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Tue NorroLK ISLAND Ping. Araucaria excelsa Loud. Altingia excelsa. Hooker.

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This splendid pine, which is a native of Norfolk Island, woods, by which they may be compared and identified New Caledonia, grows to the height of 160 to 200 feet. with recent genera. When the fossil trees of Craigleith Some trees measure even 228 feet, with a diameter of Quarry first attracted the attention of geologists, Mr 11 feet. The trunks of the old trees are straight and Nicol carefully prepared and examined both transverse free from branches to the height of 80 and 100 feet and longitudinal sections of these, and thus made himfrom the ground. The leaves of the young plant are self acquainted with their minute and characteristic long, narrow, curved, sharp-pointed, and spreading structure. He very soon perceived that they belonged In the old tree they are shorter, broader, and press to the coniferæ, but that the longitudinal structure at: close to the branches. In the full-grown tree, the least had peculiarities of the arrangement of the discs branches are short, scanty in the lower part of the stem, differing from any of the pines he had an opportunity of and formed at the top into a spreading brush-like head. examining. At last he obtained from the captain of a The thick bark contains turpentine. The wood is white, vessel, just returned from Australia, a piece of spar said tough, close-grained, and heavy.

to be part of a Norfolk Island pine. On examining this The plant, of which the above is an accurate copy, is wood, he immediately perceived the resemblance in the a young tree raised in the hot-house of the Botanic Gar- arrangement of the discs of this recent species with that den, Edinburgh, by Mr M‘Nab. The pot containing it of the fossil tree of Craigleith, and thus concluded that is put out during the summer months into the open air, the latter was in structure nearer allied to this genus than but it will not stand the winter unprotected. It is a to any other. A somewhat similar structure he afterbeautiful, healthy plant, and affords a good illustration wards found prevailed also in the genus Damera. The of the general characters of the tree, only that the peculiarity consists in this, that in a transverse section branches, as above stated, are longer and more nume- of the species of araucaria, the discs, which are somerous in the lower part of the trunk than in the old tree. times in double, sometimes in triple rows, alternate with

This species of the araucaria was first introduced into those of the opposite sides; whereas in the true pines, the Britain in 1793 by Sir Joseph Banks. It ma be raised discs are always placed directly opposite to each other. either from seed or cuttings, but they are by no means We have thus, by a series of ingenious observations, common in hot-houses.

the singular fact established, that part at least of the Another species, the A. Cunninghami, is also a native vegetation of the forests of this country, at a remote of Australia. In most of the pine family, there are dis- era, was identical with what at present only exists in tinct concentric circles surrounding the pith of the stem, regions far remote, and where the climate partakes of a which mark annual periods of growth, and are hence tropical nature. called annual layers. In many of the araucarias, there According to Professor Lindley, fossil remains of the are also annular layers, though not so well defined as in A. excelsa are found in the lias of Dorsetshire. other species ; but in the Araucaria Cunninghami there We have seen that the Araucaria imbricata, an allied are no regular annular layers. In that tree there are species, can bear our present climate very well, and merely very irregular appearances of partial interrup- there is no doubt but a very slight modification of our tions in the process of vegetation.

winter temperature would admit the A. excelsa and We owe to Mr William Nicol of this city our know- Cunninghami to grow in the open air also. This elevaledge of the internal structure of woods, as indicative of tion of our winter temperature may in former periods the particular families to which they belong, and also have been due to a different arrangement of dry land, his ingenious mode of preparing thin slices of fossi as first sugg sted by Von Hoff, and further illustrated

by Mr Lyell. Thus, had there existed less of continuous continent to the north and east, and more of continent stretching to the south, a material elevation of the climate of Great Britain would have taken place, sufficient, in all probability, for the growth of all the plants found in our coal deposits.

