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on the kindness of friends. In a word, he at length suc- on the lower slopes of the park. The clear sunshine ceeded in gaining her hand, though with the solemn imparted to them this day exquisite variegations of fleecy assurance that her heart was unalterably another's
light and shadow: they formed a billowy ocean of green, He took her with him to Sicily, hoping that a change that seemed as if wrought in floss silk ; far beyond,- for of scene might wear out the remembrance of early woes. the nearer fields of the level country are hidden by the She was an amiable and exemplary wife, and made an oaks -- lies a blue labyrinth of hedge-rows, stuck over effort to be a happy one; but nothing could cure the with trees, and so crowded together in the distance, that silent and devouring melancholy that had entered into they present a forest-like appearance; while, still farther her very soul. She wasted away in a slow but hopeless beyond, there stretches along the horizon a continuous decline, and at length sunk into the grave, the victim of purple screen, composed of the distant highlands of a broken heart.
Cambria. It was on her that Moore, the distinguished Irish poet, | Such is the landscape which Thomson loved. And composed the following lines :
here he used to saunter, the laziest and best-natured of
mortal men, with an imagination full of many-coloured She is far from the land where her young hero sleeps, conceptions, by far the larger part of them never to be And lovers around her are sighing;
realized, and a quiet eye, that took in without effort, and But coldly she turns from their gaze and weeps, For her beart in his grave is lying.
stamped on the memory, every meteoric effect of a
changeful climate, which threw its tints of gloom or of She sings the wild songs of her dear native plains,
gladness over the diversified prospect. The images sunk Every note which he loved awaking Ah ! little they think who delight in her strains,
into the quiescent mind as the silent shower sinks into How the heart of the minstrel is breaking !
the crannies and fissures of the soil, to come gushing out
at some future day in those springs of poetry, which so He had loved for his love--for his country he died,
sparkle in the “ Seasons," or that glide in such quiet yet They were all that to life had entwined him Nor soon shall the tears of his country be dried,
lustrous beauty through that most finished of English Nor long will his love stay behind him:
poems, the “ Castle of Indolence." Never before, or
since, was there a man of genius wronght out of such Oh I make her a grave where the sun-beams rest, When they promise a glorions morrow;
mild and sluggish elements as the bard of the Seasons ; They'll shine o'er her sleep, like a smile from the west, -a listless man was James Thomson ; kindly-hearted; From her own loved island of sorrow,
much loved by all his friends; little given to think of Selected.
himself; “who loathed much to write, he cared to repeat." And to Hagely he used to come, as Shenstone
tells us, in “a hired chaise, drawn by two horses ranged HAUNTS OF THOMSON, SHENSTONE, AND
lengthwise,”-to lie a-bed till long past mid-day, because POPE.
he had “nae motive” to rise, -and to browse in the
gardens on the sunny side of the peaches, with his hands We extract the following from an eloquent series of
stuck in his pockets. He was hourly expected at Hagely papers entitled “First Impressions of England and its
on one of his many visits, when intelligence came, instead, People,” presently in course of periodical publication by
of his sudden death. With all his amazing inertness, he
must have been a loveable man ;-an essentially different Mr Hugh Miller.
sort of person from either of his two poetical Scotch I was informed by an old man who was sawing slabs acquaintances, Mallet or Armstrong. Quin wept for him of New Red Sandstone, that I would have no difficulty in | no feigned tears on the boards of the theatre;-poor getting admission to the Lyttleton grounds; I had but to Collins, a person like himself, of warm affections, had walk up to the gardener's lodge, and secure the services gone to live beside him at Richmond, but on his death, of one of the under gardeners, and, under his surveillance, quitted the place for ever ; even Shenstone, a man whose I might wander over the place as long as I pleased. At nature it was to think much and often of himself, felt one time, he said, people might enter the park when they life grow darker at his departure, and, true to his hobby, willed, without guide or guard ; but the public, left to commemorated him in an urn, on the principle on which its own discretion, had behaved remarkably ill; it had l the late Lord Buchan was so solicitous to bury Sir Walter thrown down the urns, and chipped the obelisks, and Scott. “He was to have been at Hagely this week," we scrabbled worse than nonsense on the columns and the find him saying in a letter dated from the Leasowes, in trees; and so it had to be set under a keeper, to insure which he records his death, "and then I should probably better behaviour.
