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flickering light of life; the face wore the same hue of resignation; the pale lips were slightly parted, but they

HOOD, CARLYLE, AND WAKLEY, ON had breathed out the last sigh of mortality. The anguish

COPYRIGHT. of Cathene on this melancholy occasion was almost overpowering. Her gentle and amiable spirit had been The Copyright Act of 1839 was fruitful of much intetaught to regard all mankind as her kindred and the resting discussion, and having accidentally fallen in with objects of her love; and the trials and sufferings which the deceased had endured constrained her to lament over

some documents connected with it, we append them the depravity of the human heart, while at the same time hereto, and trust that they will find their way into the she felt for Agnes as if she had been a sister. When the pages of some future D'Israeli. They consist of petitions last duties which mortality claims had been discharged, from Mr Hood and Mr Carlyle, both strikingly characCatherine, actuated by a desire to know more of the unfortunate Agnes, determined to write to Sir Henry, rightly teristic of the respective writers; and a speech delivered judging that the circumstance of the visit to Eargued in the House of Commons by Mr Wakley. So far as the that he had some knowledge of the deceased. Scarcely, sale in England of the works of English authors is conhowever, had her determination been carried into effect

, cerned, the bill has worked well, but as yet no internawhen her brother rushed into the apartment with the alarming intelligence that Sir Henry Bevil had been tional copyright has been established so that British dangerously wounded in a duel. Actuated probably by authors may be remunerated for the sale of their works a desire to see the object of his love, the young baronet in foreign countries, and vice versa foreign authors be had two days previous repaired to London, encountered compensated for the sale of their writings in this country. some of his old associates, and had been drawn by them Sir Robert Peel has hinted that it is likely that a negoto the gaming table, the too frequent resort of his early years. He had lost, quarrelled," and, on the following tiation will be entered into with France, and we should morning, fought with his opponent. A brother officer of be glad to see it consummated. Mary's brother had been his second, and by him the result of the duel had been communicated.

MR HOOD'S PETITION. On this occasion the conduct of Catherine N- fully exemplified the truth that love is all enduring. With a To the Honourable the Commons in Parliament firmness which her habitual gentleness little warranted,

assembled, The Humble Petition of the undershe determined to visit the wounded duellist, and, in

signed Thomas Hood, Showeth, company with her brother, repaired to the place where he lay. The meeting of those who, but a short time ago,

That your petitioner is the proprietor of certain copyparted in health and happiness was touching in the ex- rights, which the law treats as copyhold, and which in treme. But the feelings of Catherine could not overcome justice and equity should be his freeholds. He cannot her firmness and benevolence, and, with the care of one

conceive how Hood's Own, without a change in the title, whom experience has taught the duties of the sick-room, can become Everybody's Own hereafter. she tended her lover with faithfulness and assiduity. That your petitioner may burn or publish his manuBut the period of mortal help had passed. His quickly scripts at his own option, and enjoy a right in and control changing countenance and his agonizing starts and groans over his own productions, which no press, now or herewere the too apparent harbingers of death. At the after, can justly press out of him. earnest solicitation of the dying man, Catherine was left That as a landed proprietor does not lose his right to alone with him, while, with accents portentous of disso, his estate in perpetuity by throwing open his grounds for lution, he implored her to forgive a wretch who had the convenience or gratification of the public, neither sought her love in return for his own, which ought to ought the property of an author in his own works to be have been given to another. With the most fearful taken from him until all Parks become Commons. forebodings, Catherine conjured him to tell what he knew

That your petitioner, having sundry snug little estates of the unfortunate Agnes; and, to fill up the measure in view, would not object, after a term, to contribute his of her misery, he answered that she was indeed his right- private share to a general scramble, provided the Landed ful, injured wife. Ignorant of the death of her who had and Monied Interest