W. R.

GEOLOGY.—The last number of the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. IV., contains a valuable paper by Mr Murchison, on the geology of Scandinavia and the Baltic provinces of Russia. A remarkable feature of Norway and Sweden is the great preponderance of primary crystalline rocks,-an ancient gneiss, intermixed with granites and porphyries. From the complete metamorphic state of the gneiss, no traces of organic remains could be discernible, even had any originally existed. These rocks, then, have been termed azoic. Superimposed upon the gneiss, and evidently formed out of its disintegrated particles, is seen the lower bed of the Silurian series, consisting of a sandstone with remains of marine fuci. To this succeeds a black alum schist, limestone, a red orthoceratite limestone, graptolite schists, &c. The upper Silurian is also extensively seen; and in Norway, the Devonian, or old red sandstone. Granitic and trappean rocks, erupted at a period posterior to the deposition of the old red sandstone, also abound; and where these come in contact with the sedimentary rocks, a complete change of structure is accomplished,--the alum rock being converted into a highly indurated Lydian stone, with crystals of iron pyrites ; other strata into gneiss, chlorite slate, and clay slates. These, however, are by no means to be confounded with the older azoic gneiss strata, as the former can always be traced without any unconformable junction from the crystalline strata into a slightly altered rock, and then from that into wholly unaltered and fossiliferous Silurian bands. On the other hand, no such example of transition from the great masses of ancient gneiss into Silurian rocks has ever been seen in any part of Scandinavia. The lower Silurian strata, in the goyernments of St Petersburg and Rival, are at once overlaid by the Devonian strata full of ichthyolites. Among these are genera found in the old red sandstone of England and Scotland; but they contain new genera also, and others which had hitherto never been found lower than the carboniferous limestone. These fishes are to be described in M. Agassiz's forthcoming monograph on the Fishes of the Devonian System.

bury, Esq.” Second, a paper by Dr Mantell, on some bones of the Iguanodon of remarkable size, recently discovered in the Wealden. Dec. 17. Professor Owen stated that he had come to the conclusion that the bones from the Wealden, formerly supposed to be those of birds, must be looked upon as belonging to a species of Plerodactyl. A paper was read by Professor Goeppart, of Breslau, on remains of trees found in amber.

Paris Academy of Sciences. Dec. 15.--A paper was read by M. Rignault, detailing his experiments on steam. Watt had supposed that the total quantity of heat necessary for the transformation of a kilogramme of water into the state of steam, was certain, under a constant pressure. The number admitted was 650. This law, although not exemplified by any precise experiment had been, until very lately, regarded as positive, and so adopted in theory and practice. M, Rignault, however, has ascertained that this number increases constantly from 622, under the pressure of one-fifth of an atmosphere, up to 670, under 15 atmospheres. At the ordinary pressure, the average of 38 experiments gives 636, 37. As to the calorific capacity of water, it is 1000 between 0 and 30 degrees; 1005 between 20 and 120, 1013 between 120 and 190.

A paper was received from M. Daubree, relative to the high rate of temperature in an Artesian well at Neuffen, in the kingdom of Wurtemberg. In most Artesian wells it has been found that the temperature increased about 1 degree for every 30 metres, but at Neuffen the increase has been 1 degree for every 10 metres. The depth of the well is 385 metres, and the teinperature at the bottom is 38 degrees, 7 minutes, of centigrade, about 104 of Fahrenheit. The nearest approach to this great exception from the normal state of things, is at Monte Marin in Tuscany, and in both cases, the bottom of the well is still 35 metres above the level of the sea.

Dec. 22.-A paper on tobacco was read by M. Barrat. From his analysis, the ashes of the leaves, stalks, and fibres, averages 13 per cent. The

quantity of azote is very large, the average in the leaf being 5 to 6 per cent. There is also 10 per cent. of a colourless oil. The juice of the macerated leaf contains a peculiar acid, which he calls nicotic. Tobacco also contains a peculiar essence, called nicotine, a powerful alkali, and an energetic poison.

AMERICAN MASTODON.—The remains of an immense Mastodon have been lately discovered and exhumed about six miles west of Newburgh. This is the fourth skeleton of the kind that has been discovered in this country, but while all the others have been imperfect this one is entire, every bone having been found even to the small bones of the feet and tail, and in a complete state of preservation, the enamel on the teeth being as perfect as if in the mouth of a living animal. An idea of the size of the monster may be formed, when I state that the skull alone weighs 700 lbs. The tusks are about nine feet long. Across the hip bones, measures seven feet. The position of the animal at death was clearly discernible. He had evidently become mired, and had settled down on his haunches, with his fore legs spread out, and in this posture he was found. Under the vertebræ the contents of the stomach were found, to the amount of several baskets, and consisted of leaves, twigs, and fragments of the branches of trees, crunched and broken up. As the remains were found imbedded in marl, all this was very evident.-- American Paper, August 1845.