have seen him here. As it is, I will erect an urn in I succeeded in securing one of the gardeners, and, Virgil's grove to his memory. I was really as much passing with him through part of the garden, and a small shocked to hear of his death, as if I had known and loved but well kept greenhouse, we emerged into the park, and him for a number of years. God knows, I lean on a very began to ascend the bill by a narrow inartificial path, few friends, and if they drop me, I become a wretched that winds, in alternate sunshine and shadow, as the trees | misanthrope.” approach or recede, through the rich moss of the lawn. Passing upwards from Thomson's hollow, we reach a Half way up the ascent, where the hill-side is indented | second and more secluded depression in the hill-side, by a deep, irregularly semicireular depression,-open and associated with the memory of Shenstone. At the head grassy in the bottom and sides, but thickly garnished of a solitary racine we see a white pedestal, bearing an along the rim with noble trees, there is an octagonal urn; the trees droop their branches so thickly around it, temple, dedicated to the genius of Thomson,--"a sublime that, when the eye first detects it in the shade, it seems poet,” says the inscription, “and a good man,” who a retreating figure, wrapped up in a winding sheet. The greatly loved, when living, this hollow retreat. I looked | inscription is eulogistie of the poet's character and genius; with no little interest on the scenery that had satisfied so “ in his verses," it tells us, with a quiet elegance, in great a master of landscape; and thought, though it which we at once recognize the hand of Lyttleton, “were might be but fancy, that I succeeded in detecting the all the natural graces, and in his manners all the amiable secret of his admiration; and that the specialties of his simplicity, of pastoral poetry, with the sweet tenderness taste in the case rested, as they almost always do in such of the elegaic.” This secluded ravine seems scarce less cases, on a substratum of personal character. The green characteristic of the author of the “Ode to Rural Elehill spread out its mossy arms around, like those of a gance," and the “ Pastoral Ballad," than the opener well padded easy chair of enormous proportions, impart-hollow below of the poet of the Seasons. There is no ing, from the complete seclusion and shelter which it great expansion of view, of which, indeed, Shenstone was afforded, luxurious ideas of personal security and ease; no admirer. “Prospects," he says in his “Canons on while the open front permitted the eye to expatiate on Landscape," “ should never take in the blue hills so an expansive and lovely landscape. We see the ground remotely that they be not distinguishable from clouds; immediately in front occupied by an uneven sea of tree yet this mere extent is what the vulgar value." Thomtops,-chiefly oaks of noble size, that rise, at various levels, son, however, though not quite one of the vulgar, valued
it too: as seen from his chosen recess, the blue of the indignantly to say, “ that he deemed it an honour to be distant hills seems melting into the blue of the sky, or, received into the familiarity of so great a poet.” But the as he himself better describes the dim outline,
titled paid a still higher, though perhaps undesigned
compliment, to the untitled author, by making his own “The Cambrian mountains, like far clouds
poetry the very echo of his. Among the English literati That skirt the blue horizon, dusky rise."
