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Literature. The Physical Atlas. Part 2.

The new part of this important work contains maps and letter-press descriptions, severally illustrative of the Geography of Quadrupeds, Rain, and European and Asiatic rivers. The style of engraving surpasses anything of the kind we have seen, whilst the matter at the end exceeds, in copiousness, as well as in felicity of arrangement, all treatises of physical geography which have appeared either at home or abroad. We shall only say, in the mean time, that if this work is not extensively studied and pored over, we shall regard science as being more on the decline in England than Mr Babbage, in his despair, thought it was.

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ed vegetable substances with a purplish crust. On examination under the microscope, it is found to be composed of innumerable spherical bodies, seated upon a gelatinous substratum. The globules are of various sizes, probably depending upon age. At first they are furnished with a wide pellucid border, and contain a deep red homogeneous mass. As they increase in size, this border gradually becomes parrower, and at length altogether disappears, while the internal mass, which at first was simple, becomes broken into numerous distinct granules or seeds, which are finally discharged. Red snow, we are informed by Professor Agardh in his interesting memoir on the Protococcus, was first observed by Dr Saussure, in the year 1760, on Mount Beven, in Switzerland, and subsequently so frequently among the Alps, that he was surprised how such a phenomenon should have escaped the attention ofother travellers, especially Scheuchzer. Ramon found red snow on the Pyrenees, and the botanist Sommerfeldt in Norway. At the beginning of the century, it was noticed on several of the mountains of Italy, along the Apennines; and in March, 1808, the whole country round Cadore, Belluno, and Feltre was covered in one night to the depth of twenty centimetres with a rose-coloured snow, a pure white snow having fallen before and after, so that the coloured snow formed an intermediate stratum. The same fact is recorded at the same time in several other Italian localities. Still red snow excited little attention among botanists, and had not obtained a place in our scientific arrangements, until Captain Ross discovered it in Baffin's Bay, covering tracts of some miles in extent, and penetrating in some places to the depth of ten or twelve feet. The specimens brought home by this celebrated traveller were submitted to Mr Bauer and Mr Brown, to be examined botanically, the latter of whom, with his usual acuteness, decided that it was “ Algarum genus ? ! Confervis simplicibus et Tremellæ cruentæ quodammodo affine ? ?” The “ local habitation” thus assigned, has been acknowledged by all succeeding botanists ; and Agardh has completed its history by giving it“ a name." -Harv.

DISTRIBUTION OF FOSSIL PLANTS, with the Number of Genera and Species. By M. Gæppert, 1815.

Species. Grauwacke, beds older than carboniferous series,

8

52 Carboniferous limestone,

3 Coal measures,

18 816

36-929 Lower new red sandstone, Permian. 3

19 Magnesian limestone,

3

19 Gres begarre, Bunter sandstein, 8

32 Muschelkalk, Keuper marls,

52 Lias,

12

75 Oolite series,

159

63-398 Wealden,

16 Lower cretaceous beds,

15

59 Chalk,

1 Monte Bolea beds (Lower Tertiary) 4 Other lower Tertiary,

10 120 Middle and Upper Tertiary (Mio

66-454 cene and Pliocene,)

52 Unknown positions,

11} 4-11 Total,

169 1792 New Steay ENGINE.-A new steam engine has been invented by Messrs Isoard and Mercier. It differs from all that have hitherto been invented, not only in its construction, but also by the special manner in which the steam is employed. Instead of being conveyed from the generator to the motive apparatus, and undergoing on the way, or at the moment when its action is required, all the losses due to the diminution of volume by the causes of the cooling process, the steam is maintained at a very elevated temperature in the generating tube, and the relations of the heated surface, and of hot water injected, are calculated in such a way, that the heat does not escape by the orifice until it has acquired an increuse of temperature, which perinits it to act at once as steam, and as dilated gas.

Porustin

Families.

3

The Edinburgh Tales. Vol. I. and II.