, as well as the Literary Interest

, been the victim of his cruelty, he implored Catherine to were thrown into the heap; but that, in the meantime, seek for her, and, with the tenderness which was the spirit the fruits of his brain ought no more to be cast amongst of her life, mitigate the woe into which he had plunged the public than a Christian woman's apples or a Jewess's her. Catherine, in the gentleness of a forgiving spirit,

oranges. sought to break the tidings of her death in a manner

That cheap bread is as desirable and necessary as fitted to soothe his mental agony. But the attempt was made in vain. He started up in his bed, and in inco-cheap books,

but it hath not yet been thought just or herent speech, which betokened the overthrow of reason, all corn fields shall become public property.

expedient to ordain that, after a certain number of crops, poured forth imprecations on himself. The attendants, alarmed at the vehemence of his voice, returned, and

That whereas, in other cases, long possession is held found the unhappy man a raving maniac, and Catherine to affirm a right to property, it is inconsistent and unjust insensible to what was passing around her. Our narra

that a mere lapse of twenty-eight, or any other term of tive is soon told. Sir Henry Bevil died that night, and years, should deprive an author at once of principal and on the morrow Catherine N-returned to the parson- interest in his own Literary Fund. To be robbed by age of E—, accompanied by her brother. But a change Time is a very sorry encouragement to write for Futurity. had come over her; the bloom of health and the smile That a work which endures for many years must be of of joy had passed from her countenance, which now wore

a sterling character, and ought to become national prothe pallid shade of an almost changeless melancholy. perty--but at the expense of the public, or at the expense Although her visits of benevolence were still continued,

save that of the author or his descendants. It must be her rambles in the woods, and her once loved pursuits an ungrateful generation, that, in its love for cheap coengaged her no longer. A few months passed, and in pies, can lose all regard for “the dear Original." the peace of a Christian's death, in the spring tide of her That whereas your petitioner has sold sundry of his Life, died Catherine N- Deep and solemn was the copyrights to certain publishers for a sum of money, he sorrow felt by all the villagers of E, as they stood does not see how the public, which is only a larger firm, around her early grave, and one short year had scarce can justly acquire even a share in a copyright, except by completed its cycle when the good pastor himself was similar means, namely, by purchase or assignment. That taken from a world in which he had felt a blank since the public, having constituted itself by law the executor his daughter's departure. His mortal remains were laid and legatee of the author, ought, in justice, and according in the same grave. They were lovely in their lives, and to the practice in other cases, to take to his debts as well in their deaths they were not divided.

as to his literary assets.

That when your petitioner shall be dead and buried That your petitioner cannot discover himself to have he might, with as much propriety and decency, have his done unlawfully in this his said labour of writing books, body snatched as his literary remains.

or to have become criminal, or have forfeited the law's That by the present law, the “wisest, virtuousest, de- protection thereby. Contrariwise your petitioner believes screetest, best,” of authors is tardily rewarded, precisely firmly that he is innocent in said labour; that if he be as a vicious, seditious, or blasphemous writer is summarily found in the long-run to have written a genuine enduring punished, namely, by the forfeiture of his copyright. book, his merit therein, and desert towards England and

That in case of any infringement on his copyright, English and other men, will be considerable, not easily your petitioner cannot conscientiously or comfortably estimable in money ; that on the other hand, if his book apply for redress to the law, whilst it sanctions universal prove false and ephemeral, he and it will be abolished and piracy hereafter.

forgotten, and no harm done. That your petitioner hath two children, who look up That, in this manner, your petitioner plays no unfair to him, not only as the author of the Comic Annual, but game against the world ; his stake being life itself, so to as the author of their being.

speak (for the penalty is death by starvation), and the That the effect of the law as regards an author is vir- world's stake nothing till once it see the dice thrown; so tually to disinherit his next-of-kin, and cut him off with that in any case the world cannot lose. a book instead of a shilling.

