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to himself, and there being something to drink offered him, he was desired to take the same and endeavour to sleep, unto which he answered, “ It is not my design to drink or sleep, but my design is to make what haste I can to be gone.” When the morrow's sun rose he was speechless; between three and four of the afternoon he lay dead, Friday 3d September 1658. “ The consternation and astonishment of all people," writes Fauconberg “ are inexpressible; their hearts seem as if sunk within them. My poor wife,- I know not what on earth to do with her; when seemingly quieted she bursts out again into a passion that tears her very heart in pieces. • Hush, poor weeping Mary !
The storm is chinged into a calm
At his con mand and will,
Now quiet are and still.
And quiet now they be,
Which they desired to sce."
“ Usurper," with what she was, and what position she held in the eyes of other nations, under the sway of the most profligate and unprincipled of sovereigns, they cannot fail to perceive, that the premature death of Cromwell retarded Britain's progress as a nation, nearly as many centuries as have elapsed between that period and the present times. Or if we go back and speculate on what Britain would have been bad there been no Puritans and no Cromwell; what the untiring zeal of Laud or the facile indolence and obstinacy of his illfated sovereign, would have brought her to. How the incipient superstition of the present day would have been accelerated by two hundred years, and would have more surely paved the way for the bigotry of James and the confirmed intolerance of a line of successors.
We have left no space to comment on the two interesting volumes which we have quoted at the head of this sketch. With much of that quaint manner of the editor, they are so arranged as to exhibit a lively and perhaps the most full and authentic picture of this hero which has yet been given to the public. Great pains appear to have been taken in arranging and digesting his ample materials, and to us the original speeches and letters, as here given, are more interesting than even the most elaborate historical memoir could have been.
THE MOST IMPORTANT EUROPEAN LINES OF
The great paths followed by commerce have, in al- tions how much of the commerce of the world we are to most every century, assumed a new character. This retain in future times, and what nations are most likely has arisen principally from the discovery of new routes to enter into competition for it with us. --from changes in the commercial supremacy of natious So long as commerce continues principally in the --from the opening up of new fields for trade, and hands of England, the Netherlands, France, and Geramendments in the modes of transport. The ancient many, and so long as the opposite coast of southern and highway of Indian commerce through Asia Minor, was central Asia, with Australia and the east coast of Africa, foreud into the back-ground by the discovery of the way continue to justify the great expectations they have by sea round the southern extremity of Africa, and the raised, so long will the most important overland route latter seems in its turn likely to fall in importance by for general commerce cross the continent of Enrope in the opening of that over the Isthmus of Suez. The Ve- the direction from south-east to north-west. The internetians and Genoese fixed the metropolis of commerce course of Europe with the west coast of Africa, and the for a short time in the centre of Europe ; by the mari- whole of America must always, in the nature of things, tine preponderance of the Spaniards and Portuguese, it be by water ; though the time, undoubtedly, is not diswas far a brief interval transferred to the Pyrenean pen- tant when a railway will connect the two great oceans, insula ; from this it passed to the Low Countries, from either across the Isthmus of Panama, .or from Florida which it was soon almost entirely withdrawn by Eng- to California. Until a railway is constructed from the land. Each of these changes has produced considerable Persian Gulf to the Black Sea, no other route is likely alterations in the direction pursued by merchandise. to compete with the Isthmus of Suez ; and Alexandria The opening of new fields for trade, as in the old Span- | seems destined to continue for many years the mediu ish colonies, in Australia and China, has also increased of communication between Europe and the Indian Ocean. the importance of certain routes for commerce, and les- Alexandria can now be reached by a steam-boat from sened that of others. Yet no circumstance has had a Hong-Kong, in thirty-nine to forty-two days ; from (almore decisive influence than the employment of steam cutta, in twenty-four to twenty-six days ; from Bombay, as a mean of transport.
in fourteen to sixteen days; and from Aden, in eight to In these circumstances, an attempt describe the ten days. From this city to the north and centre of present state, and future prospects of steam communica- Europe, and to the shores of the North Sea especially, tion in Europe, cannot be without general interest. the roads which either now or subsequently, are likely This must be especially interesting to the inhabitants of to compete with that by sea through the straits of GibGreat Britain, not less on account of the great capital braltar, are those which begin at Trieste, Genoa, and they have already invested in foreign railways, than from Marseilles. From Alexandria to Trieste, the steam-boat its connexion with the national wealth and prosperity. takes 144 to 150 hours sailing ; to Genoa, 192 to 200 ; On it, in some measure, depends the answer to the ques. I to Marseilles, 200 to 216 hours ; by Malta, Gibraltar
Cadiz, Lisbon, Oporto, and Vigo to Southampton, takes 384 to 480 hours sailing : from Madras, by Ceylon, Mauritius, Cape Town, St Jago, and Gibraltar, to Southampton, has hitherto been completed in 1320 to 1560 hours sailing by the steam-boat, the necessary delays included. On all these routes, considerable gain of time might be attained, especially by proper regulations regarding quarantine.