Healthy talented reading. Next to Mrs Johnstone's own lucubrations, we like “the Author's Daughter,” “ Johnny Darbyshire," and “ Martha Guinnis and her Son.” Mrs Johnstone excels in portraiture and dia- ! logue, but is defective in plot and narrative incident. Take the most elaborate of her tales,-Violet Hamilton, -the plot is meagre, but some of the characters are rich to the life, as old Cryppes, bis son Jack, and Mrs Burke Barker, and also the insurance agent, Bigsby, whom the husband of the latter brought to ruin and death,--whilst Mrs Herbert is, like Mrs Hemans' poetry, all pale water colours together, Marion Linton a monstrosity, no more natural than a gilded weathur-cock is like the veritable “ chanticleer of morn,” and Violet herself as milksop as any heroine need be. “Mrs Robert's Christmas Dinner,” is a most delightful, and what is more important, a most useful fiction; but our special favourite is “ West Country Exclusives,” which every daughter of Glasgow should read. Bailie Pirgivie is second to no magistrate we ever read of, except the luminary of the Saltmarket. We look forward to the third volume with interest, and shall be happy again to meet with Mrs Johnstone, who has herselt put too many writers on the gridiron to take our honest strictures amiss. Graham's English Synonymes.

We have little predilection for the class termed“ word. catchers," as they often look at terms instead of ideas, and so miss the substance, both in what they write themselves, and in what they read in others,—but still in this penny-a-page era, (penny-a-line is now out of the question,) words flow so glibly, both from tongue and pen, that the nicer distinctions of language seem well nigh obliterated, and that greatly to the deterioration of "pure English undefiled.” Southey held that so long as we had our translations of the Bible and Prayer Book, there was no danger of the language being unloosened from its moorings; but the danger from our spreading periodical literature is more imminent thau he imagined. Mr Graham's useful work is calculated to stem the current; and we should be glad to find it in the hands of modern writers, from quarterly reviewers down to

our London correspondents.” Borrow's Gypsies in Spain.—Murray's Home and Colon

ial Library.
“ Thirty years ago” Byron wrote of Murray,

Strahan, Tonson, Lintot, of the times,
Patron and publisher of rhymes,
For thee the bard of Pindar's climes,

My Murray.
To thee with hope and terror dumb,
The unfledged Ms authors come,
Thou printest all and sellest some,

My Murray Byron and Murray are both gone—the former irrecoverably, but the latter lives in his son, all the more remarkable that talent is so seldom hereditary. If proof of this were wanting, we should point to the Home and Colonial Library, one of the most elegant specimens of the popularization of literature which has yet appear.

9 8

327)

4

more anon.

ed. Its contents, although certainly not all of equal merit, are attractive and popular, and we trust that the series will be persevered in, despite of even young Southey. We are glad to see Borrow's Gypsies in Spain occupying a place in the Library-although not so racy as the Bible in Spain, it is a more solid and elaborate production; and it has a chapter on language, of which

We hope many will be “sold” as well as “ printed.” Drew's Manual of Astronomy.

Popular manuals of science are the most difficult of all kinds of books. Scylla exists on one hand in the shape of too much simplicity, -and Charybdis on the other, in the garb of over reconditeness. In the first, you give facts with the spoon, merely giving data for the memory, without informing the head how the data have been obtained, -in the second, by being too technicai, you address yourself only to learned pundits, and exclude the masses from science. This manual comes nearer the happy medium than any we have yet seen, —but still it cannot be fully understood without maihematical knowledge, which is the alphabet of astronomy as well as of all physical philosophy. Remarks in Reference to Viedical Relief.

A brief tract, pointing out the inadequate remuneration received by medical men for attendance on the poor. The New Poor Law Act authorises assessment for this purpose; and we understand that an association of practitioners has been formed in Edinburgh, to assist jn carrying out this provision. Book of Entertuining Knowledge, No. 1.-Motrimony.

A new library. The publishers have done their part well, having produced a cheap and prettiiy illustrated book,—the author has doue bis rather lamely, having only given a gossipping account of marriage, as celebrated at home, the colonies, and foreign parts. His lucubrations, including what he quotes from Brand and Chapman, may, however, have charms for simpering misses, and ingevious young men, who, seeing matrimony afar off, may be charmed with the enchantment lent by dis

them as demonstrations of his power, his wisdom, his goodness, his truth: this man is greater as well as bappier in his poverty, than the other in his riches. The one is but little higher than a beast, the other but little lower than an angel."- Rev. W. Jones of Nayland.