of the last century, there is no other writer of equal It is curious enough to find two men, both remarkable general ability so decidedly, I had almost said so servilely, for their nice sense of the beautiful in natural scenery, at of the school of Pope as Lyttleton. The little crooked issue on so important a point; but the diversity of their man, during the last thirteen years of his life, was a tastes indicates, one may venture to surmise, not only frequent visitor at Hagely; and it is still a tradition in the opposite character of their genius, but of their dis- the neighbourhood, that in the hollow in which his urn positions also. Shenstone was naturally an egotist, and, has been erected, he particularly delighted. He forgot like Rousseau, scarce ever contemplated a landscape Cibber, Sporus, and Lord Fanny ;---flung up with much without some tacit reference to the space which he him- glee his poor shapeless legs, thickened by three pairs of self occupied in it. “An air of greatness," remarks the stockings a-piece, and far from thick after all ; and called infirm philosopher of Geneva, “has always something the place “ his own ground.” It certainly does no dismelancholy in it; it leads us to consider the wretchedness credit to the taste that originated the gorgeous, though of those who affect it. In the midst of extended grass- somewhat indistinct descriptions of Windsor Forest. plats and fine walks, the little individual does not grow There are noble oaks on every side,---some in their greater; a tree of twenty feet high will shelter him as vigorous middle-age, invested with that “rough grandeur well as one of sixty; he never occupies a space of more of bark, and wide protection of bough,” which Shenstone than three feet, and in the midst of his immense posses- so admired, --some far gone in years, mossy and timesions is lost like a poor worm.” Alas! it was but a poor shattered, with white skeleton branches atop, and fantastic worm, ever brooding over its own mean dimensions, scraggy roots projecting, snake-like, from the broken ever thinking of the little entity self, and jealous, in its ground below. An irregular open space in front permits egotism, of even the greatness of nature, that could have the eye to range over the distant prospect ;-a small moralized in a strain so unwholesome. Thomson, the clump of trees rises so near the urn, that, when the breeze least egotistic of all poets, had no such jealousy in his blows, the slim branch-tips lash it as if in sport; while a composition. Instead of feeling himself lost in any save clear and copious spring comes bubbling out at its base. vignette landscapes, it was his delight, wholly forgetful I passed somewhat hurriedly through glens and glades, of self and its minute measurements, to make landscapes -over rising knolls and wooded slopes,--saw statues and even larger than the life,-to become all eye, and, by obelisks, temples and hermitages,--and lingered awhile adding one long reach of the vision to another, to take in ere I again descended to the lawn on the top of an a kingdom at a glance. There are few things finer in eminence which commands one of the richest prospects English poetry than the description in which, on this I had yet seen. The landscape from this point, by far principle, he lays all Scotland at once upon the canvas. too fine to have escaped the eye of Thomson,-is described
in the Seasons; and the hill which overlooks it, repre“Here awhile the muse,
sented as terminating one of the walks of Lyttleton and High-hovering o'er the broad cerulean scene, Sees Caledonia in romantic view;
his lady,—that Lady Lucy whose early death formed, but Her airy mountains, from the waving main
a few years after, the subject of the monody so well Invested with a keen diffusive sky,
known and so much admired in the days of our great Breathing the soul acute; her forests huge, Incult, robust, and tall, by Nature's hand
grandmothers :Planted of old; her azure lakes between,
« The beauteous bride, Poured out extensive, and of watery wealth
To whose fair memory flowed the tenderest tear
That ever trembled o'er the female bier."
It is not in every nobleman's park one can have the With sylvan Jed, thy tributary brook),
opportunity of comparing such a picture as that in the To where the north inflated tempest foams
Seasons with such an original. I quote with the descripO'er Orcas or Betubium's highest peak."
tion the preliminary lines, so vividly suggestive of the Shenstone's recess. true to his character, excludes, as I short-lived happiness of Lyttleton have said, the distant landscape. It is, however, an
“ Perhaps thy loved Lucinda shares thy walk, exceedingly pleasing, thongh somewhat gloomy spot, With soul to thine attuned. Then Nature all shut up on every side by the encircling hills,-here Wears to the lover's eye a look of love: feathered with wood, there projecting its soft, undulating
And all the tumult of a guilty world,
Toss'd by the generous passions, sinks away; line of green against the blue sky; while, occupying the The tender heart is animated peace, bottom of the hollow, there is a small, sheltered lake, And as it pours its copious treasures forth with a row of delicate limes, that dip their pendant
In various converse, softening every theme,
You frequent pausing, turn, and from her eyes, branches in the water.
