especially those on the northern side of the Although the Pyrrenean Mountains extend beyond by something for their children, who will thus be born to the line of perpetual snow, yet no true glaciers have been discovered in that great range. In Norway and
| Young people who make good use of their time, and Spitzbergen, glaciers are abundant and of great ex
who are quick at learning, and grow up industrious tent. Within the tropics, although the towering sum
and steady, may, perhaps, be able to earn more than mits of the Andes and the Himalayan Mountains pene
enough for their support, and so have the satisfaction trate far above the snow-line, yet no true glaciers |
of leaving some property to their children. And if snow-line, yet no true glaciers these, again, should, instead of spending this property, are to be found, which has been ascribed to the ex-l increase it by honest diligence, prudence, and frugality, treme dryness of the air, the steepness of the sides of they may in time raise themselves to wealth. Several the Andes, and to the trifling change of annual tem- of the richest families in the country have risen in this perature which occurs in those regions. In South manner from a low station. It is, of course, not to be America, glaciers make their appearance on the west expected that many poor men should become rich; nor coast of Patagonia, where they extend to the sea ;
ought any man to set his heart on being so; but it is an and they are numerous in Tierra del Fuego.
allowable and a cheering thought, that no one is shut out Within the arctic circles, the glacier assumes the
from the hope of bettering his condition, and providing form and has obtained the name of iceberg.
for his children. Those
And would you not think it hard that a man should of Jan Mayen's Island are thus described by Scores- not be allowed to lay by his savings for his children? by :>“ They occupy recesses in the nearly perpen | But this is the case in some countries; where property dicular cliffs to the height of 1200 and 1500 feet is so ill secured, that a man is liable to have all his savThese polar glaciers differed in appearance from any-ings forced from him, or seized upon at his death. And thing of the kind I had before seen. They were there all the people are miserably poor, because no one very rough on the surface and of a greenish-gray thinks it worth his while to attempt saving any thing. colour. They presented the appearance of immense
There are some countries which were formerly very cataracts suddenly arrested in their progress, and
productive and populous, but which now, under the congealed on the spot by the power of an intense
tyrannical government of the Turks, or such other frost. Like cascades, their prominent greenish co
people, have become almost deserts. In former times,
Barbary produced silk ; but now most of the mulberry lour was variegated with snow-white patches re
trees (on whose leaves the silk-worms are fed) are sembling foam, which were contrasted with the jet
decayed ; and no one thinks of planting fresh trees, black points of the most prominent rocks peeping because he has no security that he shall be allowed to through their surfaces. As in cataracts also, they enjoy the produce, seemed to follow in some measure the figure of the Can it be supposed that the poor would be better off if rocks over which they lay, and were marked with | all the property of the rich were taken away and divided curved lines from top to bottom.”
among the poor, and no one allowed to become rich for These glaciers, then, appear to act a part in the the future? The poor would then be much worse off than great system of nature. They are the medium by
they are now. They would still have to work for their which a considerable surplus of the winter snows
living, as they do now ; for food and clothes cannot be
had without somebody's labour. But they would not which fall on the higher points of land is gradually
work near so profitably as they do now, because no one thawed by the summer sun, and converted into
would be able to keep up a large manufactory or farm, springs that feed the rivers, which, taking their well stocked, and to advance wages to workmen (as is origin in these elevated regions, flow out in all di-done now), for work which does not bring in any return rections to the lower and more level countries, carry-1 for, perhaps, a year or two. Every one would live, as the saying is, “ from hand to mouth,” just tilling his own do this, they lay it out in employing labourers to till little patch of ground, enough to keep him alive, and not the ground, or to manufacture cloth and other articles, daring to lay by anything; because, if he were supposed or to import foreign, goods, by which means the corn to be rich, he would be in danger of having his property and cloth, and other commodities of the country are taken away and divided.