That in the happy and long-doubtful event of the That your petitioner is very willing to write for Poste- game's going in his favour, your petitioner submits that rity on the lowest terms, and would not object to the long the small winnings thereof do belong to him or his, and credit, but that when his heir shall apply for payment to that no other mortal has justly either part or lot in them Posterity, he will be referred back to Antiquity. That as a man's hairs belong to his head, so his head

at all, now, henceforth, or for ever. should belong to his heirs; whereas on the contrary, your protect him in said happy and long-doubtful event; and

May it therefore please your Honourable House to one of his principal copyrights will expire on the same (by passing your Copyright Bill) forbid all Thomas Teggs day that his only son should come of age. The very law this adventure of his, to steal from him his small winnings,

and other extraneous persons, entirely unconcerned in of nature protests against an unnatural enactment which for a space of sixty years at shortest. After sixty years, compels an author to write for everybody's Posterity, unless your Honourable House provide otherwise, they except his own.

Finally, whereas it has been urged “if an author writes may begin to steal. for Posterity, let him look to Posterity for his reward”

And your petitioner will ever pray, your petitioner adopts that very argument, and on its

THOMAS CARLYLE. very principle prays for the adoption of the Bill introduced by Mr Sergeant Talfourd, seeing that, by the pre

MR WAKLEY’S SPEECH. sent arrangent, Posterity is bound to pay every body or [The portion of Mr Wakley's speech which we insert, any body but the true creditor.

does not refer to the principle of Mr Sergeant Talfourd's And your petitioner shall ever pray,


Bill, which, as securing nothing but substantial justice to (Signed)

literary men, may now be considered as a settled point; MR CARLYLE'S PETITION.

but it refers to what will likely be considered more inteTo the Honourable the Commons of England in Par. resting, the depreciation in price of the works of popular liament assembled, the Petition of Thomas Carlyle, a

authors. The point brought out by the honourable memWriter of Books,

ber was the extensive dealings of Mr Tegg in that departHumbly sheweth,

ment of the bookselling business known by the term That your petitioner has written certain books, being “ remainder bookselling.” When the original publisher incited thereto by various innocent or laudable considera- of a work cannot get rid of it, Mr Tegg or Mr Bohn buys tions, chiefly by the thought that said books might in the the whole unsold copies at a reduced rate, and if they canend be found to be worth something.

That your petitioner had not the happiness to receive not get them off, the trunkmaker must be the next refrom Mr Thomas Tegg, or any Publisher, Republisher, source. Of course, therefore, copyrights are valuable in Printer, Bookseller, Bookbuyer, or other the like man or the proportion that they keep distant from “ remainder" body of men, any encouragement or countenance in premises.] writing of said books, or to discern any chance of receiving such; but wrote them by effort of his own and There was a publication, a very distinguished publicathe favour of heaven.

tion, entitled the Quarterly Review. It had got an editor That all useful labour is worthy of recompense ; that who was very friendly to this bill, a gentleman of the all honest labour is worthy of the chance of recompense ;

name of Lockhart. He had published a great variety of that the giving and assuring to each man what recom- works on different subjects. They had been published at pense his labour has actually merited, may be said to be half-a-guinea a volume, and yet cartloads of them had the business of all Legislation, Polity, Government, and recently been purchased by an eminent publisher in Social Arrangement whatsoever among men ;--a business Cheapside, at 9d. a volume. (Hear, hear, and laughter). indispensable to attempt, impossible to accomplish accu- There was a copyright for you! The public could now rately, difficult to accomplish without inaccuracies that get for 9d. what Mr Lockhart thought ought to be purbecome enormously insupportable, and the parent of Social chased for half-a-guinea. (Hear, hear, and laughter Confusions which never altogether end.

continued). Would the passing of this bill enable that That your petitioner does not undertake to say what gentleman to get 9 d. for his volumes ? * * * There was recompense in money this labour of his may deserve; another work, by a member of the house, entitled England whether it deserves any recompense in money, or whether and the English. (A laugh, occasioned, we believe, by money in any quantity could hire him to do the like. Mr E. L. Bulwer, who was hanging down his head,