Where merkened sense, and amiable grace, Yet a little further on, we descend into an opener and And lively sweetness dwell, enraptured drink more varied inflection in the hilly region of Hagely, That nameless spirit of ethereal joy, which is said to have been as favourite a haunt of Pope
Unutterable happiness! which love
Alone bestows, and on a favoured few, as the two others of Thomson and Shenstone, and in Meantime, you gain the height from whose fair brow which an elaborately-carved urn and pedestal records
The bursting prospect spreads immense around, Lyttleton's estimate of his powers as a writer, and his
And snatched o'er hill and dale, and wood and lawn,
And verdant field and darkening heath between; aims as a moralist. “The sweetest and most elegant,"
And villages, embosomed soft in trees, says the inscription, “ of English poets, the severest And spiry towns, by surging columns marked, chastiser of vice, and the most persuasive teacher of
Of household smoke, your eye excursive roams,
Wide stretching from the Hall, in whose kind haunt wisdom." Lyttleton and Pope seemed to have formed
The Hospitable Genius lingers still; mutually high estimates of each other's powers and To where the broken landscape, by degrees character. In the Satires, we find three several compli Ascending, roughens into rigid hills,
O'er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds ments paid to the "young Lyttleton,"
That skirt the blue horizon, dusky rise." “Still true to virtue, and as warm as true."
As I called up the passage on the spot where, as a yet And when, in the House of Commons, one of Sir Robert unformed conception, it had first arisen in the mind of Walpole's supporters accused the rising statesman of the writer, I felt the full force of the contrast presented being the facile associate of an “unjust and licentious by the two pictures which it exhibits, the picture of a lampooner,”-for, as Sir Robert's administration was high but evanescent human happiness, whose sun had corrupt and the satirist severe, such was Pope's character set in the grave nearly a century ago, and the picture of in the estimate of the Ministerial majority,-he rose the enduring landscape, unaltered in a single feature,
since Lyttleton and his lady had last gazed on it from
LOTTERIES, &c. the hill-top. “ Alas!” exclaimed the contemplative Mirza, “ Man is but a shadow, and life a dream.” A Most modern governments have endeavoured to raise a natural enough reflection surely,—greatly more so, I am revenue by licensing lotteries; and they were authorised afraid, than the solace sought by the poet Beattie ander in this country from the Revolution down to 1823. The its depressing influence, in a resembling evanescence and overweening confidence placed by every individual in his instability in all nature, and in all history.
own good fortune has insured their success, notwithstand« Art, empire, earth itself, to change are doomed ;
ing the certain loss they must, at an average, occasion to Earthquakes have raised to hearen the humble vale,
those who are adventurous enough to embark in them. And gulfs the mountains' mighty mass entombed,
“ The world,” says Dr Smith,“ never saw, and never will And where the Atlantic rolls wide continents have bloomed."
see, a perfectly fair lottery, or one in which the whole All very true ; none the less so certainly from the cir- gain compensated the whole loss. In the state lotteries cumstance of its being truth in advance of the age in the tickets are really not worth the price which is paid which the poet wrote; but it is equally and still more by the original subscribers, and yet they are commonly emphatically true, that the instability of a mountain or sold in the market for 20, 30, and sometimes 40 per continent is a thing to be contrasted, not compared, with cent. advance. The vain hope of gaining some of the the instability of the light clouds that, when the winds great prizes is the sole cause of this demand. The soberest Are up, float over it, and fling athwart the landscape their people scarcely look upon it as a folly to pay a small sum breadth of fitful shadow. And, alas! what is human for the chance of gaining ten or twenty thousand pounds, life? “even a vapour that appeareth for a little time, and though they know that even that small sum is perhaps then vanisheth away." There need be no lack of 20 or 30 per cent. more than the chance is worth. In a mementos to remind one, as I was this day reminded by lottery in which no prize exceeded twenty pounds, though the passage in Thomson, what a transitory shadow in other respects, it approached much nearer to a perman is, compared with the old earth which he inhabits, fectly fair one than the common state lotteries, there and how fleeting his pleasures, contrasted with the stable would not be the same demand for tickets. In order to features of the scenes amid which for a few brief seasons have a better chance for some of the great prizes, some he enjoys them.