HECLA.--This mountain, from the latest accounts, October 29, had again commenced its volcanic eruptions with great violence.

Tiniversity and Educational Intelligence.

ST ANDREW'S UNIVERSITY.—The attendance this year is on the increase,-the total number of students being 88.

ABERDEEN THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE.-The Free Church has resolved on the establishment of a Theological College at Aberdeen, and the Rev. James MʻLaggan of Kinfauns has been appointed Professor.

Glasgow COMMERCIAL COLLEGE.-A prospectus of an institution under this name, has just been issued. The following branches of study are to form the curriculum, viz.: -1. Philosophy of the English Language; 2. Logic; 3. Political Economy; 4. Mental and Moral Philosophy; 5. History and Geography;6. Mathematics; 7. Natural Philosophy; 8. Chemistry; 9. Physiology; and it is intended there shall be two sessions, of four months each, annually; four months being devoted to the study of each subject mentioned in the curriculum. If properly followed up this will be worth hundreds of " popular lectures."

Eton.—The halls of Eton College are to have an addition to their memorials of eminent men; Earl Howe contributes a bust of his grandfather, the Admiral; Mr Behnes, the sculptor, gives a bust of Lord Chatham; and Colonel Reid is to present a bust of George the Third.

Royal Irish ACADEMY.-Dr Lloyd is to be president of this body vice Sir William Hamilton who retires.

ULSTER COLLEGE.-Dr Andrews, professor of chemistry in Belfast, has been appointed Vice-President of this institution. His politics are said to be unknown, and except his belonging to the Church of England, nothing more is known of his principles. Dr Henry the president is a Presbyterian-30 that the appointments have been made with a due regard to liberality.

IRISH PRESBYTERIANS.-This body are to institute a Theological College at their own expense, not being satisfied with the Government Establishment, about to be opened in Belfast. If every religious sect in the country would do the same, much heart-burning would be avoided.

Proceedings of Societies.

London Geological Society. Dec. 3.-The first paper read was on some remarkable fossil forms from Maryland, United States, collected by Mr Lyell. By C. E. F. Ban

Literature. Jane Bouverie, or Prosperity and Adversity. By CATHERINE

SINCLAIR This volume owes its origin to a hint given the Authoress by the late Captain Basil Hall, that crowds of excellent books had already been addressed to wives, mothers, and daughters, but none to that hitherto neglected class the single ladies, or par excellence “The Sisters of England!" We have here the reminiscences of a septengenarian, detailing the hopes, loves, sorrows, and anxieties, of a long life of single blessedness. There is, as in the other popular works of this clever Authoress, much knowledge of character and of the human heart. There is little incident, and less perhaps of that brilliancy, to be met with in her previous works, but more of that thoughtful and practical wisdom which is almost inseparable from the reminiscences of a mind that has witnessed and experienced the various phases of many-coloured life. Here are a few of the pithy remarks with which the volume abounds:

“ To those who live a life of ostentation and magnificence, mere happiness seems a very poor object to marry for."

“ It is said that married people should be happy, if they can, and single people can be happy if they will."

“ It is a common saying, that no woman who is extravagantly fond of dogs, cats, or parrots, is amiable, or would make a good wife.'

“ Cheerfulness is a sign of wisdom, seeing that the gravest animal is an ass, the gravest bird an owl, the gravest fish an oyster, and certainly the gravest man a fool.”

“ Nothing in life is more perplexing than to observe that most rich men live as if they were poor, and the poor as if they were rich. My father's rich neichbour, Sir Francis, told us that he had been grumbling over his taxes lately, and meditating whether to dismiss half his establishment, that he might be well within his means, when Sir Samuel, with no income at all, started a pack of harriers and invited him to spend some weeks at Bridgeport House, where he found a large party living on turtle, venison, and champagne." Marguerite de Valois. By A. Dumas.

This is the cheapest of the cheap books that have been issued in this the age of cheap literature. Nearly five hundred pages of good reading type, in a handsome octavo volume, with an elegant portrait, is what the European Library proprietors give to their readers for three shillings and sixpence. Such a price will scarcely afford original copyright writings, but the list embraces works by Guizot, Michelet, Lanzi, Villemain, &c., and we heartily wish it all success. The Covenanters in the North. By Robert King.