That this his labour has found hitherto, in money suddenly raising it, and admitting that he was the author of or money's worth, small recompense or none; that he is it). Well, the hon. member was a distinguished author, by no means sure of its ever finding recompense, but thinks and he gladly admitted that he had read his (Mr E. L. that, if so, it will be at a distant time, when he, the Bulwer's) work with great advantage. (Hear, hear). It labourer, will probably no longer be in need of money, was about four years ago that this work was published in and those dear to him will still be in need of it.

three volumes, price L.1, 11s.6d.-no it was in two volumes, That the law does at least protect all persons in price L.l. He would now inform the hon. member of the selling the production of their labour at what they can price at which they had been recently sold. The hon. get for it, in all market-places, to all lengths of time. member had deemed them worth 10s. a volume-they Much more than this the law does to many, but so much had been bought at 1s. a volume-(a laugh)-- by a very it does to all, and less than this to none.

eminent publisher, Mr Tegg, of Cheapside, the conservative candidate for an alderman's gown of the city of London, whose veracity, he believed, might be implicitly

Miscellaneous. relied on. (Hear, hear). But it might, perhaps, be said that the hon. member had not been sufficiently remunerated for the authorship of that work. He (Mr Wakley) A PUPPET PLAY IN GENOA.-I went another night to could not help conjecturing, from the works of the hon. see these puppets act a play called “St Helena, or the member which had come before the public since the Death of Napoleon.” It began by the disclosure of printing of that work, that some strong stimulus had Napoleon, with an immense head, seated on a sofa in his acted on him from behind. Many works of his had been chamber at St Helena; to whom his valet entered, with published since; some he had no doubt were at that very this obscure announcement-“Sir Yew ud se on Low !” moment in embryo, and he hoped that the hon, member the ow as in cow.) Sir Hudson (that you could have would be safely delivered of them in a short period. (A seen his regimentals !) was a perfect mammoth of a man, laugh). The author of Pelham sat on his side of the house, to Napoleon; hideously ugly; with a monstrously disbut the author of Vivian Grey sat on the tory side of it. proportionate face, and a great clump for the lower jaw His volumes had gone to the same quarters as those of the to express his tyrannical and obdurate nature. He began author of Pelham—they were quietly reposing at Mr Tegg's, his system of persecution by calling his prisoner “General or probably they were on their road to the trunk-maker Buonaparte;" to which the latter replied with deepest and the butterman. (Hear, hear, and laughter). Such tragedy, “ Yew ud se on Low, call me not thns. Repeat accidents unfortunately befel all authors, and the hon. that phrase and leave me! I am Napoleon, Emperor of member for Maidstone must submit like others to his France !” Sir Yew ud se on, nothing daunted, proceeded doom. (Hear, and laughter). Vivian Grey and the other to entertain him with an ordinance of the British governworks of the hon. member for Maidstone--and he should ment, regulating the state he should preserve, and the be the last man in the world to detract from their great furniture of his rooms; and limiting his attendants to four merits-(cheers from the opposition benches)--and no- or five persons. "Four or five for me ! ” said Napoleon ; thing, he trusted, would deprive the public of the benefit of “me! One hundred thousand men were lately at my their continuance—(cheers from the same quarter). Vivian sole command, and this English officer talks of four or Grey, he repeated, had gone along with the Young Duke and five for me !Throughout the piece, Napoleon (who other works to Mr Tegg's in large numbers. (A laugh). talked very like the real Napoleon, and was for ever havAnd at what price did the house think that they were sold? ing small soliloquies by himself) was very bitter on" these Each of these novels were originally published in three English officers,” and “these English soldiers”—