SCIENCE versuz SUNDAY.--In page 428 of Cosmos, Humboldt, speaking of observations of magnetic storms, uses these expressions-“ One of the most remarkable disturbances was that of the 25th September, 1841, which was observed at Toronto in Canada, at the Cape of Good Hope, at Prague, and partially in Van Diemen's Land. The English festival of Sunday, upon which it is sinful after midnight on Saturday night to read off a scale, or to follow out in all their development great natural phenomena, put a stop to the observation, since, on account of the difference of longitude of Van Diemen's Land, the magnetic storm happened there upon a Sunday!"

" We are surprised,” says the Quarterly Rtrien", " that Baron Humboldt, usually so cautious in imputing blame, should have thus attempted to cast ridicule upon the English Government and English nien of science, and upon such a ground. But the statement having been made in ignorance of how these things are really managed with us, it requires a word of explanation. It is quite certain that the English philosophers declined to accede to the Gottingen terms, and fixed days of continual observation, from five minutes to five minutes for twenty-four hours or more, which had been fixed in defiance of the immemorial usage of all Christian communities, v pon Sundays " for general convenience.' There is no question of whether the mode of keeping the Sabbath in Scotland, or at Geneva, in England, or at Rome, be most correct. It is no question of whether amusements. are to be indulged in or not-whether or not the theatres should be shut-it is the simple question, whether the seventh day is to receive any distinctive observance whatever--whether the hebdomadal division of time, which even Laplace traced in its origin to the very dawn of civilization, is to be annihilated. Is there, we would ask, an observation in Europe which has not its conges de liemanche? We repent that such a positive institution of Sunday term days, (for regular observation), was disgraceful to Christendom, and it was so felt by the English philosephers, who refused to join the German confederation of magnetists, in carrying on their systems of observation. Hence, no doubt, this sally in the Cosmos. When Mr Airy mentioned these circumstances in a crowded meeting of the association in the senate-house of Cambridge, the unanimous opinion of the assembly was sufficiently marked." [ To this, we may add, that on Sunday, 15th May, 1836, the day on which an annular eclipse of the sun took place, we were present at the opening of a new church (the I)ean) by Dr Chalmers. At the end of the morning service, to a crowded and eagerly listening audience, he explained the nature of the remarkable phenomenon which was about to take place, and announced that public worship in the afternoon would be delayed some hours, in order that the people might have an opportunity of witnessing this, one of the rarest and most interesting of appearances. On this occasion, so far was it thought sinful for the Scottish people to thus give one hour of a Sunday to contemplate one of the greatest wonders occurring among the starry host, that crowds were seen watching it in every convenient spot, and scientific observations were made at the observatories. But this was quite a different affair from the cold and irreverential work-day sort of business above alluded to.]

WAR.- England spent 15 years in war, and 62 in peace, in the 127 years previous to tho close of the last war in 1815. In the war of 1688, we spent 36 millions sterlivg; in the war of the Spanish Succession, 62 millions; in the Spanish war, 51 millions; in the Seven Years' War, 112 millions; in the American war, 156 millions; in the war of the French Revolution, 401 millions; and in the war against Buonaparte, 1159 millions; thus forming a total expenditure for war, in 127 years (from the Revolution in 1688, to the downfall of Napoleon in 1815), of 2023 millions of pounds sterling. M. de Pradt estimates the loss of life sustained by the French forces in the six campaigns of the Peninsular war at six hundred thousand men. The loss sustained by the Spaniards and their allies was probably as great. During the war, many districts of the Peninsula were from time to time laid waste by the contending ar. mies, and the inhabitants were victims to all the calami. ties and horrors thus produced. The totni destruction of human beings in this last war must have amounted to one million two bundred thousane,

tulace.