Supposing those railways, which in future will cross Europe from south to north, and east to west completed, which they undoubtedly will be in ten years of longer peace, then the following results are found :
From Trieste to Stettin, by the shortest road, 500 miles, and at sixteen miles an-hour, including stoppages, fifty-one hours travelling. By this route from HongKong to St Petersburg, would be fifty-two days, whereas, at present by sea, over Alexandria and England, the skortest time is sixty six days. To other important places on the North Sea, the time from Alexandria over Trieste, supposing the shortest road chosen, and the same rate of travelling, which, though slow for England, is yet as much as can be calculated on for the continent, would be as follows :-Hamburg, 191 hours ; Amsterdam and Rotterdam, 197 hours ; Ostende, 202, and by the latter to London, 211 hours. From Genoa, the lines are as yet very uncertain, but through Switzerland by the Rhine to Ostende, the journey from Alexandria would occupy 213 hours, through France to Boulogne, an hour more, and by the latter to London, 249 hours. By Marseilles to Boulogne and London, the time is almost the same; so that from England to Egypt is, through France or Switzerland, a journey of only ten and a half days ; through Germany, of only nine days, whereas, by sea, it takes at present from sixteen to twenty days.
The importance to this country of these new routes and improved methods of travelling, can only be rightly estimated when we look to our vast possessions and growing commerce in the East. With an hundred and twenty-five million subjects or dependants in the southeast of Asia, rapidity of communication becomes a matter of vital importance. How much this is forwarded by steam, let the following facts declare. From England to Bombay is still a voyage of an hundred to an hundred and forty days in a sailing vessel; and by steam, to Madras, of fifty-five to sixty; whereas, by railway and steam, through Europe and Alexandria, the former place may be reached in twenty-four, the latter in about thirty days. Despatches from England may now be received at Ilong-Kong in fifty days, or considerably less than two months; whereas, before the introduction of steam, it was a four or five months' voyage. And even the latter was a vast improvement on the state of matters a few years earlier, showing the rapid progress of navigation, since in the end of the last century the usual time for a voyage from England to Canton, was from eight to nine months. With such improvements, the extent of the British empire may be regarded rather as diminishing than increasing. Though the sun never sets on the British realm, yet its most distant provinces are in more frequent, regular, and rapid communication with the seat of government, than in the far more limited Roman empire, where it was boasted that it was easy
to travel an hundred miles in a day by land, or to reach Alexandria in ten days, from the capital, with a favourable wind.
The railways from the south to the north of Europe have less interest for England, and from the disturbed state of Spain, are not likely to be soon completed. Yet the following niay be noticed as the most important. From Lisbon, by Madrid and Paris, to Boulogne, 1235 miles, so that London might be reuched in about 80 hours, whereas by sea it requires 168 hours, or more than twice the time. From Madrid the time would be 20 hours shorter. To St Petersburg the time would be seven or eight days, or half what it is at present by sea. From Cadiz to London, the time and distance would be nearly the same as from Lisbon.
For eastern Europe, railways have yet done little. A most important line would be that from Vienna to the mouth of the Danube, half of which is in progress ; but political considerations render it very doubtful when the remainder may be finished. In Russia, railways have already been begun, and unless limited wholly to internal intercourse, must tend powerfully to shake that system of exclusion, which prevails in that vast empire. The most important lines would be those connecting Odessa with the west, which would then become the shortest route to Constantinople, from which it is from forty to fifty hours' sail distant. Odessa would thus be brought within 70 hours of St Petersburg, 96 of Am. sterdam, aud 113 of London, by Ostende. By land from London it is now about 250 hours, by sea twice that time, or ten and twenty days, instead of five.