people purchase several tickets, and others small shares The landscape from the hill-top could not have been in a still greater number. There is not, however, a more seen to greater advantage, had I waited for months to certain proposition in mathematics than that, the more pick out their best day; the far Welsh mountains, though tickets you adventure upon, the more likely you are to lessened in the distance to a mere azure ripple that but be a loser. Adventure upon all the tickets in the lottery, barely roughened the line of the horizon, were as dis- and you lose for certain; and the greater the number of tinctly defined in the clear atmosphere as the green your tickets, the nearer you approach to this certainty." luxuriant leafage in the foreground, which harmonized | But the loss of money by those who embark in the so exquisitely with their blue. The line extended from lottery is an inferior consideration. The real evil of the far beyond the Shropshire Wrekin on the right, to far system consists in its tendency to diffuse a gambling beyond the Worcestershire Malverns on the left. Im | spirit; and to stimulate persons to attempt to relieve mediately at the foot of the eminence stands the Mansion themselves from their difficulties by adventuring in the House of Hagely-the “ Hall” where the "hospitable lottery rather than by an increase of exertion or ecogenius lingers still;"--a large; solid-looking, but some nomy. It is obvious that an institution' productive of such what sombre edifice, built of the New Red Sandstone on effects is directly opposed to the growth of all those quawhich it rests, and which too much reminds one, from its lities in the people, the promotion of which should be a peculiar tint, of the prevailing red brick of the district. principal object of every wise government. During the There was a gay party of cricket players on the lawn in continuance of the lottery system, the gaining of a prize front. Lord Lyttleton, a fine looking young man, stripped by an individual belonging to a country village was about of coat and waistcoat, with his bright white shirt puffed the most serious evil that could befall'it, inasmuch as it out at his waistband, was sending the ball far beyond invariably gave a shock to industry, and spread a taste bound, amid an eager party, consisting chiefly, as the for gambling among the inhabitants. A curious instance gardener informed me, of tenants and tenants' sons ; of this was mentioned in a debate in the House of Comand the cheering sounds of shout and laughter came mons on the lottery in 1819. A village in which a merrily up the hill. Beyond the house rises a noble benefit-club, for the support of aged. and infirm persons, screen of wood, composed of some of the tallest and finest | had been established, had the misfortune to have a lottery trees in England. Here and there the picturesque adventurer in it, who gained a prize of L.3000. In concottages of the neighbouring village peep through; and sequence of this unlucky circumstance, the benefit-club then, on and away to the far horizon, there spreads out was immediately suppressed, and a lottery-club estaba close-wrought net-work of fenced fields, that, as it lished in its stead. And, not satisfied with this, many recedes from the eye, seems to close its meshes, as if I persons carried almost all their furniture, and some even drawn awry by the hand, till at length the openings can their bed-clothes, to the pawnbroker's, to get a little be no longer seen, and the hedge-rows lie piled on each money to throw away on lottery-tickets! other in one bosky mass. The geologic framework of In 1808 the lottery system was carefully inquired into, the scene is various, and each distinct portion bears its and its numerous abuses set in a striking point of view own marked characteristics. In the foreground we have by a committee of the House of Commons, who conclude the undulating trap, -50 suited to remind one, by the their report by expressing their decided opinion, “ That picturesque abruptnesses of its outlines, of those some- | the pecuniary advantage derived from a state lottery is what fantastic backgrounds one sees in the old prints much greater in appearance than in reality. When we which illustrate in our early English translations the take into consideration the increase of poor-rates arising pastorals of Virgil and Theocritus. Next succeeds an from the number of families driven by speculations in the extended plane of the richly-cultivated New Red Sand lottery, whether fortunate or otherwise, to seek parochial stone, which, occupying fully two-thirds of the entire | relief; the diminished consumption of exciseable articles landscape, forms the whole of what a painter would term during the drawings, and other circumstances; they may its middle ground, and a little more. There rises over well be considered to operate as a large deduction from this plane; in the distance, a ridgy acclivity, much fretted the gross sums paid into the Exchequer by the contracby inequalities, composed of an Old Red Sandstone tors. On the other hand, the sum raised upon the people formation, coherent enough to have resisted those is much greater in proportion to the amount received by denuding agencies by which the softer deposits have the state, than in any other branch of revenue. been worn down ; while the distant sea of blue hills that “No mode of raising money appears to your committee seems as if toppling over it, has been scooped out of the so burthensome, so pernicious, and so unproductive ; no Silurian and Cambrian systems, and demonstrates, in its species of adventure is kpown where the chances are so commanding altitude and bold wavy outline, the still great against the adventurer ; none where the infatuation greater solidity of the materials which compose it. ' is more powerful, lasting, and destructive.
