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THE TORCH:

Weekly Journal for the Justruction and Entertainment of the People.

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EARLY SHOP-SHUTTING.

neither rest by day nor sleep by night, until they

fall down with the journey half performed, or drop EARLY shop-shutting is one of those questions of the at the very moment they reach the goal. If the day which has reason on its side ; and although it object is at all worth having, surely it is reasonable may with some be an unpopular topic, it is one that some strength should be reserved for its enjoywhich will continue to be discussed until success is ment; this were but reasonable, supposing the route achieved. Every new line of railway that is opened, barren and gloomy, but if it be positively fair and -every rival steam-boat that “sweeps through the | beautiful, we do not see why the traveller should deep," every public walk that is laid out in towns, not take short stages, and turn aside to behold the ---and every little villa that rears its snuy chimneys pleasant things that grow by the way. Existence in the country, every mechanics' institution that is prostituted by looking continually at a gross leastarts its lecture or its library ,-are all silent but ther bag labelled L.5000 or L.10,000. These sums effectual arguments in favour of early shop-shutting ; doubtless should be kept in view, and, if you will, for all of them tell of something in life beyond mere prominently in view ; but money-making and grinding labour.

"A wizened saul the creature has” Viewed as the instrument of performing certain operations of a bodily or mental kind, man is a mere who keeps the one or the other exclusively before niachine ; and it really is high time that he should his mind's eye. We are aware that by some we be regarded with some of the consideration which is shall be regarded as treading on dangerous ground devoted to the keeping up of other machines which when we speak thus-it will be said that the prinminister to the wants and luxuries of the inhabitants ciple now laid down is destructive of the aim which of this world. Proverbially powerful as are the ca- ought to stimulate every one at the outset of his pacities of the steam-engine, nobody ever thinks of career, and that, like the region described in the keeping its furnace always filled with fuel, as it is Pilgrim's Progress, sleep and afterwards death follows well known that there are such things as wasting when a man allows himself even momentarily to sit boilers, and attenuating pistons, cranks, and beams. | down and forget the object of his journey. We Inspectors examine these parts in order to watch | know that theory quite well, and we admit that men against the insinuating inroads of friction ; but what in prosecuting their earthly pilgrimage should have inspector ever scrutinizes the human machine, or a given end in view, and we also concede, that if they what cognizance is taken of it until, by the failure lose sight of that end they incur no ordinary hazard. of some spring, remote or external, there is a threat-But then those who strongly insist on these points ened suspension of action. What good end is served | merely dread idleness and extravagance, which we by the nervous activity and restlessness shown by also do ; but with the addition that we farther dread the sons of commerce in our times, the hurried their antipodes, slavery and covetousness and with step, the anxious eye, the compressed lips, and care- / all deference, we think the latter sisters as lean and worn brow,-surely some great end must be in view ill-favoured as the previous pair. We stand, thereto justify this sleepless energy. If it be a competency, fore, on middle ground, and warn all to avoid both the best part of human life is worn away before the extremes, as equally unworthy of dignified man. victim has realized the coveted sum, and he can only Our modern shopkeepers remain at business twelve give the dregs of existence to the enjoyment of what and sometimes fifteen hours. If they want to be has cost him the vigour of life to accumulate. This healthy, cheerful, and happy, to invigorate their is not the philosophy of living. People should not bodies, and cultivate their minds, to cherish friendset out on the journey of life just as they would ships, or train their families as they should be traincommence a pedestrian visit to some famous spot; ed, they should not devote more than twelve at the they should not fix their eyes on a steeple or moun- furthest. Here is a human being with an existtain, and breathlessly hurry on to it, turning neither ence that will outlive the stars, who rises in the to the right hand nor the left, allowing themselves / morning pale and sickly, scarcely breaks his fast, and posts off to business, in which he is immersed , tary profession, will waste and consume the living for seven or eight hours, and all upon the strength mechanism. Mind is the human mainspring, and of some“ halfpenny worth of bread," and two cups of once allow it to act feebly, and then a torpor creeps slops. No wonder that he has little appetite for over the whole system ; let it act in excess, and the dinner, and that tonics and condiments are tried in wheels revolve too rapidly, and the fatal snap will vain-but dine he does in some fashion or other, and soon be heard. Over-driven, the springs of life then back to business for other three or four hours. course through the body; and under-driven, they Keturning home finally for the day, another hour or flow languidly, until the channels dry up. It is two are spent in yawning over a book or newspaper, essential, then, to prolonged existence, that the mind and then to bed and this, with the exception of oc- be cheerful, because, as Solomon says, “a merry casional dining and supping out, which do not always heart is like medicine ;" whereas your ingenious improve him, forms the staple of the shopkeeper's youth, who has to sum up long piles of figures is life. Somehow he finds himself getting fretful and engaged in an occupation which is in itself dry and short-tempered during the hours of business, and unengaging, and cannot long stimulate the mind, or listless and jaded when the hours of business are keep it in healthful action. From time immemorial, over ; and then when summer comes round, his masons, bricklayers, carpenters, and numerous other positive weakness and diminished health, compel artizans have worked from six o'clock in the mornhim to go to the sea-side or to the inland watering- ing till six at night, with the intermission of two place. He begins to have serious thoughts that some hours for meals, which leaves just ten hours of net organic complaint is hatching within his system, but labour. Experience has for centuries tested that the changed air and scenery impart temporary re- this is the fair average amount of labour which the novation, and he returns home, only, however, to human frame can economically endure—and accordresume his old habits. Now, his case is nothing ingly labour performed beyond this is paid for extra. more nor less than simply this—that he is an over- | The limits of course are often exceeded, but never, worked machine ; and as continual dropping wears we are satisfied, with impunity-for if they be the down the very stones, he must he content to submit limits which nature has assigned, there is not one to the fate of all other over-worked machines, if he thing more certain in this world, than that nature will not allow himself to be fairly, equally, and never allows her laws to be violated without exactreasonably worked.