Cleanings. The Voice OF NATURE.—“ It is to be observed, that the same wisdom which ordained the vegetable creation for the use of feeding and healing the body, hath applied it also to a moral and intellectual use, for the enlarging of our ideas, and the enlightening of our understandings. It joins its voice in the universal chorus of all created things, and to the ear of reason celebrates the wisdom of the Almighty Creator. As the heavens, from day to day, and from night unto night, declare the glory of God, so do the productions of the earth; all trees and herbs, in their places and seasons, speak the same language, from the climates of the north to the torrid regions of the south, and from winter to spring and the liarvest. Happiest of all is he, who, having cultivated herbs and trees, and studied their virtues, and applied them for his own and for the common benefit, rises from thence to a contemplation of the great Parent of good, whom he sees and adores in these his glorious works.

The world cannot show us a more exalted character than that of a truly religious philosopher, who delights to turn all things to the glory of God; who from the objects of his sight derives improvement to his mind, and in the glass of things temporal sees the image of things eternal. Let a man have all the world can give him, he is still miserable, if he has a grovelling, uulettered, undevout mind; let him have his gardens, his fields, bis woods, and his lawns, for grandeur, ornament, plenty, and gratification, while at the same time God is not in all his thouyhts; and let another have neither field nor garden; let him only look at nature with an enlightened mind; a mind which can see and adore the Creator in his works ; can consider

Proceedings of Societies.

News of the week.
LONDON GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.--A paper was read by Dr
Mantelt on the supposed fossil remains of birds in the

EDINBURGH REVIEW FOR JANUARY.--A correspondent of wealden. Professor Sedgwick read a paper on the classi

the Caledonian Mercury, has announced that the article fication of the slate rocks of Cumberland, Westmoreland,

on Parliament and the Courts, is by Lord Denman; and and Lancashire. The lowest rocks of the whole fossilifer

the one on Earls Grey and Spencer, by Lord John Russell. ous group appear to be lower silurian, the upper silurian

We do not think either of the noble reviewers will care being also very abundant.

about having their visors lifted. As a member, both of the HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.- A paper was

the Parliament and the Courts, Lord Denman's writings read by Mr Goodsir, on the potato disease, in which he

on their respective functions, had best be anonymous; stated that, with others, he had detected, in the diseased

and as Lord John's paper, (if really his,) is a manifesto of potato; at least two kinds of parasitic fungi--one a minute

what the Whigs were to do in office, we daresay he would granular, spherical, deep-brown body, which existed in

have

stopped the press," as the newspaper phrase is, enormous numbers, from the very first access of the disease ;

could he have done so in time to suppress or alter the the other a branching filiform tubular fungus, with termi

article. nal sporidia, containing spores, and appearing in the potato Post-OFFICE ORDERS.-The Post-Office authorities have rather later apparently than the brown spherical parasite. adopted an awkward regulation in regard to remitting money They both exist in the cavities of the polygonal cells, and to copartnery firms. They cannot conceive, it seems, any the outside of the coats of the starch cells, binding them such miracle in nature as two or more persons being together, the filiform parasite branching among and be- leagued in business, and hence, they can only take charge tween the starch cells, so as to be obscured by them. Mr of remittances for individuals who can quote both a ChrisG. thinks it a legitimate hypothesis that the presence of tian and surname! We have had several letters addressed these fungi in the diseased potato must direct or influence to us inquiring the specific address of one of our publishers, the chemical actions and effects which have been detected as without that important knowledge, the post-masters in the diseased tubers.

could grant no order. Fortunately, the stamp laws require

individual designations to publishers' imprints--so that, on University and Educational Intelligence. referring to the bottom of the last page of the Torch, no

one need be at a loss in remitting for it--but we can conThe New Irish COLLEGES. --The following are the ceive many firins not so favourably circumstanced, as to rames of the gentlemen appointed to be presidents and vice-presidents of the new academical institutions for Ire

escape so easily from this capricious rule. land, and who have power to appoint such professors in

STUART PAPERS.-Her Majesty has sanctioned the pubart, law, and physic (not exceeding twelve in number) as

lication of these from the original documents, but how, or sha'l be necessary for each establishment respectively, viz.