increased. And if a bad crop, or a sickly family, brought any one The rich man, therefore, though he appears to have so into distress, which would soon be the case with many, much larger a share allotted to him, does not really conwhat could he do after he had spent his little property? sume it ; but is only the channel through which it flows He would be willing to work for hire ; but no one could to others. And it is by this means much better distributed afford to employ him, except in something that would than it could have been otherwise. bring in a very speedy return. For even these few who might have saved a little money would be afraid to have
CAPITAL. it known, for fear of being forced to part with it. They would hide it somewhere in a hole in the ground, whieh We have seen that a rich man who spends on himself 11 used formerly to be a common practice in this country, his income of one thousand pounds or ten thousand and still is, in some others, where property is very inse- 1 pounds a year, does not diminish the wealth of the whole || cure. Under such a state of things, the whole country country by so much; but only by what he actually eats would become poorer and poorer every year; for each and wears, or otherwise consumes himself. The rest he man would labour no more than just enough for his hands over to those who work for him or wait on him; immediate supply, and would also employ his labour less paying them either in food and clothes, or (what comes to profitably than now, for want of a proper division of the same thing) in money to buy what they want. And labour; and no one would attempt to lay by any thing, if he were to give to the same persons what he now pays, because he would not be sure of being allowed to keep leaving them to continue idle, there could not be the it. In consequence of all this, the whole produce of the more food or clothes in the country; only these people land and labour of the country would become much less would sit still, or lounge about and do nothing, instead of than it is now; and we should soon be reduced to the earning their bread. same general wretchedness and distress which prevails in But they are the happier and the better for being emmany half-savage nations. The rich, indeed, would have ployed, instead of being idle, even though their labour become poor ; but the poor, instead of improving their should be only in planting flowers, or building a palace condition, would be much worse off than before. All to please their employer's fancy. would soon be as miserably poor as the most destitute Most of the money that is spent, however, is laid out beggars are now. Indeed, so far worse, there would be in employing labourers on some work that is profitable; nobody to beg of.
that is, in doing something which brings back more than It is best for all parties, the rich, the poor, and the is spent on it, and thus goes to increase the whole wealth middling, that property should be secure, and that every of the country. Thus, if instead of employing labourers one should be allowed to possess what is his own, and to to cultivate a flower-garden, or build me a summergain whatever he can by honest means, and to keep it or house, for my pleasure, I employ them in raising corn, or spend it as he thinks fit-provided he does no one any building a mill to grind it, the price of that corn, or the injury.
price paid for grinding by those who bring corn to the Some rich men, indeed, make a much better use of mill, will be more (if I have conducted the business their fortunes than others; but one who is ever so selfish prudently) than what I had spent on those works. So
position can hardly help spending it on his that instead of having parted with my money for ever (as neighbours. If a man has an income of five thousand when it is spent on a pleasure-garden or summer-house), pounds a year, some people might think, at first sight, it comes back to me with addition. This addition is that if his estate were divided among one hundred poor called profit! and the money so laid out is called capital. families, which would give each of them fifty pounds a A man who lays out his money in this manner, may year, there would thus be, by such a division, one hun- do the same over again, as soon as it comes back to him, dred poor families the more enabled to subsist in the so that he may go on supporting labourers year after country. But this is quite a mistake. Such would, year. And if he saves each year a part of his profit, and indeed, be the case if the rich man had been used to eat adds it to his capital (as a thriving farmer or manufacas much food as one hundred poor families, and to wear turer generally does), he will be continually employing out as much clothing as all of them. But we know this is more and more labourers, and increasing the wealth of not the case. He pays away his income to servants, and the country. He himself, indeed, is perhaps not thinking labourers, and tradesmen, and manufacturers of different of his country, but is only seeking to enrich himself; but articles, who lay out the money in food and clothing for this is the best and surest way he could take for enrichtheir families. So that, in reality, the same sort of divi. ing the country. For, every man in the nation, who adds sion of it is made as if it had been taken away from him. to his own wealth, without lessening the wealth of He may, perhaps, if he be a selfish man, care nothing for others, must, it is plain, be adding just so much to the the maintaining of all these families, but still he does wealth of the nation. Sometimes, indeed, one man gains maintain them. For if he should choose to spend one by another's loss, and then, of course, nothing is added to thousand pounds a year in fine pictures, the painters who the whole wealth of the country. If a man gets rich by are employed in those pictures are as well maintained as gambling, or begging, or robbery, others lose at least as if he had made them a present of the money, and left much as he gains. But if he gets rich by his skill in farmthem to sit idle. The only difference is, that they feeling, or manufactures, or mining, all that he gains is so they are honestly earning their living, instead of subsist- | much added to the wealth of the whole country, since it ing on charity ; but the total quantity of food and cloth | is not lost by any one else. ing in the country is neither the greater nor the less in Many persons dispose of their property in this way, the one case than in the other.