These are the most important lines for commerce, and we may now mention some of those connecting the various capitals, which have more interest in a political point of view. London to Paris is about fifteen or sixteen hours journey. London by Ostende and the Rhine to Vienna, sixty-one hours, by Paris three hours longer. London to Berlin, fifty-one hours, to St Petersburg, 107 hours, instead of 180, as at present by the steam boat. Paris will then be fifty lours from Vienna, forty-four from Berlin, and 106 from Petersburg. Vienna will be thirty hours from Berlin, and eighty from Petersburg
Such are a few of the railways which in a few years of peace will cover Europe from one extremity to the other. And to the preservation of this peace they will without doubt greatly contribute. They contract the whole vast continent as it were into one country, for all purposes of transport, and personal intercourse. One can now travel from London or Paris, to Berlin and Vienna, in a shorter time, and with more safety, than forty years ago from London to Edinburgh. Edinburgh and Glasgow were then more distant from each other, than are now the British and French capitals. But intercourse with each other must promote mutual good feeling, must lessen those national prejudices which tend so much to encourage war, and show the number and importance of those common interests which must be sacrificed for its sake. Not the least of these interests will be the capital invested in these railways, most of which would be destroyed, or rendered unproductive, when the discharge of the first cannon gave the signal for breaking off all international inter.
course. A new species of property is thus created, in the preservation of which, many millions of the most influential inhabitants of Europe, will be mutually interested. The impossibility of hurting one's neighbour, without, at the same time hurting one's ownself, will then appear far more clearly than it has hitherto done, and thus form a powerful, though selfish motive for peace. Railways will promote the interchange of intellectual, as well as of material wares; of truths as well as of cotton, tea, or tobacco. That time seems indeed to have come, “ When men should go to and fro on the earth, and knowledge should increase." It is not the physical obstacles to travelling which are thus lessened, but the far more provoking ones which the absurd police regulations of many foreign countries established. The miseries entailed on the traveller by the system of passports,--the delays, the trials of temper and patience, the extortions-must have been felt to be imagined. This however railways threaten to abolish, and passengers are always becoming less inclined to submit to a
detention of two or three hours on the frontier of every paltry state. Even the custom-house regulations, it is evident, must undergo a change, to suit them to the new habits of travelling introduced by the railway.
From some experience on the railways in France, Belgium, and Germany, the writer can testify that, except in point of speed, they are little inferior to those of Britain. And those persons will not be disposed to complain even of their rate of travelling, who have enjoyed the pleasure of sitting bolt upright for thirty or forty hours in a French diligence or German schnellpost. More attention to the comfort of the passengers is to be found on the foreign than the English railways, and those open boxes in which men are shut up like so many cattle, are unknown, The rate of fares is also considerably lower than in this country, though perhaps not more, than the difference in the expense of construction would warrant.*
For several of the calculations, and other portions of the above article, the writer is indebted to an Essay by Dr F. v. Reden of Berlin, anthor of some very valuable and important works on the railways of Germany.
STEAM-BOAT accidents! What new disaster has occur red to make
Mony a sweet babe fatherless,
And mony a widow mourning, as well as to harrow up public feeling by woes in which all will sympathize with, although few may feel. None has taken place, at least that we know of. Why then broach such a subject ? We do so for two reasons : First, Because the outcries that are made at the time of the occurrence of such catastrophes, have not had the effect of bringing about remedial measures, and, therefore, we intend trying what may be done by calm remonstrance, at a period when the public mind is not agitated on this matter exactly as it is with other nine-day wonders. Secondly, Because as there is every probability that the Legislature will do something to prevent railway aceidents, the present seems a fitting time for taking up steam-boat casualties too,
At the outset, we disclaim being alarmists, being thoroughly persuaded that, if properly managed, there is nothing in steam, whether used in propelling ships, or in dragging railway carriages, that is calculated to encrease the dangers of travelling ---but quite the reverse. So far as steam-boats are concerned, we learn from Johnston's Physical Atlas, that their comparative safety, even in the case of vessels connected with New York, is as follows :For 5 years
Livce Lost Proportion of do, to ending in
No. of Passengers 1824
1 in 126.211 183.1 5
1 in 151.931 18.38
I in 6985:787 And as respects railway travelling in Britain, so late as 1843, there was only one fatal accident in that year, the blame of which was directly attributable to official carelessness. The two succeeding years have, no doubt, exhibited a melancholy and prodigious increase ; but even from the casualties of these two years, subtract what is clearly referable to the blundering stupidity of rail
way managers and their subordinates, on one hand, and the fool-hardihood and ignorance of passengers on the other,--and there will be found marvellously little of blame inherently attachable to the system itself. Having confidence then in the system, we are anxious to free it from abuse, and we shall shortly state how this be accomplished--but before doing so, we shall give some statistics regarding steam-boat accidents in this country:
In 1840, on a remit from the Board of Trade, a report was drawn up by Messrs Pringle and Park, two eminent engineers, which contained the following information :-Ten years anterior to 1839, the accidents were 92 Prior to that period there were