by whom they are to be published, the Atheneum, which - Cork,-Robert Kane, M.D., President; John Ryan,

makes the above intimation, does not state. LL.D., Vice-president. Belfast,-P. S. Henry, D.D., JUVENILE DELINQUENTS.—Wewould earnestly direct the President; Thomas Andrews, M.D., Vice-president. Gal- attention of our readers to the newspaper report of a way,—The very reverend Joseph Kerwan, clerk, Presi

late meeting of the Town Council of Edinburgh, on dent; Edward Berwick, barrister-at-law, Vice-President. DUBLIN UNIVERSITY.--Natural science is about to re

juvenile erime and its prevention, and especially to ceive marked attention in this University, increased facili

the speech of Bailie Mack, on that occasion. This ties having been given for admission to the museum, and a gentlemen has shown, in the clearest manner, the series of public lectures announced. Some time ago, we heavy expense of punishment, as contrasted with the observed that Archbishop Whateley had been delivering lighter expense of prevention, and we regret that so lectures on Zoology in Dublin, and, doubtless, the above much is done for the one and so little for the other. revival has had some connection with them.

The most striking part of his statement is, that the apPOPULAR IRISH EDUCATION.-Model schools are to be erected in every county, under the auspices of the Educa

prehension, trial, and conviction of every delinquent, tion Commissioners.

costs about L.200 sterling. For our own part, we firmly DR SCHMITZ.-This gentleman was inducted to the rec- believe that one half of the sums expended in the puntorship of the High School, Edinburgh, on the 3d inst. It ishment of crime, would render the perpetration of it was a bold step to place a foreigner in this situation, but

almost impossible, if judiciously applied. Jails make talent belongs to no country, and should not be trammelled

more criminals than they ever reclaim, and if we wish to by geographical boundaries. There is every prospect that Dr Schmitz will realize the expectations of his friends.

rescue the unhappy victims of early want and misery, The Rev. W. L. ALEXANDER. – Mr Alexander has re

we must change our whole system. Instead of allowing ceived the honorary degree of D.D. from the University of 100 juvenile delinquents to prowl our streets for the St Andrews.

avowed purpose of thieving, why do our police wait till

they have committed crimes? Why are they not authorFine Arts.

ised to say to these unhappy wretches, We will give you Royal SCOTTISH Academy.-Our artists are busy finish- shelter and food ?-and that is all they want.-- We will ing off their pictures for the ensuing exhibition, which look out honest employment for you,- we will clothe and promises to be a good one. The matter of the exhibi. educate you, to make you fit for the various employments tion rooms of the Institution is now all arranged. The for which you are qualified,—and there are various Academy are to have them as usual for two years, and openings for boys in the merchant service, in manufacwe suppose for any number of years afterwards

tories, and others. But if irreclaimable, let them be so SIR MARTIN SHEE.-The Royal Academy has voted £300 watched that they cannot have the opportunity of comper annum to Sir Martin, and has also re-elected him pre

mitting a crime, until they are forced to cry out, Give me sident. Lady Shee previously enjoyed a government penxion of £200.

food, though it should be bread and water only,

«Nor think that in a world like this THE ANTIQUE.-The Royal Academy's prize for the best

The worst of snifering is to die, model from the antique, has been awarded to Mr George

No! dying is a privileged bliss Mossman, a native of Glasgow.

To the tired sons of misery." THE TORRIE PICTURES.—This collection of paintings, It is painful to hear, day by day, in our criminal now deposited in the Royal Institution, Edinburgh, has courts, offenders urging their absolute want of food, as been valued at L.11,232, and insurance to that amount ha 3

an excuse for their delinquencies. This defence at least been effected on them. A correspondent of the Scotsman

should be taken from them. complains that the keepership and deputy-keepership of the collection have been entrusted to parties unconnected

Dr WOLFF.-This gentleman has received a living in the with art-their sinecures respectively being £100, and

Church of England, at the hands of a private patron, Lieut, £50 per annum.

Col. Michel. Nelsos MONUMENT, TRAFALGAR SQUARE. - This is at last AUSTRIAN CENSORSHIP.--- The Emperor has been pleased, to be finished, with the help of the Commissioners of Woods to appoint a high court of appeal from the decisions of the and Forests. The sculptors, by whom the bassi relievi de- ordinary censors-a step for which Prussia has afforded signs are to be executed, are Messrs Watson, Woodrington, the precedent, otherwise it probably would not have been Carew, Ternouth, and Lough,

heard of.