ing recompense. Keep men systematically, and from We are insisting on a parallelism between man year to year, at any employment, be what it may, and a machine, but in one respect the analogy fails, for more than twelve hours a day, and a deterioraand it is to that failure that we must ascribe much tion of health, and consequent shortening of life, will of the misconception that exists on the subject of infallibly be the result. late hours of business. If one looks on a steam The controversy regarding the proper working engine which is working on half or quarter power, hours for factory operatives is one on which we can the idea of consumption of energy does not readily easily imagine difference of opinion to exist, because occur ; the fly-wheel revolves lazily, and even the in their case the hours of employment are hours of small pinions go round with little speed, while the production, and limitation in working hours may, beam is forced upwards and downwards so lamely, with a show of plausibility, be said to be an embargo that each ascent looks as if it were to be the last ; on the amount of goods manufactured; but in the no one thinks that an engine worked at such a pres-case of shop-shutting this plea cannot be urged, besure will speedily give way in any of its parts. The cause the work of the parties intrusted in that matter human machine when employed in sedentary labour consists in selling, not creating, goods; hence, so far is regarded in a similar way. That pale lad who is as the substantial business of a shop is concerned, it posting the ledger, has only to turn over the leaves is of no consequence whether it is open for six hours of the day-book, reach forward his pen to the ink- or sixteen hours, provided the goods be sold. Constand, and at this pleasant and easy occupation, how sequently, were all the shops to be shot at seven can he exhaust himself by a whole week's work ?- o'clock in the evening, the same amount of purchases and there is his neighbour standing listlessly at the would be made as if they kept open till twelve at counter, calmly waiting the ingress of customers, night. Banks do as much business as shops, and yet his, too, is the personification of tranquil employ- by being unanimous in their arrangements, their ment- and what would these young men be at? If managers contrive to close at early hours, and to they were trundling lime or earth in wheelbarrows, observe many of the feasts of the calendar as days carrying stones up a ladder, or plying a forehammer of recreation. The Factory Labour Act provides a at the forge of Elihu Burritt, the learned black- certain number of holidays in each year for factory smith, they might complain of being tired, but how operations, but no Lord Ashley has yet deigned to they can be exhausted by such trifling vocations as legislate for poor shopmen; the holidays of others shop and book-keeping appears an impenetrable are days of toil to thein, for, except two days in the mystery. The explanation lies here-a steam-engine year, their masters are not compelled to close their is & combination of inert cranks and levers, set in places of business from January to December, and motion by a change in matter, which is destitute of these two days being devoted to religious purposes, life, whether it exist in the shape of vapour, fluid, the conscientious cannot even take advantage of or solid, and it runs its course of action till the last them for recreation. atom of motive power is exhausted, and all of course This question is generally made one of petition to without thought or feeling-whereas man being a the employer on behalf of the employed, but we living machine, or rather having within him a living look upon it as being as much a matter for the intelligent principle, which directs and controls the master as for the servant, and that very much in the machinery with which he is incorporated, and which same way that a school holiday gratifies teacher as in return affects his immortal part, the principles well as pupil, however much they of the birch may which regulate the working of an ordinary machine pretend to the contrary. We therefore ask no cannot apply strictly to him. The slow speed which sympathy for the young men in shops, but we ask does no harm to a machine, but rather the reverse, if the middle-aged and old men to whom these shops converted into the listless monotony of a seden- I belong to have mercy on themselves ; and if this have no effect, it will be in vain to ask them to have country fair than the wild beasts or Wombwell's pity on others. The change we are speaking of is Menagerie. Even the giants and the dwarfs cannot by many regarded as innovation, but this is a mis- compete there with the lion or the elephant, whattake-it is the late hour system that is the innova ever sensation Tom Thumb may produce in more tion, and not the other. In the olden time traffickers polished society. Such an exhibition is an event in rose early, dined at one or two, shut their shops the whole parish or county ; and sets the whole during their dinner hour, and took a walk after- borough in a blaze of curiosity. wards. Happening the other day to look at the map Now much of this curiosity may be nothing more of Edinburgh, contained in Maitland's History, we than the mere love of staring at something strange observed some dozen of bowling-greens scattered and unusual. It may be altogether unlike the enround the environs. At the present day there is lightened curiosity with which a naturalist looks on only one to be found for triple the population ! the same exhibition. Yet the curiosity of the one Modern science has raised the standard of health by is not so diverse from tliat of the other, but that they better systems of ventilation, and by abolishing have many points in common, and with proper lanes, closes, and narrow streets; but in as far as we training and nurture the lower might even ripen immure ourselves in houses, shops, or counting | into something not greatly inferior to the higher, houses, be they ever so well ventilated, we fall short | By due care and repeated opportunities of indulgof that wisdom of our fathers, which led them to the ing his taste, the idle half vacant stare of the peaopen air, and the cheerful neighbourhood of the sant-and it is not the peasant alone who thus looks "greenwood tree.”