The object of this volume is to trace the rise and progress of the movement in 1638, so far as it was locally developed north of the Grampiads—and this plan includes sketches of Cant, Lindsay, Jaffray, Brodie, Ross, Hogg, Fraser, &c., who although occupying mere corners in the general record of ecclesiastical history, bulk out greatly when viewed in the light supplied by the provincial information so industriously collected and judiciously arranged by Mr King. The premature death of the excellent author, just on the eve of the publication of a work which had long beguiled the tedium of the sick chamber, disarms criticism, but the volume has much merit, apart altogether from this consideration. Thom's Irish Almanack and Official Directory for 1846.

We have always regarded the “ American” and the “ Edinburgh” Almanacks, as the best of their kind, but Mr Thom's publication will cause both to look to their laurels. It contains a mass of national and general information, arranged in the most lucid manner; and has more of an encyclopaedic cast than any other publication of the kind that we have yet seen. The Directory part is of a novel character, and utterly shames the Edinburgh manual of that name. What a Herculean feat is performed by Mr Thom when he gives the val. ved rents of the houses in the city and county of Dublin.

The Mount of Olives. By the Rev. JAMES HAMILTON.

Mr Hamilton is the most popular religious author of the day, and if piety, fervour, and elegant literary taste entitle any one to distinction, he is entitled to it. “The Mount of Olives” is a series of lectures on prayer in his best style, and is sure to be extensively read and highly esteemed by the religious world, and if it could be made to penetrate into circles beyond its meridian, it could not fail to do much good. Whistle Binkie. 1846.

When this work first appeared, we augured from its title, that it was set forth not only as a sweet but petit songster; but now that its cover embraces six different works, it has assumed the thick and ungainly aspect of a monster anthology. Like all other plethoras it should be reduced. The addition of the nursery songs is a valuable one. Map of the disputed Oregon Territory. Engraved by W.

& A. K. Johnston. This map affords at a single glance, a distinct view of the field of dispute at present between the American States and Great Britain. The Oregon Territory occupies a portion of the North West Continent of America, three times the size of the whole British islands, being in length 650 English miles, and in average breadth 550. By the convention of 1818, renewed in 1827, the country west of the Rocky Mountains is open to the subjects of England and America. In 1818 and again in 1824 England proposed the Columbia river as a boundary of partition. America proposed the 49th parallel of latitude. In 1826 modifications of these were proposed but not accepted. The convention of 1818 is still in operation, and may be terminated by either party on giving 12 months' notice. The country is generally hilly and not much adapted for cultivation. It is chiefly occupied by forts and posts of the Hudson's Bay and North-west Fur Companies, with missionary stations of Americans and French Canadians. Including the Indian tribes the whole population may amount to 20,000.

Gleanings.

OLD ENGLISH MIND. There is a certain stern, masculine, and caustic type of mind, which is, we think, disappearing from the higher walks of our literature. It is as if the English element were departing from the English mind, and were being exchanged, partly for good and partly for evil, for an infusion of foreign blood. Our national peculiarities of thought are fast melting down into the great general stream of European literature. Where now that rugged Saxon strength, sagacity, and sarcastic vein--that simple manly style--that clear logical method--that dogged adherence to the point in hand--that fearless avowal of national prejudices, hatreds, and contempts-that tho. rough-going insular spirit which distinguished the Drydens, the Swifts, and, in part, the Johnsons of a bygone period? They are, in a great measure, gone; and in their stead we have the vagueness, the mistiness, the exaggeration, the motley and mosaic diction, along with the earnestness, the breadth, and the cosmopolitanism, “wide and general as the casing air,” of Germany, transferred or transfused into our English tongue. It were vain to protest against, or to seek to retard, an influence which is fast assuming the character of an irresistible infection. There is no disguising the fact. For better or for worse, our poetry and our prose, our history and our criticism, our profane and our sacred literature, are fast charging with Germanism, as clouds with thunder. Be this potent element a devil's elixir, or the wine of life, the thinkers of both Britain and America seem determined to dare the experiment of draina ing its cup to the dregs. And at this stage of the trial, it is enough for us to note the pregnant fact, and also to record the names of those among our higher writers, who have kept themselves clear from, if they have not upposed and counteracted, this “ mighty stream of tendency."