to the volumes at the price of L.1, 11s. 6d., and Mr Tegg had great satisfaction of the audience, who were perfectly bought them for 8d. a volume—(Hear, hear, and roars of delighted to have Low bullied ; and who, whenever Low laughter)—ay, and in very large quantities. (Hear, hear). said "General Buonaparte ” (which he always did; alBut it might be said, would not the hon. member for ways receiving the same correction), quite execrated him. Maidstone have the benefit of the further sale of his works Though it would be hard to say why, for Italians have when Mr Tegg " had gone to his cold grave,” to quote a little cause to sympathise with Napoleon, heaven knows. phrase from that hon. member's excellent speech on a There was no plot at all, except that a French officer, former evening ? No; Mr Tegg was a man of warm disguised as an Englishman, came to propound a plan of money calculations, and delighted in small profits and escape ; and, being discovered, but not before Napoleon quick returns ; and so, if these books did not go off quickly, had magnanimously refused to steal his freedom, was so as to produce him a profit of 20 per cent, they would immediately ordered off by Low to be hanged. Two undoubtedly go to line trunks and envelope butter. (A very long speeches, which Low nade memorable by laugh). He had now given the house a specimen of the winding up with “Yas!" to show that he was English, present value of the works of two hon. members of brought down thunders of applause. Napoleon was so that house, taken impartially from each side of it. He affected by this catastrophe, that he fainted away on the would now go to the case of a gentleman well known out spot, and was carried out by two other puppets. Judging of the house–Mr T. Hook, the editor of the John Bull from what followed, it would appear that he never renewspaper, and of the New Monthly Magazine. He too, covered the shock, for the next act showed him in a clean had gone to Mr Tegg's. Mr Tegg had bought Mr Hook's shirt in his bed (curtains crimson and white) where a novels, in three volumes, published at a guinea and a-half, lady, prematurely dressed in mourning, brought two little for Is. a volume. (A laugh). Hecould not understand how children, who kneeled down by the bedside, while he it was that MrTegg had given but 8d. a volume for the works made a decent end; the last words on his lips being of the hon. member for Maidstone. (Hear, hear). He “Vaterloe.” It was unspeakably ludicrous. Buonaparte's would ask MrTegg for an explanation of the circumstances, boots were so wonderfully beyond control, and did such the next time he saw him. (Hear, and a laugh). Captain marvellous things of their own accord ; doubling themMarryatt's novels, published at a guinea and a half each, selves up ; and getting under tables; and dangling in the had also been purchased in large quantities by Mr Tegg, air ; and sometimes skating away with him out of all at 9d. a volume. He could have wished that Mr Tegg human knowledge, when he was in full speech-mishad bought them for 8d. a volume, as it might have been chances which were not rendered the less absurd, by a some consolatiou to the hon. member for Maidstone. settled melancholy depicted in his face. To put an end (Laughter). Here he might be permitted to observe that to one eonference with Low, he had to go to a table, and the stock of Mr Tegg, whose interests this bill was calcu- read a book; when it was the finest spectacle I ever lated to injure, was estimated to be worth L.170,000. beheld, to see his body leaning over the volume, like a (Hear, hear). When a friend of his called on Mr Tegg boot-jack, and his sentimental eyes glaring obstinately to make the inquiries, of which he had just communicated into the pit. He was prodigiously good, in bed, with an the results to the house, Mr Tegg undertook to give them immense collar to his shirt, and his little hands outside with pleasure. He said, “I don't require anything to be the counterpane. So was Dr Antommarchi; represented concealed as to my mode of doing business, and I will by a puppet with long lank hair like Mawworm's, who, give you an account of the price I paid for any work now in consequence of some derangement of his wires, hovered in my premises.” When his friend made that communi- about the couch like a vulture, and gave medical opinions cation, he (Mr Wakley) replied, " Then from the number in the air. He was almost as good as Low, though the of the works he has bought, and from prices which he has latter was great at all times—a decided brute and villain, paid for them, I conjecture that Mr Tegg's premises, to beyond all possibility of mistake. Low was especially which so many cartloads of our modern authors' publica- fine at the last, when, hearing the doctor and the valet tions go, are very large.” And the answer he received say, “ The emperor is dead !” he pulled out his watch, was, “Yes, they are very large indeed.” (Hear, hear). and wound up the piece (not the watch) by exclaiming, Mr Tegg told his friend that he had bought the works of with characteristic brutality, “ Ha! ha! Eleven minutes a distinguished writer on political economy as cheap as he to six ! The general dead! and the spy hanged !" had bought those of the writers on polite society. (A which brought the curtain down triumphantly.- Charles laugh).