on nature-might be converted into an intelligent curiosity, and a source of an incalculable amount

of innocent amusement and rational instruction. A ON MUSEUMS OF NATURAL HISTORY. few popular lectures and cheap books might give

such a knowledge of the structure and habits of SYSTEMATIC botanists have divided the earth into the various classes of animals, as would impart a about twenty-six regions, each distinguished by its tenfold interest to every peculiarity in their form own family of plants. The animal kingdom, in and motions. different parts of the globe, is almost equally sepa- ! But few people take much interest in the history rated ; though, from their greater powers of locomo- of things which they neither have seen or ever expect tion, in consequence of not being fixed to the soil, to see. If the various birds and beasts must ever natives of one zone more often trespass into the ter- remain the mere shadowy forms, if they have even ritory of another. Even in the higher orders of ani- the reality of shadows, which the most perfect and mals, each of the great continents has its own appro- lively description can alone call up, then natural priate inhabitants, and though in the northern frigid history, as a popular science, can never expect to and temperate regions some species almost encircle flourish. The tawny skin and flowing mane of the the globe, yet, further south, where the masses of lion are fine subjects for description, but will not land are more widely separated, the animals become make a very deep or lasting impression on one who exceedingly distinct. None of the terrestrial mam- never expects to see a lion either dead or alive. The miferous animals of South America are found indi- little interest that natural history still maintains in genous in the southern regions of the old world, and the mind of the public depends greatly, we believe, Australia has a native class of animals not less on the occasional exhibition of travelling menageries, peculiar and distinct. Hence no one can, without without which it would soon be wholly extinct. à life spent in travel, hope to know the various These somewhat desultory remarks tend to show beings that vegetate and live on the earth from per- the importance we attach to inuseums of natural sonal inspection in their native regions.