though they are not themselves engaged in business, but But if a rich man, instead of spending all his income, lend their money to others who are. Suppose you were a saves a great part of it, this saving will almost always be labouring man, and had one hundred pounds left you as the means of maintaining a still greater number of indus- a legacy, or had saved up that sum from your earnings, trious people. For a man who saves, hardly ever, in you might not know how to trade with the money to adthese days at least, hoards up gold and silver in a box; vantage, and if you kept it in a strong box, for the use of but lends it out on good security, that he may receive your children, you would not be the better for it all your interest on it. Suppose, instead of spending one thou life; and at the end of twenty or thirty years, your chilsand pounds a year on paintings, he saves that sum every dren would find just the same sum that you first put in. year. Then, this money is generally borrowed by far. Or if you took out five pounds every year to spend, at the mers or manufacturers, or merchants, who can make a end of twenty years it would be all gone. But you might profit by it in the way of their business, over and above lend it to some person engaged in business, who would the interest they pay for the use of it. And in order to give you security for the repayment of the principal (as
it is called), that is the sum borrowed, and would pay / shepherd, and Allan Cunningham a stone mason. you four or five pounds every year for the use of it, which Yet are these men revered throughout the whole of it called interest. This he would be glad to do, if he “ braid Scotland," and their names have become as knew that he could employ this hundred pounds in buy- | household words: for to each has it been given ing materials, and paying workmen to weave cloth, for
“ That he, for poor auld Scotland's sake, instance, or make tables and chairs, which would bring in,
Some usefu' plan, or book micht make, by the end of the year, one hundred and ten pounds. For
Or sing a sang at least." ont of this increase of ten pounds, after paying you five pounds for the use of your money, he would have gained Allan Cunningham was born on the 7th of Decemfive pounds for himself.
ber 1784, at Blackwood, a lovely mansion on the In this way, great part of the capital that is engaged in Nith, in Dumfriesshire, eight miles above the town trades and manufactures is employed, by persons who are of Dumfries, and some two or three miles from Ellisnot themselves the owners of it.
land, the farm of which Burns soon after became The more capital there is in a country the better for the
tenant. His father was at the time gardener to labourers; for the poorer the master is, the fewer labour
Mr Copeland of Blackwood; but, being a man of ers he can afford to employ, and the less sure he can be
good education for his class, and of superior natural of being able to pay them.
talents, shortly after Allan's birth he was appointed Suppose you were a poor man, in a newly-settled country, and asked your neighbour to help you to dig a
factor to Mr Miller of Dalswinton, a situation which piece of fertile ground, promising him a share of the pro
lifted him but little above the general peasantry of duce for his pains, he might say, I have nothing to live on
Scotland. His ancestors, however, could boast of in the meantime; if you want me to dig for you, you considerable property in Ayrshire, which they lost must pay me daily wages. But if you have nothing through their adherence to the cause of the gallant before-hand, except bare necessaries for yourself-that Montrose. The elder Cunningham had a numerous is, if you have no capital-you cannot pay him till har family, Allan being the fourth son. Thomas, who vest. Your land, therefore, will remain half-tilled ; and
was Allan's senior by some years, had written both he will be forced to go into the woods to seek for wild
in prose and verse before the future biographer of berries, or to hunt and fish, to provide himself food. In
Wilkie had been even heard of, and afterwards bedeed, all would be forced to begin in this manner, if you suppose a number of men left to themselves, even on the
came foreman to Mr Rennie, the engineer ; while most fertile land, without any property to set out with-
out with his brother Peter, a surgeon in the navy, has added that is, without capital. They would have great difficul to our acquaintance with our Australian possessions, ties to struggle against for a long time ; but when they by an excellent work, entitled “ Two Years in New had advanced some way in acquiring wealth, they would South Wales.” find it easier to obtain more.