Dickens, in the Daily News.

LITERARY REWARDS IN THE DAYS OF GEORGE III. -to have a postchaise and four ready in an hour-and The accession of George III. opened a new and brighter to go to Kingston, and on to Portsmouth, ordering horses prospect to men of literary merit, which had been ho- on the road, and a boat to be ready at the sally-port at noured with the mark of royal favour in the preceding daylight. Having received his orders, the admiral proreign. The new minister, Lord Bute gave a pension of ceeded without loss of time to Portsmouth, embarked at L.300 a year to Dr Johnson, and the same sum to Hume, the sally-port at daylight for St Helens, hoisted his flag the author of “ Douglas.” Beattie and Mallet were pen- in the Venerable, and ordered the squadron to get under sioned by the crown. The King condescended to con- weigh immediately, to their great astonishment. They verse with Dr Johnson. His minister recommended a appeared to be in no hurry, and, after some delay, the literary work of great national importance to the pen of Plantagenet made signal, Cannot purchase anchor." Walpole, and held out hopes that the work would meet Admiral Durham briefly answered, “Cut your cable,” with the encouragement of Government. But Bute went and made the signal general, “ Enemy at sea." These out of power, and nothing was done. Dr Shebbeare and few energetic words acted like a talisman on the whole Tom Sheridan each received a pension. The king, it squadron. There were no more excuses ; the capstans was said, had pensioned a he-bear, meaning Dr Johnson, flew round like lightning, and the ships were under weigh as well as a she-bear (Dr Shebbeare). No one knew why in half an hour.-Life of Admiral Durham. Tom Sheridan received a pension. “What !” said John. son, “ have they gained him a pension? Then it is time for me to give up mine.” The wisdom of rewarding

Poetry. literature in the person of Tom Sheridan may well be doubted. Mallet had no great claims upon the govern

MORNING. ment as a literary man. His ballad, it is true, is very

SWIFTLY from the mountain's brow, beautiful; but“ William and Margaret" did nothing for him.

Shadows, nursed by Night, retire ; He was pensioned for the dirty work he had executed for

And the peeping sunbeam, now a ministry in want of support. Many writers of sterling

Paints with gold the village spire. reputation were in the meantime overlooked. The delightful author of “The Vicar of Wakefield" became, for

Philomel forsakes the thorn, very existence, a mere literary hack or drudge for book

Plaintive where she prates at night ; sellers. “In Ireland,” says Goldsmith, “there has been

And the lark, to meet the Morn, more money spent in the encouragement of the Padareen

Soars beyond the shepherd's sight. ware than given in rewards to literary men since the time of Usher." Smollett sought the assistance of Lord Shel- From the low-roofed cottage ridge, burne, then in power, but nothing was done for the

See the chattering swallow spring: novelist ; and he was allowed to end his days in perpetual

Darting through the one-arched bridge, exile, pinched in his means, and enfeebled in body, from

Quick she dips her dappled wing. the incessant employment of his pen. Burns was snatched from the sickle and the plough “ to gauge ale firkins,” Now the pine-tree's waving top and snpport a wife and family on the poor emoluments

Gently greets the Morning gale ; of an exciseman's office. A word to the Commissioners Kidlings now begin to crop of Excise in Scotland, from one who quoted his poems to