LIEBIG.—Liebig has been created a Baron by the Grand WORTH CONSIDERING.--We have never seen any reason Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. Had he been in this country, why cheap publications should prosper, while cheap leche might have been created a knight, if happily his emolu- tures and cheap amusements are seldom tried. The rich ments from science had allowed him to pay the crown fees. of Glasgow would do a good action, by substituting for the The continent ennobles its philosophers,- Baron Humboldt, wretched theatres and miserable dens, where many thouBaron Cuvier, Baron Liebig, Count Rumford. Britain sands congregate weekly, a large and cheap building, where merely places them in the uppermost rank of civilians, science might be taught attractively. “Lectures for the Coronets fall in showers on acre-holders, and noisy poli- million" might be made pleasing. Experiments and illusticians, and it is well enough to honour them in their way, trations capable of gratifying the eye, even where the mind but the nation which pays homage to science, honours not was not greatly instructed, might be introduced. The copmore its sons, than the country which gave them birth, pers of the poor might ultimately remunerate the most

BUSPENSION BRIDGE AT NIAGARA.- Proposals are made talented lecturers, and the cost of trying the experiment to build a suspension bridge across the Niagara river, a could not be great. A hundred gentlemen of Glasgow buying short distance above the whirlpool, and about a mile and a each a fifty pound share, and carefully paying the deposits, half below the cataract. The distance from bank to bank, would accomplish the end we have in view. We are not amat the selected point, is about 700 feet. The person making bitious. We are not seeking a mighty reform. It is not nethe proposal offers to do it for 200,000 dollars, taking him- cessary for our object to change forcibly the habits of manself 20,000 of the stock. However strongly it may be con.

kind. It is better to draw them into good to allure them structed, it hardly seems possible that people in general into the prosecution of their own interests, than to scold them will be sufficiently able to cominand their imaginations to into change. We do not suppose that the parties who atencounter the apparent awful dangers of a passage at such

tend the houses we have named, would listen to a scientific a dizzy height over a chasm so crowded with terrific ob- or literary lecture alone. We would set bait for them. jects.-Christian Register.

We would endeavour to cheat them into attendance. Let

them have music during breaks in the lecture, and all the NAPOLEON'S LATE RETREAT AT ST HELENA.-Longwood

attractions that experiments can produce. Five thousand is now little better than a barn; the glass of the windows is broken, and the outward walls much disfigured. The

pounds would accomplish the object; and we sincerely be.

lieve that the shareholders would obtain a proper dividend door at which visitors are admitted is covered with a small

from the speculation.--The National. latticed verandah, and leads into what is called the billiard

[We really wish that some of the Glasgow princes would room, although it seems much too small ever to have been used for that purpose. Its walls are covered with scrib

set their shoulders to the wheel, and try the experiment

here suggested. Man is a thinking being, --he will not go bling, and its general appearance is dirty and neglected.

home and lie down to sleep like a dog,--his mind must be The next apartment is about fourteen by seventeen feet,

excited,--and the cheap theatre and the whisky shop will said to have been used as a dining-room, and in which Na

infallibly be his resort till something better be provided.] polean died. It is now occupied by a patent thrashing and winnowing-machine, and was strewed with chaff and straw. DONCAN, THE AFRICAN TRAVELLER.-Letters have been The adjoining room had been used as a library; its present received by the Royal Geographical Society from Mr Dunstate was disgusting, and it seemed as if appropriated to can, of a recent date, intimating his return to Cape Coast, the hatching of chickens. The bath, bed, and dressing- after an absence of eight months in the interior of Africa. rooms which he occupied at the commencement of his ill- The details of his journey are shortly expected by the Geoness are now in part used as a stable. The place in which graphical Society. We are informed, that since the days of his body lay in state contains eight stalls, five of which Mungo Park--of whose fate he brings authentic information were occupied by horses and cattle.— Wilk's Exploring Ex- -no traveller has accomplished a journey of such magnipedition.