17 Belonging to the first period, the number wrecked, foun
dered, or in imminent peril, was Explosions of boilers,
28 Fires from various causes
92 Lives lost.
634 The immediate cause of the inquiry being instituted, by which the above results were elicited, was the memorable loss of the Porfarshire, when Grace Darling so deservedly rendered herself famous. Well, the report was read and printed, and probably in due time found its way to the waste paper apartments of the House of Commons; and the public very soon forgot the subject altogether, until the Pegasus, another Scotch vessel, was wrecked ou the very same reef of roeks; but by this time, poor Grace Darling had fallen into the grave, from which she had saved so many others, and few of the crew of the Pegasus survived to tell the sad story of her doom. The newspapers gave, as usual, long and touching accounts of the catastrophe, but the idea of legislation was scarcely mooted, and the occurrence of the Burns' Festival, or some such other affair, obliterated from the columns of the press, and from the recollection of the public, all remembrance of the Pegasus as effectually as on the ill-fated night of her ship
No. of Accidents.
wreck, the lone deep waters closing over her sinking masts, removed her from the sight of her drowning passengers. Since her loss, 2 casualty still more frightful, so far as regards the extent of human life, was so nearly consummated, that the escape of one single person, let alone several hundreds, was scarcely short of a miracle. On the occasion of her Majesty leaving Dundee on her return from her second visit to Scotland, a vessel, called the Il'indsor Castle, was announced to sail from Leith to Dundee and back, in order to witness the royal embarkation. In modern phrase, the speculation was called a "pleasure trip," a designation which the experience of the passengers never realised ; for on the home voyage, and while daylight was not yet gone, she struck upon a beacon-rock. The water rushed in so rapidly, that had a few minutes more elapsed in reaching the beach, the whole crew and passengers must inevitably have perished. As it was, they participated to . the full in every horror which a violent death conjures up, short of actual dissolution. The authorities instituted a formal inquiry, but probably from the defective state of the law, nothing, we believe, was ever done in the way of punishing the parties implicated in this disgraceful business. Since then, other accidents, more or less fatal, have occurred, but to them we need not allude more particularly.
We have no guarantee that such tragedies as the Pegasus and Iindsor Castle may not be enacted to-morrow, except such as is afforded by the moral responsibility resting on steam-boat ownersma guarantee which Sir Robert Peel declared at the end of last session of Parliament, was an insufficient check so far as regarded railway proprietors, and which, he significantly hinted, would require the additional backing of legal accountability. And why should not this be done? It is quite true, that it is the interest of steam-boat proprietors to avoid accidents; but it is equally the interest of coach proprietors to avoid them; and yet, when a stage-coach is overturned, the coachman is liable to criminal penalties for his carelessness, and his employers to civil pains for having such a person in their service. If you punish a coach proprietor for having a weak axle-tree, why not punish a steam-boat proprietor for having a leaky boiler ? If you send Jehu to Bridewell for galloping down a hill, and pitching his vehicle over a hedge, why not send his brother artist, the engineer, to bear him company, when he neglects to turn the safety-valve in the hour of danger? The amount of criminality attaching to the two classes of offences is so precisely identical, that no one, we presume, will affirm that it is right and proper, that the one delinquent should be visited with the law, while the other is suffered to escape ; and, therefore, we shall say no more on this head, but pass on to other kinds of preventives which ought to be adopted.