Between Burns and our hero's father a warm For, as it is, you may observe that wealth is always friendship existed, and the poet was no unfrequent obtained by means of wealth ; that is, it is gained by the
visitor at Dalswinton. On one of these visits, when help of capital; without which labour can hardly be car
Allan was only six years of age, Burns recited “ Tam ried on. Corn is raised by labour; but a previous stock
o' Shanter ;" and in after years Allan used often to of corn is needed, both to sow the ground, and to maintain the labourer till the harvest is ripe. The tools with
tell of the surprise and delight with which he liswhich he works are made with tools." The handle of the
tened to it. Can this little incident have had any axe with which he cuts wood, is made of wood ; the iron
effect in determining his future career ? Evidently of it was dug from the mine with iron instruments; and the impression produced at the time was no transient it is the same with almost every kind of labour. You one, and other concurring circumstances to bend his may judge, therefore, how difficult and slow men's first mind to literature, there seems to be none. True, he advances must have been, when they had to work with was born and bred in a highly romantic district, their bare hands, or with stakes and sharp stones for abounding with old legends, and there has been some their tools.
mention of traditions current in his family, and of Accordingly, in countries that are ill-provided with
some books that he got hold of early in life ; but capital, though the inhabitants are few in number, and all of them are forced to labour for the necessaries of life,
Scotland generally possesses the same character that they are worse fed, clothed, and lodged, than even the
Nithsdale has in particular ; and, although the legenpoorest are in a richer country, though that be much more
dary lore was likely to stir up an imaginative mind thickly peopled, and though many of the inhabitants of like Allan's, the mere possession of books will not it are not obliged to labour with their hands at all. account for the love of them. Besides, these causes
The wages in money, the provisions, and the other and these incidents do not seem to have occurred things which a farmer spends on the labourers, and on with much force to his own mind, while his recollecthe horses, which cultivate his land, or a clothier on his tion of the scene with Burns was indelibly impressed weavers, is called circulating capital, because he parts
on his memory, and the evident pleasure he took in with it, from time to time, and it returns to him, as in a
referring to it told of associations connected with it circle, in the shape of corn or cloth. The farmer's barns, ploughs, carts, and horses, and the clothier's looms and
“ tender and holy."
Like most of the children of our Scottish peasanwarehouses, are called fired capital, because they bring in a profit, not by being parted with, but by being kept as
try, Allan Cunningham was sent at a very early age long as they are fit for use.
to school. Young, however, as he was, he was not allowed to spend much time on education ; nor were
his teachers, two sturdy austere Cameronians, likely ALLAN CUNNINGHAM.