history, as means of instruction, and of elevating But even, in our own land, the case is not much the character of a people. For zoological gardens, better for the mass of the people. Many animals or collections of living animals, we have no great are found only in particular parts of the country, predilection. They are far too expensive, both in and are in vain looked for elsewhere. We natives their first establishment and in their subsequent of the north have small chance of hearing the support, to be adapted to any but the most popunightingale cheering the still evening with its song, lous localities and large towns. London, with its or seeing the waters of our mountain streams enliv- two million inhabitants, and its crowds of stranened by the bright plumage of the kingfisher. But, gers, may support two such institutions, but we are then, our rocks breed the gallant falcon; and the doubtful of the continuous success of similar exhiscream of the eagle, as he bears off the prey to his bitions in smaller cities. Besides, even in the best eyrie, startles the traveller in the Highland glen. of them, in London or in Paris, the animals are far Few can, however, follow the denizens of the field from being in a natural situation, and many of them and forest into their lonely haunts, and there ob- agree ill with their captivity. There is a degree of serve their forms and habits. Even the more com- cruelty about the whole system that we cannot mon wild animals shun the company of man, and away with ; something tyrannical and oppressive in seldom give him an opportunity of closely inspect- man, for his own pleasure, shutting up his fellowing them. All seem to look on him as a common creatures in filthy dens and cages, that takes away enemy, and fly from his presence; the fields are greatly from all our feeling of pleasure in the exhideserted when he is seen, and his voice strikes silence bition. The herbivorous animals, which can be into the woods so lately filled with melody.

allowed a wider range and more society of their own And yet no branch of science is more popular, kind, are less to be lamented, than the various feline more interesting, than that which treats of the ap- species, whose habits and powers require closer conpearance, habits, and instincts of animals. No book finement and stronger barriers, to prevent escape. is more thumbed by the boy than his History of We cannot avoid a certain feeling of pity and indigThree Hundred Animals, with its strange figures of nation when we see the lion or leopard pacing back. lynxes and dragons, and its wondrous tales of wise wards and forwards, in their narrow den, till the elephants and pugnacious toads and spiders. Nor very stone is worn hollow by their step. And this, is this all. There is no more popular show at a 'too, in the broad glare of sunshine, when their habits

would lead them to hide in the thickest forest. Nor lanes and thronging streets of the capital of the do such exhibitions tend greatly to promote the world. We cannot but rejoice to think that so many refinement of the age. In the London gardens, the of our fellow beings, our fellow citizens, preferred lion and the otter must dine at hours to suit the the intellectual treat of viewing the mysterious convenience of their fashionable visitors, and the relics from Egypt's tombs, the marble breathing king of beasts is compelled to show his teeth to the from the chisel of Phidias, the wondrous monsters young misses and masters before he is allowed to of a former world disentombed from their rocky gnaw his bone in peace. In another corner the sepulchre of ages, and the innumerable throng of serpents are exhibited, killing live rabbits, in order, fishes and reptiles, birds and beasts, that still fill we suppose, to improve the humanity of the British earth, air, or ocean,-to wasting the rare day of public. For these and many other reasons, we must leisure in idleness or dissipation. If there is a confess our preference of the exhibitions of dead ani- voice in all that is beautiful in art, all that is mals of museums rather than menageries. And wonderful in nature, that calls man from the low even those who may not agree with us, will yet and sensual to the high and heavenly, may we not allow that the means exist, in many places, of form- hope that that day would shed a beam of light over ing a good museum, where even a small menagerie many days that would follow ? could not be supported for a month.

Is it possible to have seen or heard of these things, For most purposes of popular instruction, a mu- and to forbear asking, Where is the opportunity of seum is equally advantageous with exhibitions of enjoying such a day open to our fellow citizens in the living animals. The figure, colour, and at least this town? We too have a museum supported in one natural position of the animal is equally well part at least at the national expense, and why is it seen. The plumage of many wild birds can be shut to the great body of the people? We say shut, shown in far superior perfection in a well preserved for the fee of a shilling closes it to a large majority specimen, than in the iniserable, drooping, and of of the community, unless on rare and special occacourse, dirty creatures that fill so many cages in sions. When the poor man must lose his day's zoological gardens. Besides all this, there is the work, and spend a large portion of his week's wages possibility of procuring a far greater variety of before he can take his wife and children to enjoy specimens of all kinds, and of the same animal in this spectacle, he is not likely to enjoy it often. A all periods of its life, than can ever be expected in shilling is a small sum to the rich mau, who goes menageries. Some classes of animals, again, cannot once to see the museum as a sight; it is a great sum be shown in the latter, as the greater part of fish, to the poor man and to the student, who to benefit the mollusca and insects. Even the birds are in by it, must visit a museum repeatedly. There is no general sadly deficient in these institutions, as any greater barrier to the progress of natural history in one may convince himself who compares the number Edinburgh, than the want of an accessible museum. in the gardens of the Zoological Society in London, In London, in Paris, in almost every university town the richest collection of living animals probably in on the Continent, there are museums open to the the world, with the cases in the British Museum. student without fee or favour, where his eye may On all these grounds, we are convinced that become familiar with the objects of his study, and museums, collections of preserved animals, must many of his doubts find a ready, solution. But it is ever continue the chief means of extending a taste not to the case of the student we would here for this science among the people.