tude and interest in that continent. He reached the lati[If this be true,-and, although Lieut, Wilks be not the tude of 13 degrees 6 minutes north, longitude 1 degree 3 best of authorities on all subjects, we have no reason to minutes east, passing through a country hitherto a perfect doubt that it is—we must say that the dilapidation of Long, blank on all our maps, and receiving on his way, many wood is not creditable to the British nation; and we do proofs of kindness and good-will from the native kings and hope that our new colonial minister, Mr Gladstone, is not carbareers, which may ultimately have the effect of checkso hopelessly given over to imports, exports, and draw. ing, if not entirely putting an end to, the slave trade in backs, as to allow such Vandalism tó run its rude course that hot-bed of slavery, Dahomey. Mr Duncan brought unchecked.]

with him in safety to the coast many specimens of rare FATAL FIRE.-We regret to see among the numerous

animals and birds. fires, public and private, which have marked the calendar

LITERARY DISCOVERY.-There bas just been discovered of the departed year, the loss of the fine Jewish Temple at

in the library of a schoolmaster pear Stockholm, in making Avignon, in France, which contained their sacred books,

the inventory of his effects after his death, a collection of many of which were of great antiquity. The Athenæum

letters of D'Alembert, addressed to George Brandt, the describes this loss as one that cannot be repaired. The

great Swedish chemist, who discovered the properties of collection of the Sepher- Thora (Book of the Law) was

arsenic in 1733. composed of forty-two rolls of parchment, and was one of the richest in the world. This book contains a M8. of the Mr EFFINGHAM Wilson.-This gentleman, who is a well Pentateuch; and, to show the value of a copy, we are in- known publisher in London, was unfortunate in business formed that it is at Jerusalem only that the Rabbins may some years ago, and paid his creditors 2s. 4 d. per pound. devote themselves to this labour. "Years are consumed in Recently, he came into property to the value of £1400, the production of one of these copies; for the slightest

£1350 of which he has devoted to the payment in full of error, the smallest erasure, the most minute imperfection all claims against him. It is gratifying to record cases or inequality in the letters, necessitates the recommence

where moral obligation causes a generous man to go bement of the work. The letters of the book are counted, yond the stinted limits of legal responsibility,—they are to and are two millions in number. With the exception of the credit of the species and as literary journalists, we that at Bordeaux, the edifice destroyed is said to have been have much pleasure in inserting Mr Wilson's case, as one the finest Herbew temple in France.

all the more gratifying, that he is professionally connected

with the republic of letters. ADVERTISEMENTS OF QUACK MEDICINES.-In announcing a new volnme, our contemporary, the Lancet, states, that

OPENING PUBLIC PLACES TO THE PEOPLE.--The expediency an exterminating onslaught will be directed against the of this course has received new proof at Norwich, where obscene, disgusting, and knavish, advertising quacks.” We the Dean and Chapter have given directions for opening the are glad to see this--but we are afraid a medical journal cathedral to the public gratuitously for two hours every is not the vehicle for accomplishing a social reform 80

week-day, instead of one as heretofore, namely, from eleven desirable, it is only seen by medical men, who pretty ge

o'clock A,m. to one o'clock P.3., and ordered that the nerally eschew the popular delusions of quackery: The

subsacrist should attend during that time to see that no great point is, to get the public to decline taking in such mischief ensued to the cathedral, or any of the monuments, papers as offend decency and common sense, by inserting A NEW VIOLINIST.-Marseilles possesses at this moment obnoxious advertisements. The example of the Daily

a young virtuoso, a violinist, who may justly be considered Mers might do something in this matter were it to take

a musical wonder. This harmonious child, not yet eleven high ground at starting.

years, has already enjoyed the most marked applause at the FRENCH LITERATURE.-The publications in 1845, were Grand Theatre of the Scala. The young violinist is named 6251 books ; 1405 prints ; 492 pieces of music ; 104 maps. Carlo l'erardi. He will shortly exhibit at the Marseilles Total 8520 new works,

Grand Theatre,

61

erroneous.