to discover, or, if they did, to foster and expand his
infant poetical powers. When only eleven, he was In Scotland, more than in any other country, have apprenticed to his uncle, a country builder, being then its poets and song writers sprung from the humbler possessed of but a scanty knowledge of reading, writclasses ; and with the latter especially has this been ing, and arithmetic. Read, however, he could; and the case. Allan Ramsay was a barber's apprentice ; although busily employed with his uncle from six John Lowe, the author of “ Mary's Dream,” was a / in the morning till six at night, he still found time gardener's son; Alexander Wilson, a distinguished to pursue his studies, and even contrived to read naturalist as well as good poet, who wrote “Watty Shakspeare, Milton, Dryden, and Pope, his earliest and Meg," was a weaver; Burns was a ploughman; favourites among the British poets. Tannahill, like Wilson, a Paisley weaver ; Hogg, al The literary bent of Allan's mind was now suffi. ciently apparent. Even when very young, he had Chantiev, for a superintendent of his works, caught scribbled rhymes ; but it was not, we believe, till he his eve, and, having applied for the vacant situation, was twenty-three that he ventured to “ appear in he was almost immediately appointed. This was a print.” A circumstance, however, soon after occur- happy change for Cunningham, who was quite at red, which gave him increased boldness, and no little home in his new herth. Chantrey modelled, and encouragernent. A Mr R. H. Cromek, an engraver, ' Allan overlooked the workmen : nay, the great and an ardent admirer of Scotch poetry, having come sculptor found his foreman's imaginative powers and down from London for the express purpose of col- I poetic feeling serviceable as regarded the designs and lecting such fragments of Nithsdale and Galloway i models, while his practical knowledge was most usesong as might be floating through “ the kintra side," ful in superintending the men, and his habits of Allan Cunningham was recommended to him as an writing well qualified him to act as amanuensis. able assistant. How efficient Mr Cromek considered About this time, too, Cunningham's name began to Allan's services may be gathered from his preface get well known in the literary world. He wrote a to the volume of “ Remains of Nithsdale and Gallo- series of tale- for Blackwood's Magazine, then in its way Song.” published in 1810, which was the pro- vouth and strength, and was also a regular contribuduct of their joint labours. He says,—“ Ile (Allan) tor, along with Hazlitt, De Quincev, Lamb, and entered into my design with the enthusiasm of a other master spirits, to the London Magazine, during poet, and was my guide through the rural haunts of its brief but glorious career. In 1822, he published Nithsdale and Galloway, where his variously inter- his " Sir Marmaduke Maxwell," a dramatic tale of esting and animated conversation beguiled the tedi. border life. This was succeeded by two volumes of ousness of the toil; while his local knowledge, his “ Traditionary Tales ;" three novels_“ Paul Jones," refined taste, and his indefatigable industry, drew a tale of the sea ; “ Michael Scott," one of diablerie; from obscurity many pieces which adorn this collec- ' and “ Lord Roldan," a romance; with “ The Songs tion, and which, without his aid, would hare eluded of Scotland,"in four volumes ;-anda“Life of Burns," my research." We verily believe it ! The truth' next issued from his fertile pen. And he was still being, that most of the pieces palmed hy Cunning- further recommended to the public by Sir Walter ham on the worthy engraver as ancient reliques Scott making honourable mention of him in his prewere in reality original songs written by himself. face to the “ Fortunes of Nigel," which, as Allan The great care taken to give these compositions a himself said, “ gave his name to fame." “ local habitation and a name," and the minuteness Cunningham's employment in the studio of Sir with which the incidents on which they were said Francis Chantrey of course threw him into the to be founded are detailed, are really, now that the , society of, and ultimately made him intimately deception practised on Mr Cromek is known, suffi- , acquainted with, most of the men of genius of the ciently amusing. However, if the Londoner was age ; and this no doubt led to the idea of his next gulled, there were others “ smelt the rat,” and both work, the “Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Sir Walter Scott and Professor Wilson invariably | Architects of Great Britain," in five volumes, which ascribed them to Cunningham. Of the morale of the was published in 1829 in “Murray's Family Library," transaction, little can be said in defence—the exam- and of which, by the period of the author's death in ple of Chatterton is no excuse. But before passing 1842, 12,000 copies are said to have been sold. His too harsh a sentence, we should remember the temp- succeeding effort, and the last he made in the regions tations. It is always difficult for a young author to of poesy, was the “ Maid of Elvar," a poem in twelve get fairly before the public-and here was an open- | parts, founded on a border legend of the sixteenth ing at once. There was, too, no risk ; if they failed, century, and which was published in 1832. Although Allan would not be held accountable. Besides, on this work he bestowed much time and care, and Cromek had treated slightingly some compositions looked forward to its proving the most successful of Cunningham's, which had been shown to him as offspring of his muse, yet it fell from the press originals, and perhaps a spark of wounded self-love almost still-born; and that, too, although it certainly helped to persuade to the attempt.