especially call attention. It is to that of the people, And that such a taste would grow up, or rather who are thus shut out from a high and ennobling already exists, though not permitted to show itself enjoyment, and forced to take refuge from idleness in consequence of the want of opportunity, facts in vice or dissipation. Moral and religious improvewill not allow us to doubt. We do not think the ment unfortunately, are not always conjoined with people of Scotland, or of the country parts of intellectual progress. In the study of natural England, less enlightened, less curious, or less likely history, however, they are more intimately united to profit by the means of information put in their than in most other branches of science. The works power, than those of London or Paris. And how of nature almost necessarily lead the mind to reflect eagerly the citizens of these capitals crowd to the on the Creator, and humbly to acknowledge his halls of the British Museum and the Jardin des power, wisdom, and goodness. At a time when Plantes, is too notorious to be almost mentioned. science is so often perverted to a wrong purpose, we The following figures, which we copy from the cannot but regret that the people should be excluded newspapers of the day, are however too striking, too | from a place where such important lessons are convincing, to be passed over. On Easter Monday taught, and so powerful an antidote to unbelief of the present year, 29,896 persons visited the administered. British Museum ; on the same day last year, 15,316 It is often objected, that were museums open to persons, and on Whit Monday 1845, no fewer than the public, the valuable objects of nature and art 35,233 individuals. On these three days, therefore, which they contain, would be wasted and destroyed. supposing all the persons each time different, above The simple answer to this objection is, that it is not 80,000 people, or more than a twenty-fifth part of true that experience shows the reverse, and that the whole population of that mighty metropolis, where the public are permitted to enjoy, the public passed through the rooms of this truly national are willing and ready to protect. We believe that institution. There is something noble and exalting as much damage was done to the museum in Edinin these figures, something which raises our notions burgh, when the adınission fee was half a crown, as of the intelligence of the lower classes of the London now when it is a shilling, and that greater freedom population, for as this museum is open at all times of access to this exhibition would lessen, instead of to the public, we may be assured that few of the increasing the chances of injury. We hear no higher or middle classes, who can command greater complaints of damage done to articles in the British leisure, would, on such days, mingle with the crowd. Museum, except on rare occasions, like the destruction And how many pleasing remembrances of the of the Portland vase; and persons who wish notoriety wondrous works of the Almighty, would that crowd in that way would not be deterred from acquiring it carry away with them to their homes in the dusky' by the fee of a shilling. The Parisian public stream

in crowds through the galleries of the museums in work, for travellers hastily passing through a country that city ; the intelligence of their inquiring eyes is cannot observe rigid accuracy ; his translator, however, evident to every spectator, the acuteness of their should have shown some charity to the errors of his passing observations has been frequently remarked, principal, and freed the work from some foolish blunders but no one has seen or remarked instances of wanton

in the nomenclature of places and things seen and comand malicious destruction. It is a libel on our

mented on by Dr Carus. The extract which we think countrymen to say, that they are more inclined to

will most interest our readers refers to waste or destroy objects of value, than the French or English ; and common fame would assign them

THE COURT OF QUEEN VICTORIA. rather an opposite quality. Had the organ of “At three o'clock set out with the whole court to the Destructiveness been a little more fully developed, palace of Windsor. The drive to the railroad furnished they would not have submitted so long and so me with a new opportunity of forming some idea of the quietly to have been shut out of places to which

size and immense population of London. Curiosity to they had a right, and to see the people of London

see the train of open royal carriages, accompanied by a

guard of lancers, had collected such a vast mass of perenjoying privileges of which they are deprived.

sons along the whole line of road from Buckingham But grant even that the objection was true—that we

Palace to the station of the Great Western RailroadScots should abuse the privilege, that we should

about half an hour's ride- that every possible position break, destroy, and cut the objects exhibited, this

for seeing was occupied. Elegant carriages, often two is no reason for shutting the museum up. It is not or three rows deep, were drawn up on the sides of the in a crowded room that a man tries such tricks, or way, and were intermixed with a great number of ladies could hope to escape if he did so. Besides all, the and gentlemen, mounted on beautiful horses, who either innocent enjoyment and moral improvement of the stopped whilst the court equipages passed, or occasionally people are of more value than a few stuffed birds, accompanied and followed them. The houses, too, were dried fishes, or specimens of rocks and minerals.