** In the lower classes of society the persons engaged, NEBULÆ AND THE NEBULAR THEORY. whether successful or unfortunate, are generally speak | Mwy of our readers must often have heard of neing, either immediately or ultimately tempted to their
bulæ and the nehular theory. There are not a few ruin ; and there is scarcely any condition of life so desti, tute and abandoned. that its distresses have not been who talk very fluently on these matters who have aggravated by this allurement to gaming, held forth by
but a very dim and indistinct idea of what the word the state."
means, an idea perhaps even more indefinite than The lottery never produced any considerable amount the objects themselves. Nebulæ are usually defined of revenue; and it really seems astonishing that a system as .objects resembling small white clouds seen in the productive of such pernicious results should have been so heavens. They resemble, but are not, clouds ; for long and so generally tolerated. It is to be hoped that they do not exist in our atmosphere, but in the it may never again make a figure in the budget of this
regions of the starry heavens, in which they retain country.
a fixed place in relation to the stars around. In In England all private gaming-houses have been prohibited for a lengthened period ; in other countries,
| general, they are so dim and indistinct that only a however, they are sometimes licensed by government, and
practised eye can discern them, especially in our dull yield a considerable revenue. The question, which of and hazy climate, where they are not visible thirty these is the preferable mode of dealing with gaming- nights in a year on an average. There is one nehouses, is one of considerable delicacy. It is objected to bula, however, which all must or ought to have their being licensed, that it has a tendency to disseminate observed. This is the milky way, whose irregular a spirit of gambling among the middle and lower ranks ; | zone of pearly light may be seen in the beginning of and it is, on the other hand, contended that, though vinter or end of summer stretching across the midsuppressed in law, they exist in fact, and that their pro
night sky. Even in the northern hemisphere, this scription, by putting them under the control of desperate
zone is a beautiful object in a clear cloudless atmoand profligate characters, and securing them from the
sphere, but appears to be far more splendid near the inspection of the police and the public, renders them infinitely more noxious than they would be were they
south pole. Sir John Herschel speaks thus of it, legalised. It must be owned that this is a case of con.
with the enthusiasm of a true astronomer :-" The siderable difficulty. But, on the whole, we should be
general aspect of the southern circumpolar regions inclined to think that, though our system may be more is in a high degree rich and magnificent, owing to injurious to those who resort to gaming-houses, it is the superior brilliancy and large development of the preferable to the other, as well for the stigma which it milky way, which, from the constellation of Orion attaches to gambling, as for its tendency to prevent its to that of Antinous, is a blaze of light, strangely making any great progress among the great mass of the interrupted, however, with vacant and entirely starpeople. This opinion would also seem to be gaining less patches, especially in Scorpio. near Alpha Cenground on the Continent. Previously to 1837 the French
tauri and the Cross, while to the north it fades away government realised a considerable revenue by licensing
pale and dim, and is in comparison hardly traceable. gaming-houses; the licenses were then, however, withdrawn, and the gaming-houses of Paris, like those of
I think it is impossible to view this splendid zone, London, may now, on being discovered by the police, be with the astonishingly rich and evenly distributed suppressed as a nuisance.*--M Culloch's Political Economy. | fringe of stars of the third and fourth magnitude,
which forms a broad skirt to its southern border • We borrow the following account of the gains of the late le. like a vast curtain, without an impression amounting galised gaming-houses in Paris from the Siecle:
almost to conviction, that the milky way is not a “ The original lease was from 1819 to 1836, but was continued for one year more. On the 31st December 1837, when the license mere stratum, but annular ; or at least that our was at an end, there were seven houses open in Paris, containing system is placed within one of the poorer or almost together seventeen tables; nine of which were for roulette, six for treute-un, and two for creps. A separate account of the gains and
vacant parts of its general mass, and that eccentriclosses of each table was settled every month, making 204 settlements ally, so as to be much nearer to the region about the in each year. Of these 204 settlements for 1837, only seventeen
Cross than to that diametrically opposite to it." showed losses. The following are the results :
We quote this passage simply to give the reader Houses
some notion of the aspect of the milky way in regions (1 Roulette, No. 129, Palais Royal,
1,734,618 81 of the heavens which few may ever witness. Though 12 Trente-un, No. 113, Palais Royal, 2 Roulettes,
329,963 58 in that part of the heavens visible to us, it is comS2 Roulettes, No. 36, Palais Royal, 11 Trente-un,
paratively “ pale and dim," yet its general aspect is
2,254,405 45 (1 Trente-un for gold,
the same as above described : & thin zone of light No. 154, Palais Royal, 21 Trente-un for silver, 1,677,661 20 like a fleecy cloud, fringed and bordered with innuI Roulette,
merable stars, which range along its margin as if 1 Roulette, .