does contain many separate beauties, and is throughIn the year 1810, Allan, induced perhaps by the out pervaded by a gentle sweetness, which, perhaps, success of his songs, then just published in Cromek's however, is more pleasing than striking. So very collection, left Dumfriesshire for London. On his true is it that, route he“ put in" for a short time at Edinburgh,
“Oft expectation fails, and most oft there and we have heard that he assisted in hewing the
Where most it promises." stones used in the building of Charlotte Square. Arrived in London, he got an appointment, as ! In the service of Sir Francis Chantrey, Cunningreporter, on the staff of the “ Day," morning paper, ham continued till the period of the sculptor's death; where he had not long been, when Mr Perry, anxious, and he was afterwards employed by the executors, as he always was, for the welfare of a brother Scotch- at Chantrey's own request, to wind up the affairs. man, offered him a reportership for the “Morning During this long period of nearly thirty years, his Chronicle," which he accepted of. The physical time, from six till six, was occupied in his employer's and mental labours of a reporter being very onerous, service : how the remaining portion of his evenings Mr Cunningham, on being offered the situation of were spent, let his published works testify. Had he foreman to Mr Budd, the sculptor, resigned his con been a man of independent fortune, these works nexion with the Chronicle, although he still con- would have borne honourable testimony to his aptinued occasionally to contribute to the periodical plication, and would have amply rebutted any charge press.
of time misspent. But to have been the production In the year 1814 he had left Mr Budd, and was with-of an almost self-educated man,-of one who all his out employment; which was the more trying, since life was accustomed to the hard toil and labour of he had taken unto himself a wife from the banks of the working classes in this busy nation, they speak the Nith, whom he had loved in his youth, before he volumes for the indomitable nature of the spirit that berame a sojourner in the land of the stranger, and pursued the thorny paths of literature, through good had hy this time several children. At this juncture, report and through bad report, with a zeal so indean advertisement by Mr, afterwards Sir Francis, 'fatigable. But, alas ! the human frame is not made of cast-iron; and, even if it were, it could not for | imagination was peculiarly vivid, and scorned limits, ever bear the wear and tear of life. A constant though had it been kept within proper bounds, it dripping will wear away marble, and a constant would have proved of more value to its possessor ;and intense application began to make sad inroads in “ Michael Scott," it absolutely ran mad altogether, on Mr Cunningham's constitution. He was too and in “Sir Marmaduke Maxwell," it was but little great an enthusiast in his labours, however, to tamer. Still its action was always healthy; nor be sensible of the gradual decay; but about three through all Allan's writings is the slightest trace years before his death, he was struck with paralysis. discernible of that sickly sentimentality of so many Sir Francis was struck on the one side the one week, of the poets of his day, which sought for food for its Cunningham on the other the next. Neither stroke diseased appetite rather in the contortions and conproved fatal, and both resumed their professional vulsions of the galvanized corpse than in the healthlabours, alas! but too zealously. Had the warning ful action of the living body. In judging of Allan been taken, and the enervated frame allowed a pe- Cunningham's literary merits, we must view him as riod of comparative repose, both these men-the one a poet, a novelist, and a biographer. As a poet, he a man of decided genius, the other as decidedly one has added many a sweet and lovely flower to the of talent of no mean order-might yet have been lyrical chaplet of Scotland ; but still we think Gilspared to us. But it was not so ordained.