Prominent among these stand Byron, Southey, MacauJay, and Lockhart, who all amid their variety of gifts, are distinguished by an intense Anglicanism of spirit and style, Byron-spurned by England, and spurning England in return-yet bore with him into his banishment all the

peculiarities of his country's literature: its directness, its dogmatism, its clearness, and its occasional caprice. And nover is he so heartily and thoroughly English as when he is denouncing or ridiculing the land of his fathers. It is impossible to conceive of him, in any circumstances, sink. ing down to the level of an Italian improvisatore, or su. bliming into a German mystic, or of being aught but what he was--a strange compound of English blackguard, English peer, and English poet. His knowledge of German was limited; and even when he stole from it, it was what it had stolen from the elder authors of England. His admiration of Goethe was about as genuine and profound as a schoolboy's of Homer, who has read a few pages of the Iliad in Greek, and has not read Pope's or Cowper's translation. And though he talked of writing his magnum opus in Italian, after he had fully mastered the language, it was easy to perceive that to his.“ land's language" he in reality desired to commit the perpetuity of his fame, and that England was the imaginary theatre before which he went through his attitudes of enthusiasm, and assumed his postures of despair, Southey, again, in creed, in character, in purpose, in genius, and in diction, was English to exclusiveness. Macaulay's writings, starred so richly with allusions to every other part of every other literature, do not, we are positive, above half-a-dozen times, recognise the existence of the German,-a single sneer is all he vouchsafes to our modern Germanised English authors; his strongest sympathies are with our native literature; and his sharp, succinct, and nervous manner, is the exact antithesis of that which is the rage of the Continent. And Lockhart, though he is versant with foreign tongues —though he has translated from the Spanish, has travelled in Germany, and gazed on the Jove-like forehead of the author of Faust, was, is, and is likely to continue a Saxon to the backbone,

CAMPBELL. Campbell, at college, was eminent for three things, his poverty, his wit, and his scholarship. A poor, little blackeyed boy, with his toes protruding through his shoes, he was wont to haunt the stove in the logic class; and when driven from it by tall dunderheads from Belfast, used to pelt them with extempore epigrans till, to his infinite delight, he got them to chase him through the class-room; and then the little vagabond, wheeling round, regained his warm corner. It was a high moment for him when he was raised to the post of Lord Rector in his native university. Unbounded was the enthusiasm which prevailed. Such crowding ! such cramming! such questioning! “Have you seen him ? and you and you ?" and after he was seen, and his fine, frank, inaugural address was delivered, * Does he come up to your expectations ? isn't he a better speaker than we thought he had been? what fine dark eyes he has got!" And better still when he mingled so familiarly with his constituents, walking arm in arm with them, and giving them (trembling to the very toes,) the other and the other grasp of his warm right hand. What proud men we all were, when each of us received a copy of his first inaugural oration, with the magic words, "To so and so, from Thomas Campbell." We remember being in debuting society one evening, when the news arrived that the Lord Rector had unexpectedly come down from London on some matter affecting the interests of the stu. dents. It was an eccentric and chivalrous move on his part, and out rushed ve in a body to meet and welcome him with respondent enthusiasm. We found him in his brother-in-law's, sipping his coffee, were most cordially received, and after some delightful chit-chat, and a warm. hearted speech or two, left him in a transport of admiration. He, too, felt his fame; and never--not when com. posing the “ Pleasures of Hope," did his blood boil higher; and never was his tongue half so eloquent, as in his meetings with, and his buoyant and cordial speeches to, the students of Glasgow, in memory of the halcyon days of the “Good Lord Rector," some of the cleverer of his admirers established a Campbell Club. He was the first poet we ever saw, and for us to meet, hear, feel the tingling touch of the author of “ O'Connor's Child,” was a "thing to dream of, not to see.”-Gilfillon's Literary Portraits.

THINGS LOST FOR EVER.–Lost wealth may be restored by industry--the wreck of wealth may be regained by temperance--forgotten knowledge restored by study aljenated friendship smoothed into forgetfulness--even forfeited reputation won by penitence and virtue. But who ever again looked upon the vanished hours--recalled his slighted years, stamped them with wisdom, or effaced from heaven's record the fearful blot of wasted time?Mrs Sigourney.