all full of life; windows and balconies in all directions It has often struck us as wonderful that so few

crowded with spectators, male and female; and in addi

tion to all this, an immense throng of persons on footlocal museums should exist in the principal towns

such as is momentarily collected in London-of omni. throughout the country. In our seaports, this is

busses, hackney-coaches, and cabs, which traverse Lonespecially remarkable, as the means there, are so abundant for procuring the productions of all lands “The crowd at and around the railroad station was and climes. The natural objects scattered through immense ; but notwithstanding this, the best order was the various private houses, and there neglected and everywhere preserved, partly from a natural love of destroyed, would, if collected into one place, often order in the people themselves, and partly by the actiform å tolerable museum, which might be rapidly vity and good management of a large body of police, increased Every ship that returned from a distant distinguished by their simple but elegant blue uniform. land, might bring home some addition to the local

The London constabulary are not provided with arms of

any description, but merely carry a short staff of office museum, which would thus become a record of the

in the breast pocket, which, although short, is heavy, enterprise and patriotism of the townsmen. In each,

and may, when occasion requires, be used as a weapon also, the objects of natural bistory found in the both of offence and defence." In the police, however, the surrounding district might be collected, and many people recognise the preservers of peace, order, and law, curious objects now lost or destroyed, preserved. and cases are very rare in which any opposition is offered, There are few counties in Britain, the minerals and or resistance made to their authority. fossils, the beasts, birds, and insects of which would “In itself alone, the railroad station is a colossal not form a very interesting museum of themselves,

affair, and has called into life a completely new and and the collection would not be long confined to

continually increasing district of the town in its immethese alone. With the facilities and habits of

diate neighbourhood. The Great Western is, indeed,

one of the chief lines of that immense net of railroads travelling, now common in all ranks of the commu

with which the whole country is covered ; and in addition nity, opportunities of collecting objects of natural

to special trains, others start regularly every hour or history are vastly increased. Besides an agreeable

half hour, nay, sometimes, on extraordinary occasions, amusement to the old, such a museum would form every ten minutes! a most valuable auxiliary in the instruction of the "The distance from London to Slough, eighteen miles, young. The establishment of such local museums was accomplished in very little more than half an hour, and should form an essential part in all attempts to at Slough other royal carriages were in waiting, in order improve the system of national education, and to to convey us rapidly through the small and ancient town elevate the moral and intellectual character of our of Eton to the palace of Windsor. As we passed by the countrymen.

celebrated college of Eton, founded by Henry VI., the boys were drawn up in front of this ancient Gathio edifice,

most of them dressed in black, but some in scarlet coats, THE COURT OF QUEEN VICTORIA.

and welcomed the King of Saxony, and saluted the queen We like much to read the travels in Britain of sensible with a hearty hurrah! foreigners. They reveal to us facts and opinions “I now drove up to and entered this magnifioent pilewhich we can neither see nor feel for ourselves; and | the oldest of the royal residences of England- in which although the anthor whom we are about to quote cannot,

the Saxon kings held court before the time of William the

Conqueror, which was rebuilt in the reign of Edward from his peculiar position, write with a particularly free

III., and finally completely restored and repaired in that pen, yet, nevertheless, his range of observation is wide,

of George IV.—but always with a striet adherence to the and his remarks sensible and unassuming. The writer original architectural design of the building. The magwe refer to is Dr Carus, physician to the King of Saxony, nificent gray towers and beautiful turrets, the lofty who visited this country as the professional attendant of Gothic windows, the extensive courts, the strong porthis sovereign in 1842. A court physician cannot be ex cullises, and the broad terraces, which surround the castle, pected to say all that he thinks, and therefore we must

all contribute to make a grand and right royal impression

upon the mind. not blame Dr Carus that he does not indulge in the libe

" Apartments have been assigned me looking towards rality of tone followed by Mrs Trollope, Dickens, and

one followed by Nrs Trollope, Dickens, and the large court-yard of the castle, and just opposite to other unfettered travellers. We are also disposed to be my windows, upon a mound in the midst of the whole lenient with him as to the mistakes contained in his ' pile, stands the large and lofty round tower, on which

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