It is not enough that power be given to punish owners, engineers, and captains, because their punishment, like “honour,” will not "cure a broken leg ;" we must farther be armed with power to compel them to adopt such precautionary measures as, in ordinary circumstances, may reasonably be regarded as calculated to prevent the distressing calamities in question. Fortunately, we are not left to speculate as to what these precautions should be, as the Parliamentary report which
we have referred to, er umerates almost every thing which human prudence could devise to meet the desired exigency. The reporters recommend the appointment of a public board for the registration, classification, periodical survey, and licensing of all steam vessels. The registration involves the fitness of the vessel for steam navigation ; the classification implies the fitness for particular purposes, such as for towing vessels, carrying cargoes, conveying passengers, or for these purposes combined ; and also, whether it is for river or sea voyages that any vessel is destined, as it is notorious, that what may do for river, may not answer for open sea navigation. They also recommend certain regulations for “rules of the road,” “night signals," and the carrying of "some powerful steam whistle or gong,” in order to diminish the frequeney of collisions. To these, we may add that the license should express the maxi. mum number of passengers that can be taken on board, and that it should be made imperative for all passenger vessels to be built with water-tight bulk-head compartments, so that if a leak were sprung, it could only affect a small part of the hull ; and, finally, that every vessel should carry as many boats as would hold passengers and crew, with the addition of one life-boat. Had the Pegasus been divided into compartments, or had she carried a life-boat, with a sufficient equipment of ordinary sail-boats, the probability is, that all on board miglit have been saved.
One word now to passengers. All these precautions may be adopted, but still there will be danger : and, therefore, something should also be done on your part. No passenger should yo to sea without a life preserver : the expense is trifling, they are quite portable, and of the utmost use in all cases of immersion. Suppose a vessel sinking in comparatively good weather, and the passengers inflating their preservers, and fearlessly committing themselves to the waves--for sink they cannot a life-boat with a few stout hands could pull fifty of them to land without much difficulty. No boat can hold many passengers, but a very small one can pull heavy bodies floating on the surface. The utility of these important articles will be fully seen by the following adventure, which occurred to the celebrated naturalist Mr Waterton, and which we extract from one of his amusing volumes ; and although rather long, even in an abridged form, we are sure our readers will excuse us for quot
“ We left Rome with our two servants on the 16th of June 1841; and the next day, at four o'clock in the afternoon, we went on board the Pollux steamer of twohundred-horse power, at Cività Vecchia, and shaped our course for Leghorn. The weather was charmingly serene; scarcely a ripple could be perceived upon old Ocean's surface; and when the night set in, although there was no moon, the brilliancy of the stars made amends for her non-appearance. I soon remarked a want of nautical discipline on board the Pollux; and ere the sun went down, I had observed to a gentleman standing by me, that in all my life I had never been on board of a vessel where unseaman-like conduct was more apparent. After making choice of a convenient part of the deck, I laid me down in my travelling cloak to pass the night there, having Mr Macintosh's life-preserver in my pucket. He made me a present of this preserver some twenty years ago, and I never have gone to sea without it.
Suddenly our sleep was broken by a tremendous crash, which we at first took to be the bursting of the boiler. But I was soon undeceived; for, on looking around, I saw a huge steamer aboard of us, nearly amidships. It proved to be the Monjibello, of 240 horsepower, from Leghorn to Cività Vecchia. She had come into us a little abaft the paddle-wheels, with such force, that her cut-water had actually penetrated into our aftercabin. In all probability she would have cut us in two, had not her bowsprit fortunately come in contact with our fannel, which was smashed in pieces, and driven overboard by the shock. The Pollux instantly became a wreck, with her parts amid-ships stove in; and it was evident that she had but a very little time to float. I found my family all around me; and having slipped on and inflated my life-preserver, I entreated them to be cool and temperate, and they all obeyed me most implicitly. Sad and woeful was the scene around us. The rush to get into the Monjibello, which, thanks to Charles Bonaparte (Prince Canino) was still along side of us, caused unutterable confusion. Some were pulled up on deck by the passengers and crew of the Monjibello, others managed to get on board without help; and others ran to and fro, bereft of all self-command; whilst our damaged vessel herself was sinking deeper and deeper every minute into her watery grave. Confiding in my valuable life-peserver, I remained on board the Pollux till nearly all had left her.
“ We were all saved except one man. He was a respectable ship-captaiu from Naples, and was on his way to Leghorn, in order to purchase a vessel. In talking over his death the morning after, it was surmised that he had all his money in gold sewed up in a belt around his body,-a thing common in these countries; and to this might be attributed his untimely end, for I heard one of the Monjibello sailors say, that he bad got hold of the captain's hand after he had fallen into the sea, but that the weight was too much for him; and so the poor captain sank to the bottom and perished there.