Daisies in the dewy dale. Mr Addington with the highest approbation, would have given him a lift in his office, gladdened the hearth, and From the balmy sweets, uncloyed, lengthened the life of a true-born poet. We refer to Mr

(Restless till her task be done) Pitt. When Mr Addington reminded that great states- Now the busy bee's employed man of the poet's genius, and the poor situation it was

Sipping dew before the sun. his lot to fill, Mr Pitt promised to do something for him, pushed the bottle on, and remembered his promise, if he Trickling through the creviced rock, remembered it at all, when the fine-hearted poet of

Where the limpid stream distils, genuine nature,

Sweet refreshment waits the flock “Who to the illustrious' of his native land,

When 'tis sun-drove from the hills. And prosperity did look for patronage;" was, alas! no more.- Fraser's Magazine.

Colin, for the promised corn NAVAL PROMPTITUDE. --Admiral Durham had been

(Ere the harvest hopes are ripe) home from the sea for a short time, when an Admiralty Anxious, hears the huntsman's horn, messenger came up to him in the street, and said MrYorke

Boldly sounding, drown his pipe. wished to see him immediately. Mr Yorke informed him that the French squadron had escaped from L'Orient, and Sweet, O sweet, the warbling throng, that the Admiralty had five sail of the line and two frigates,

On the white emblossomed spray! ready to pursue them, at St Helens,—and said, “We want Nature's universal song, an admiral to take the command. Will you go ?” “Yes.”

Echoes to the rising day. “But when?” “Out of this room.” “If you do,” said

CUNNINGHAM. Mr Yorke, incredulously, “it will be more than has been done yet. We have no difficulty in finding flag officers,

TERMS FOR “THE TORCH." but they have always so many wants before they can Single numbers, 11d.; or free by post,

214. sail.” Admiral Durham inquired if the ships were ready.

Per quarter of 13 Nos., delivered to subscribers, 18. 754. Mr Yorke said “Yes,” and handed him the list of five

Per quarter, free by post,

28. 6d. Monthly Parts, each

7d. sail of the line-requested he would choose. The admiral

AU Subscriptions payable in advance. said, “ Ships to me are like hackney coaches, so I will The back numbers of the Torch can be had at the reduced take the first off the stand;" but observing the Venerable rate of three halfpence each. with an acting captain (Captain Dundas for Sir Home

Printed by Thomas MURRAY, of No.2 Arniston Place, and WILLIAM Popham, who was then in Parliament), he said he would

Gibs, of No. 26 Royal Crescent, at the Printing Office of MURRAY take her. Mr Yorke then called in Mr Croker, the and GIDB, North-East Thistle Street Lane; and Published at No. 59 secretary, who seemed equally astonished at the admiral Princes Street, by WILLIAM AITCHISON SUTHERLAND, of No. 1

Windsor Street, and JAMES Knox, of No. 7 Henderson Row; all being ready to sail at a moment’s notice. Two junior

in the City and County of Edinburgh. lords of the Admiralty were then sent for, and they held a board ; and having determined upon the outline of the Edinburgh: SUTHERLAND & KNOX, 58 Princes Street ; and

sold by Houlston & STONEMAN, Paternoster Row, London; w. instructions and orders, Mr Croker promised to have BLACKWOOD and J. MʻLEOD, Glasgow; L. Sutu, Aberdeen; JOHN them ready at six o'clock, it being then four. Admiral ROBERTSON, Dublin; and may be had by order of every Bookseller Durham then sent a messenger to his house in Gloucester

in the United Kingdom. Place, with orders to his servant to put up a few things

Edinburgh, Saturdoy, May 9, 1846.


A Weekly Journal for the Instruction and Entertainment of the People.

No. 20.

SATURDAY, MAY 16, 1846.

Price 11.