398,118 16 Rue Marivaux, .. 31 Trente-un,
drawn thither by some attractive power. The larger 1 Creps,
and more brilliant stars are pretty equally disposed (I Trente-un, Frascati, 31 Roulette,
through the sky-each portion of the heavens seems
to have got its own share of thein-but this is not
9,288,581 51 Deduct for losses of the seventeen monthly
Consequently, the system of gambling is the more mischievous and
809,486 40 settlements, . - - - . s
fatal the lower the stakes allowed to be played for. The table at
which only gold was taken made a return of loss for five months Balance of gain
8,479,095 11 out of the twelve. The trente-un table of the Cercle made six
returns of loss out the twelve.
BALANCE SHEET OF THE ACCOUNT FOR 1837.
Amount of gains, . . . . 8.479.095 in
Expenses of management, 350,000 7,430,100 0
Interest of caution-money, 25,000) 8,479,095 11
Nett profit, . . . . 1,048,995 11 The table which produced the greatest monthly gain in the year was one for trente-un, which in February yielded a profit of Of this profit the city of Paris received 786,746fr. 33c., and the 162,837fr. 79c. This was during the carnival, when, from the ex. farmer of the games 262,248fr. 78c. The city also received out of citement of the season, the extent of play is always the greatest. the license-rent 555, 100fr., which, added to its portion of the None of the tables in the Palais Royal showed a loss in any one gains, made an income from this lamentable source of no less than month except that for trente-un, at which only gold was staked. '1,341,846fr. 33c."
the case with those of smaller dimensions, which are hour glass, of bright matter, enveloped in a hazy collected into groups near that zone of the heavens atmosphere; another a bright nucleus, surrounded traversed by the milky way. This fact is easily by a nebulous ring, split into two through half its perceived with the naked eye, but becomes more circumference. It is needless enumerating more of reinarkable when a powerful telescope is used, and these fanciful resemblances, in which so much dethe diffused light of the milky way is resolved into pended on the point of view in which they were seen, an innumerable mass of stars of the tenth or eleventh and the power of the telescope. This is the less nemagnitude. This circumstance explains some things cessary, as the recent improvements in that instruin the extract from Herschel above. The milky inent, in the hands of Lord Rosse, have shown that way appears to be a bed or stratum of stars, whose the latter element is of the very highest importance, thickness is very inconsiderable compared to its and that appearances, on which some men reasoned length and breadth. The sun is believed to be one boldly last year, are now banished from the domain of these stars, situated in the interior of the mass, of science. The nebula in Orion, on whose irresolwhich consequently appears like a ring surrounding vability Professor Nichol, somewhat rashly, it would it on every side. When we look across the thickness appear, staked the whole foundations of the nebular of the layer, only a few stars appear, and these of theory, has been changed into a splendid group of considerable size, as being all near us comparatively distinct orbs, and that gentleman seems accordingly speaking. But when the eye is turned in the direc- to have given up his favourite hypothesis. Others tion of the bed, then many stars appear, retiring of the nebulæ referred to above have also lost their away to vast distances in the unbounded depths of former curious forms, to assume new ones, it would
Hence, though more numerous, they are in appear, even more singular ; but as the facts have not general far smaller, and at last, where crowded to- yet come before the public in a very authentic form, gether in the remote distances, none of them singly we shall not dilate longer on this part of the subject. is visible, and only the mingled effulgence of their Now, a few words on the so-called nebular theory. united rays is seen.