The two steamers were at a short distance from each other. I kept a steadfast eye on the shattered Pollux, kuowing that her final catastrophe must be close at hand. She went down stern foremost, but she hesitated awhile in the act of sinking, as though unwilling to disappear for ever. This momentary and unexpected pause gave us some hopes that she might remain waterlogged, and I said to a gentleman standing by me, 'I do not despair of seeing her at to-morrow's dawn.' But she tarried only for a few minutes. Her forepart then appeared to rise up perpendicularly. She sunk gradually lower and lower. We saw her last light extinguished in the water; and then all was still, for there was no wind in the heavens; and so easy was her descent into the chambers of the deep,' that it caused no apparent temporary whirlpool on the place which she had just occupied. Thus foundered the Pollux steamer, with all her goods and property on board. Not a spar, not a plank, not a remnant of anything was left behind her. Many were of opinion that she floated not more than ten minutes from the time that she received her death-blow; others again conjectured that she remained a short half-hour: probably some sixteen or eighteen will not be far from the mark.
All our hopes of safety now depended upon the Monjibello. But the worst was apprehended, knowing that she herself must have received a tremendous shock at the time that she ran the Pollux on board. The general perturbation was much increased by a sudden report that the Monjibello was actually sinking, and a demand was immediately made by the passengers to be put on shore at the nearest point of land. Prince Canino (Charles Bonaparte) had come passenger in the Monjibello from Leghorn : and his exertions to save us were beyond all praise. The fatal collision had taken place some five miles from the island of Elba. The prinee immediately offered his services to go to Porto
longoin, in order to obtain permissiou for us to land there. Indeed, under Heaven we already owed our lives to Prince Canino, who ran to the helin, and, knocking the steersman aside, took hold of it himself, and placed the Monjibello in a situation to enable us to pass on board of her from the sinking Pollux.
The whole blame of this shipwreck must be thrown on the captains and the mates of the respective vessels. All four of these worthless seamen were fast asleep at the time of the accident, in lieu of attending to their duty. Hence the total loss of the beautiful steamer Pollux, at the very time when the absence of everything that could retard her progress, or cause alarm for her safety, made us sure of a prosperous passage to Leghorn.
Steam is now in general use, both on land and water. It transports with such velocity from place to place, that we may actually fancy ourselves in full possession of the long-wished-for wings of Daedalus.
"Geminas opifex libravit in alas
Ipse suum corpus. Let us, however, always bear in mind, that this farfamed aerial rover taught mischievous movements to his child,“ damnosas audit artes;" and that our own invention, if not worked with consummate skill and prudence, may burst asunder when we least expect it, and leave us dead on the road, or, like Icarus of old, to perish in the water.
When every hope of life has fled, how we should bail with ecstacy the arrival of a potent friend to save us! This friend is Macintosh's life-preserver, one of the most safe and simple assistants ever offered to man in his hour of need. Its price is trivial, and its size so small, that it will easily go into the pocket of a coat; and it can be inflated in less than half a minute. I put mine on, (a present long ago from the late Mr Macintosh himself) when our vessel was in the act of sinking near the Isle of Elba; and thus I was enabled to act with great coolness, for I knew it would prevent my sinking. This inestimable little belt is admirably manufactured by Messrs Charles Macintosh and Co., and sold at the establishment, No. 58 Charing Cross, London, for the small sum of nine shill gs. What lives are lost on rivers, how many sink when close in shore, and all for want of such a friend as this!
Fifty years ago umbrellas were uncommon things. Now these useful protectors from the rain are in the hands of every body, from the duke to the delver; and they are not considered as encumbrances. Neither do walking sticks, nor travelling caps incommode us; and, in countries abroad we perpetually see smokers carrying their tobacco pouches and half a dozen long German pipes tied up together. Let us then not despair of seeing the day arrive, when parties in pleasure-boats, and travellers by steam on the ocean, and those who bathe in rivers, shall have a Macintosh round their waists, uninflated till the time of danger: and, without the shoulder-straps, which are not essential to its success, the belt would merely have the appearance of a sash; and it would not be more inconvenient than that central ligature in our military uniforms. What a treasure it would prove, when the cramp comes on in bathing, or when the boat capsizes, or when the steamer founders ! Although sudden gusts of wind from the wooded hills render sailing extremely perilous here inland, I have never any fears for my only boy when he is in the boat with hoisted sail, provided I see that Macintosh's lifepreserver is round his waist. Happen what may, I know that he must always float in perfect safety."
We shall be glad if these remarks should induce our Town Councils, Chambers of Commerce, and other public bodies, to petition the Legislature on this important subject. If British vessels were properly equipped, we are sure that reform in the vessels of other nations would follow.