fillan is right when he ranks him as standing high In the month of November 1841, Sir Francis was only in the second class. His claims as a novelist again struck with paralysis, and this time fatally. are more doubtful. “Paul Jones," although a good In his will he left to my friend and assistant, Allan romance, wants the true impress of nautical life; it Cunningham," as he expresses it, the sum of two savours too much of the style of the minor theatre thousand pounds, free of legacy duty, and in a co dramas, and will not bear comparison with contemdicil he settled an annuity of one hundred pounds porary works like Cooper's tales of the sea. “ Michael on Cunningham and his wife, conjunctly and seve- Scott” has passages of great power and splendour, rally. This was an act of generosity on the part of but its whole design is faulty, and on shutting the the sculptor alike honourable to both parties, since book, we ever feel inclined to ask ourselves cui bono? it spoke at once to the goodness of Chantrey's heart, On his biographies a more solid fame may be built. and to the zeal, and faithfulness, and ability with His business habits qualified him to seek out and which Cunningham had discharged his arduous arrange with care the matter for the work, while his duties. Such a deed, like mercy,
| literary integrity insured justice to his subject, and
his ardent temperament gave a con amore flavour to “Is twice blessed, It blesseth him that gives and him that takes."
the whole. The memoir of the poet painter, the
“gentle visionary Blake," as Hayley calls him, in This second warning for we may consider Chan- the "Lives of the Painters, &c.,' may safely take its trey's death as such, especially when we look to the place beside any thing of a similar kind in our lanprevious attacks passed alike unheeded by Cun-guage. The Life of Wilkie,"too, brought a considerningham. He was up to his neck in business. As able share of posthumous fame to Cunningham. But we have already mentioned, he was employed to high as he ranks as a biographer, it is as a poet and wind up Chantrey's affairs to him a labour of love ; song-writer that, in Scotland at least, we love him; and he was in the very middle of a “ Life of Wilkie," and, although his “Paul Jones” was not ultra-marine, the painter, with whom he had been on terms of still Allan loved the sea, and every one knows his intimate friendship, and to which he put the finish song “ A Wet Sheet and a Flowing Sea." ing touch but two days before his death. This Farewell! good, honest Allan Cunningham; and pressure of business, and the consequent anxiety of may Scotland long be able to boast of many bold, mind, no doubt hastened at all events, a second and manly, and independent sons, such as thou hast shock of paralysis, which carried him off in his been! Iterum, iterumque, vale! fifty-eighth year, on the 29th of October 1842. His sufferings were comparatively light, and his mind burned clearly and brightly to the last. A tender and affectionate wife and four children
LOST IN THE WOODS. -three sons and a daughter-were left to mourn Allan Cunningham's death. No worldly doubts and To many of those who have not experienced the fact, fears for what they would do when he was gone the possibility of being lost in the wild woods of disturbed his last moments. From having felt the Canada, or in those of the “ Far West” of the want of money, he knew its value, and throughout States, appears an absurdity and unworthy of crelife he had been prudent and economical. Two of dence. Faith in their own capacity, and a firm his sons had, besides, years previously, obtained reliance on the virtue of the compass when the sun appointments in India, while the third, Peter, held or the moon is obscured, dispose them to sneer at the a government situation at home, and had already tales they may read, and to aver that they would have become so favourably known in the fields of litera- felt no difficulty in finding their way through the ture that, when Murray was about to publish a new pathless forest ; and, if possessed of a rifle, a flint,
edition of“ Campbell's Specimens of English Poetry," and a steel, they could procure provisions and fire , he chose him for its editor.-In society, Cunningham to cook them. Yet such persons, when actually I was rather reserved; but if any subject happened to placed in the awkward predicament of losing their
be introduced connected with literature or the fine way, are the most likely to lose at the same time arts, he at once became animated and eloquent, and their presence of mind, and to become for the time realized the highest expectations which his friends totally imbecile. There is but one cure for this could ever have indulged.--"Neque semper arcum, conceit,-it can only be taken out of them by tendit Apollo,” says the old Roman poet, and Allan genuine experience. Many a tale is on record of had a few-they must have been very few-spare | persons having moved for days in the woods in a hours when he unbent the bow.
gyration of a few miles' circumference, thinking all Allan Cunningham's mind was cast in a strong the time they were proceeding in a straight line ; rough mould, with a decidedly lyrical turn. His and it is within the knowledge of the present writer,