| Perhaps the earliest intimation of it is to be found The opinion that this layer of stars is annular, or in the following passage from one of Sir Isaac Newlike a ring, with the stars composing it all collected ton's letters to Bentley, then composing his valuable around the margin, while the central regions are left sermons for the Boyle Lecture :-“ If the matter of vacant, is adopted by other astronomers besides Sir the sun and planets was evenly disposed throughout J. Herschel. It explains very well the fact of the an infinite space, it would never convene into one ring in one part appearing more dim than in another. mass; but some of it would convene into one mass, The size of this ring may be conceived, if it is possible and some into another, so as to make an infinite numfor the mind of man to conceive such vast numbers, ber of masses, scattered at great distances from one from the fact that the nearest fixed stars, or sister another, throughout all the infinite space. And thus systems to our own, are now ascertained to be from might the sun and the fixed stars be formed, suptwo to eight hundred thousand times the distance of posing the matter were of a lucid nature. But how the earth from the sun. The Pole Star is now said the matter should divide itself into two sorts ; and to be thirteen hundred thousand times this distance, that part of it which is fit to compose a shining or so remote, that light, which can encircle the earth body should fall down into one mass and make a eight times in a second, would yet take twenty years sun; and the rest, which is fit to compose an opaque to travel from it to our eye; yet these stars are among body, should coalesce, not into one great body, the nearest to our system, and the light of the milky like the shining matter, but into many little ones; way must have been hundreds or thousands of years or if the sun were at first an opaque body like the on its journey. And other bodies, like the dimmer planets, or the planets lucid bodies like the sun, nebulæ, inust he still more remote, and the light from how he alone should be changed into a shining body them have performed a longer and more tedious jour-whilst all they continue opaque; or all they be ney. How singular the thought, that the beam of changed into opaque ones, whilst he remains unlight which caught in Lord Rosse's telescope upsets changed, I do not think explicable by mere natural or confirms our theories of a day, set out on its causes, but am forced to ascribe it to the counsel journey ages before man was called into being on and contrivance of a voluntary agent.” This pasthe earth.
sage shows one point of view from which many have The milky way, then, is a group of stars, whose been led to adopt the nebular theory, from the desire light is blended together into a luminous cloud, by to explain the origin of the universe without having their extreme distance. Other luminous clouds or recourse to a supernatural agent. The latter part nebulæ are seen in the heavens similar to this, only also shows how little it is capable of doing this, and dimmer and smaller. It might naturally have been how even the far-seeing mind of Newton felt that it supposed that these were similar in structure to the was necessary to have recourse to “the counsel and milky way, and, like it, composed of innumerable contrivance” of the Deity. The argument of Newstars. And the telescope has in reality shown, that ton seems to us fatal to all attempts to make the this is true of many. With good glasses, they are nebular theory alone construct a world, and we have resolved into a kind of starry dust, sprinkled on the quoted it at length, in the hope that some who might dark back-ground of the sky; and, with more despise the words of lesser men nay listen to his powerful telescopes, their true nature is still more weighty dictates. apparent. But there were others which could not Laplace, the greatest perhaps of Newton's folbe thus resolved; though, like one in the beautiful lowers, also started the nebular hypothesis as a constellation of Orion, easily visible, even with a weak means of explaining certain mathematical facts or glass, the most powerful instruments of Herschel laws that prevail in the structure of the universe. had no effect in changing their apparent nature. A He saw that all the planets revolved in one direccloud-like form in the weakest telescope--in the tion, and nearly in one plane, round the sun, that most powerful they were nothing more. Many of the satellites do the same round the planets, that these unresolved nebulæ had very peculiar forms; the sun itself, the planets, and the satellites, all roone resembled an elliptical hoop, filled with a fine tate on their axes in the same direction, and that haze, or thin gauze; another like a dumb-bell, or 'the motions of all these bodies are nearly circular.