News of the Queek. EDINBURGH PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION.—This body has invited a hydropathic practitioner to lecture to them, a step of doubtful policy, for how will his prelections amalgamate with the chemistry of Dr Wilson, the physiology of Mr Goodsir, or the dietetics of Dr Maclagan. Most people are puzzled to understand how one part of homeopathy is tolerable amongst some dozen of conflicting chairs in the University ; but one part of hydropathy to three of orthodox exposition, will go far to establish confusion in the brains of the alumni of the Association. (We understand the hydropathic course has been “postponed," probably, sine die.)

THE EDINBURGH PERIODICALS.—The Edinburgh booksel. lers are bestirring themselves this year with unusual activity. Mr Clark has commenced a Foreign Theological Library, -Mr Lowe has begun an Edinburgh Magazine,-Mr Johnstone is to start a missionary periodical to be called The Herald of the Churches,-Mr Macphail has announced a church magazine, to be called the Monthly Journal of Ecclesiastical and General Literature,-Mr Nelson has in progress a series of Tracts, something like that of Chambers', but more, we believe, of a religious cast ; and last and least, there is The Torch, about which nothing need be said.

"THE MOUNTAINS LOOK ON MARATHON, AND MARATHON ON THE SEA."-Hazlitt reviewed the authors of his time; Wilson and Lockhart reviewed Hazlitt ; Mr Gilfillan has reviewed Wilson and Lockhart; De Quincy has written notes on Mr Gilfillan, and printed them.; and the newspapers, when they sit in judgment on Tait's Magazine, will criticise De Quincy. Where is all this to end ?

Food.—The East Lothian farmers are busy converting their potatoes into muscle and fat, for beef-steaks to the carnivorous dwellers of the cities. Now that the corn law famine-blast has somewhat subsided, food of one kind or another would appear to be forthcoming, in the usual abundance. The hitherto open winter has also been favourable, while the Americans are sending us considerable quantities of flour, as announced in the Liverpool arrivals.

THE BANE AND THE ANTIDOTE.—The American booksellers have reprinted Sir David Brewster's article on “ The Vestiges of Creation, which appeared in the North British Review, at the end of their edition of the work.

WINDSOR CASTLE.- Her Majesty has most generously ordered that, in future, free admission to Windsor Castle may be obtained three days every week. Should not some efforts be made for similar liberality in regard to Holyrood?

CIIRISTMAS.-The visitors to the British Museum on Christmas 1845 exceeded those of 1844 by upwards of 10,000. What museums were open in Scotland either on Christmas or New Year's day? We have heard of none except a gratis exhibition of works of art in Glasgow, under the auspices of the magistrates, who deserve the highest praise for their generosity.

LONDON Gossip.There is at present a lull in the world of politics. The members of Cabinets, both old, embryotic, and new, have dispersed to eat turkey and plum-pudding. Lord Grey is to get no pudding, because he was a bad boy, and hit young Palmerston on the left or foreign side of the head. Peel is busy at the minced pies and port, though not the open port, and the Duke's sulks are all gone. Lord John Russell was summoned away from Doug. las' Hotel, Edinburgh, when in the middle of a sentence, when reading to his wife. He is now back again, to finish his page. It was the Arabian Nights Entertainments, and that tale where Almoran, sitting by the side of a lake, be. wails his evil fortune, and plunges down his head in the water to drown himself. A genii rescues him, while, in the short interval-such is the rapidity of thought-he had lived as Grand Visier, and had enjoyed both good and bad fortune,

There is no literary news, The Cricket on the Heart/ has been swallowed, and digested, and found light enough diet.

Parliament meets about ten days earlier than usualwhich time, it is thought, will be consumed in explaining what is not worth an explanation. I could tell you all about it, but really 'tis not worth while anticipating.

The competitors for the prize offered by the Art-Union, do not as yet exceed thirty. Artists seem to have not that full confidence in the committee of management Lecessary for inducing them to come forward.