Difference of Wages in Different Professions Ac- The Exclusives of Science,

365 counted for,

355 AUTHORS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.-No. VIII. A Mauchline Letter about Burns,

357 Robert Southey.–Nelson's Attack on Santa How to Study Geology, 358 Cruz,

367 Eminent Men of Fife, 360 MISCELLANEOUS,

369 Tale.-Subordination of the Army,

362 | POETRY.—Song, the Mariner's Child to his Mother, 370

DIFFERENCE OF WAGES IN DIFFERENT fessions. The officers of the army and navy receive PROFESSIONS ACCOUNTED FOR.

a comparatively small pecuniary compensation for

their services; the consideration, dignity, and fasciThe difference of wages that obtains in different pro- nations attached to the profession forming, as it were, fessions is very striking ; for example, the great dis- part of their salary. Were it not for their splendid crepancy that obtains between the remuneration uniforms, their importance in fashionable society, given to a mechanic, and that given to a physician and perhaps their hope of glory, their wages

would or lawyer. This discrepancy is well known to exist, be much greater. On the same principle many hunbut the principle which gives rise to it has not gene- dred, nay, many thousand, individuals, are anxious rally been understood. If all employments were to undertake the duties, and perform the labour of equally agreeable, healthy, respectable”; exposed to town-councillors and of senators in Parliament, not similar risks, and required the same degree of skill, only without fee' or reward, but at the expense of ingenuity, and education, this discrepancy would personal and pecuniary sacrifice; the honour, dignity, not obtain, and wages would be the same in them and eminence attached to the office being considered all. If wages were, under these circumstances, a sufficient reward and compensation. To obtain a higher for a time in one employment than in another, seat in parliament, for example, is both very diffithere would be an accession of hands to that employ-cult and very expensive ; and when a seat has been ment, so that, by competition, wages would soon be obtained the duty is both most arduous and responreduced, and an equilibrium maintained.

sible. Yet, when a seat in parliament is vacant, or The following are the principal circumstances at a general election, there is no want of candidates ; which determine the different rates of wages in dif- there is in general, indeed, a superabundance of candiferent employments :—1. The agreeableness or dis- dates, who, each and all, are willing to expend agreeableness of the employments

. II. The easiness thousands to realise the object of their ambition. or cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learn. And yet a seat in parliament will not restore to ing them. III. The constancy or inconstancy of them a fraction of the money they have spent to employment in them. IV. The small or great trust obtain it; nay, it has a tendency to add considerably which must be reposed in those who exercise them; to their expenditure, as their rank in life has been and, V. The probability or improbability of success elevated. Why, then, are so many gentlemen so in them.

intensely anxious to become members of the legislaI. The agreeableness or disagreeableness of the ture? Why do they sacrifice so much even for the employments themselves. The rate of wages must bare chance of securing their election ? The principle obviously vary according to the variations in these which we are considering answers these questions circumstances. No man would follow a dirty and most satisfactorily. The honour, dignity, and emindisagreeable profession if he were not, as it were, ence that necessarily result to a man from holding bribed to it by higher wages. A journeyman black- this high rank form a sufficient motive and a suffismith, for example, seldom earns so much in twelve cient compensation. It sheds a lustre over his own hours as a collier will do in six or eight. The black- character, and is honourable to his family and resmith's work is not quite so dirty, is less dangerous, lations. and is carried on in daylight, and above ground. Now this reward is not to be despised. On the The work of a collier, on the contrary, is dangerous, contrary, it ought rather to be cherished as to ourdirty, and disagreeable, is carried on under ground, selves, and encouraged and applauded on the part of and is not nearly so healthy ; hence his wages must others. It is implanted in our breast by an all-wise be higher, as they accordingly are, to compensate Creator for important purposes; and while it is the for all these drawbacks. If his wages were not source of great happiness to ourselves, it is essential higher he would not be a collier, but follow some to the public service, and forms a most essential more agreeable, healthy, and less dangerous business. element in the mechanism of civil society. Honour makes a great part of the pay of many pro- As honour and dignity constitute a great part of

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