RATIONALISM. Nothing seems more apparent than that certain we see, feel, and taste-the mongrel combination stages of human civilization are marked by certain of both these systems of the Americans and Briconditions of the mind, more especially as respects tons. Let us not, however, be understood, when the appetency to belief, leading to the extremes of we thus characterise nations, that we mean them credulity and scepticism. Thus, it is the charac- as a whole—we only speak of sects or classes mak

ing believe what is told them, and are prone to ima. A Rationalist is a philosopher, we shall call him gine more than what is true, while, on the other 80—who rejects every system and opinion, from hand, they are averse to sift out facts from errors, whatever quarter it comes, that is not consistent by which they might arrive at the actual truth. with human reason. The mind of man is with him Even as nations advance a little in civilization, they omniscient, at least as regards every thing that are still apt to be more credulous than sceptical, comes within the sphere of man's concerns. It is more imaginative than analytical. Hence, in the capable of knowing, judging, and determining of middle stage of refinement, we find the belief in the fitness and propriety of everything which hapsupernatural agencies--in a plurality of gods-in pens, or may happen, He needs no evidence but genii and demons—in auguries—in ghosts, witches, the evidence of his senses—no guide but his own esand fairies. This is, in short, the prevalence of perience, or the collected experience of other men the infant condition of the mind. For that the like himself. He has formed certain conceptions infant mind has a general tendency to belief rather to himself of what the Deity ought to be, and what than to doubt, appears to us just as evident, not- he has done with regard to this world; and any withstanding the dicta of some sage philosophers other explanation of his attributes, or his Provito the contrary, as that the physical appetite has a dence, he rejects with the most sovereign contempt. desire to swallow every thing in the form of nour- He knows what man is, and fancies what he should ishment presented to it. It is only in more mature be in society, and he firmly maintains that until years that the mind begins to hesitate, and reject

nations and societies shall act as he teaches them, they what it finds to be false, or that it acquires a habit, can never be anything but what they are—a parcel it may be an evil one, of general scepticism, reject- of rogues on the one hand, and fools on the other. ing what is true, as well as what is doubtful or But from whence has this Rationalist derived his

reason, or rather the facts and materials on which When the mind begins to cease from its pupil. he reasons? Has it not been from those springs lage—and this may happen while in the possession

and fountains which he is anxious to choke up, or of a very moderate stock of information, as well, so to poison or muddle, as to render them unfit for and indeed more frequently, than when amply

use to others. A Rationalist reads a good deal, and stored—it then begins an independent career of he has not unfrequently dipped into a book called thought, and this career may either be marked by the Bible, perhaps he has read it throughout in folly or wisdom, according to the temper of the earlier days, or studies it still with a view of critimind itself. If it has hitherto been credulous and cising it. Now, we shall ask him, if any, among indiscriminating, the consciousness of numerous the numerous nations scattered over the world, erroneous conclusions may cast it into the extreme who never read the Bible, or who have never had of scepticism, or if it has been always cold, and an opportunity of receiving any of the instruction cautious, and distrustful, it will become still more

contained in it, have anything like the knowledge so when it has taken leave of all authority. The of the Deity-of the nature of the soul--of its immind becomes tired of truth also; and to those of mortality, or even of the past history of man upon a certain cast, the calm, pure, and beautiful sim

earth, such as he has acquired from its pages. plicity of truth has no charm compared to the

Have the wisest of the Chinese philosophers any novelty, and the fantastic glare, and the turbulent such knowledge—the most learned Hindoos—the maze of error. Self-sufficiency, vain-glory, and farthest travelled of the wandering Tartars? Or the restless desire of escaping from what appear to had the greatest sages of antiquity such precise and be trammels, chains, and despotism, incite the free- definite knowledge of such things, as even the most thinker to revel in the boundless and unrestrained common-place intellect possesses among us in the field of liberty of thought-thought, free as air- present day. The reason why we put this question free from cant, hypocrisy, and all manner of is, that we are firmly persuaded that the Rationhumbug.

alist, without this source of enlightenment, would Hence has arisen the RATIONALISM of the present probably never have dreamed of turning his day,—the pantheistic rationalism of Germany, thoughts upwards at all, or never had any more sulistituting abstract and imaginary ideas for the distinct glimmerings of a Deity or a future state, facts and 'realities of religion-the scepticism of than what many strong minds of antiquity have France, rejecting all ideas unconnected with what displayed, or totally uninformed minds among THE TORCH, NO. IV.

JAN. 24, 1846.

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