41

THE PHILOSOPHY OF POLITICS. POLITICAL party epithets, however unmeaning quiet citizen, the other a baron or a king. Take they may be in themselves, are yet expressive of real from both of them some of their good qualities, and conditions of the human character. A political add to them more timidity and selfishness, and the bias of some kind or another, is as natural to man, one may easily pass into a slave, the other into a and as general among mankind, as the colour of tyrant. the hair or eyes, or as the prevalence of the san- Take, again, a man of generous, open, and beneguine, or melancholy, or mixed temperaments. volent qualities, with a discerning intellect, and a Accordingly, the modern terms of Whig, Tory, buoyant, hopeful, and energetic mind; a good Radical, Chartist, were just as applicable to the portion of self-sufficiency, yet tempered with selfmen of other days, or other nations, as to those of training-warm affections and passions, bordering the present, and the Greeks and Romans, the old on extreme-firm, resolute, determined-his mind Saxons and Celts, had their particular national po- pushing forward rather than dwelling with comlitics, and their internal party sects, just as the placency on the past—not easily dismayed, nor French, and Britons, and Germans have now. flagging under adverse circumstances, with a per

What is the reason of this? Just because human sistency bordering on obstinacy, caring little for nature is the same in all time, and under all cir- the praise either of those above or below himcumstances, and because, as we shall presently suspicious and impatient of any power greater than show, the political bias depends upon individual his own-careless and fearless of any power infedisposition and temper, more than upon education rior. This is the true Whig type, either of a bold or example. No training or example will rouse a baron, armed for asserting the rights of magna nation of slaves to be freemen, neither will almost charta, or of a plain yeoman, tilling his ten or fiftyany circumstances restrain the aspirations after, and acre patrimony. Add more intellect, more self-sufat last the completion of liberty, to those who are ficiency, and less moral justice, and you have a in heart and spirit free. So it is with individuals; Buonaparte, or an aristocratic haron, or a gruff one is a slave by nature, or a tyrant by circum- yeoman, verging upon “the little tyrant of the stances; another is fearless, open, and generous, plain,” or of the household, or the workshop. and exercises these qualities, whether he exercises Take away a very considerable modicum of intelrule over others, or is the ruled. But there are lect, and you have the Radical or Chartist, or mobmany intermediate phases, and shades, and mix- agitator of all ages, and all societies. But this chatures, just as there are many varieties of human racter claims a short separate notice. character. We shall endeavour to sketch the out- A very moderate intellect, or at all events, that lines of a few.

sort of intellect which, however acute and subtile We have first of all the man of medium or in- in some points, wants on the whole that indescribferior intellect, of a timid disposition, and mode- able quality, “common sense"-warm and kindly rate passions-quiet, methodical, unimaginative, sympathies, hope passing into visionary enthusifond of routine, and averse to change-just enough asm-fearlessness as to the result of any consein his dealings, willing to live and let live-willing quences—a rooted idea of the perfectibility of man to take the world and the times as they are, and by means of political institutions—a nice sense of averse to any alteration, even though obviously for abstract justice, sometimes an indifference about the better,-forming his opinions of men from the practical—a liberty of opinion and action, which stations they occupy in society, and shaping his would swing freely into air, kicking off all human mode of bearing accordingly.

control, and divine too it may be-abundant selfNext, a man of higher intellect, and stronger sufficiency-afluent loquacity-an untiring pertinpassions—active and eager in the pursuit of all the acity of purpose—this is the beau ideal of a Radical. enjoyments of life-fond of worldly distinction, of Abstract from this really loveable-enough perthe applause of others, especially of his superiors- son—every thing about whom may be endured but a mixture of pride and vanity-vivacious in pros

his eternal talking-abstract his better qualities, perity, but timid and irresolute in emergencies, leave the same portion of intellect, his visionary depressed in adversity-selfish in the main, yet notions, his fearlessness passing into daring-take generous in detail, and disposed to be just at least away even the abstract notion of justice; and for to his friends, and dependents—a church supporter,

kindness and complacency, add scepticism, maligat least on system-a respecter of things sacred nity, and settled hate, and you obtain another phase from constitution, and often from conviction; a of political character, fit any day for “treasons, strakind, and noble, and considerate being, when all tagems, and spoils," and on some consummating goes on swimmingly and submissively around him, occasions, to grace the platform of the gallows. he being the centre of a circle, the circumference Or if you take our Radical, after he has fretted of which may either be a manor or a kingdom. his hour upon the stage, and put him into power, These may represent the genus Tory. The one a from the ceacon of a corporation, up to the magisTHE TORCH, NO. III.

JAN. 17, 1846.

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