Imágenes de páginas

many of the savage tribes at present existing.* | wrong, and has been wrong since the beginning of Now we shall put a case in point to our Ration the world; and that nothing will be right till man alist. Suppose that he had been a traveller, and puts it right by good laws, good government, the that returning home from a distant voyage, he had banishing of all superstition, universal education, published an account of a newly discovered island, universal suffrage, and universal free trade. Now,

—that he had described its mountains, trees, ani although we hold most of these notions good in mals, and inhabitants, faithfully and distinctly, their own way, yet is it not passing strange, that and that all these had certain peculiarities, totally the world and human society have existed for some different from any other trees, animals, or men six thousand years in a state of irrationalism under known to us before. With this sole authority re all possible kinds of laws, governments, and creeds, garding this strange island in our possession, would during the lives of the wisest philosophers and most not our Rationalist stare to find a person sit down powerful rulers,—and that it is irrational still! and write another volume, refuting almost every

Then, if such be the fact-and our philosopher thing affirmed of this island, and its inhabitants, cannot deny it-what are we to conclude from it? and describing the place anew from his own fancy Either that the system of the moral world is radi

- working up part of the authentic information cally wrong in its construction; or, if human naof the original describer, with other matters known ture be right theoretically, how do we find it pracof the old country, with which alone the critic tically wrong? Why have the Rationalists of all could be conversant. Now, is not this what the past times not been able to show us a right-going Rationalist actually does with regard to matters of

state of things,-a good and a happy world? We sacred belief? He knows nothing of them, save | do not pretend to settle this question, but this we from the sacred record, and could have had no will say, that the existing world, imperfect as it other means of forming his opinions of such ab appears to us, and imperfectly as we can comprestract subjects, and yet he cuts and carves and po hend it, coincides greatly better with revelation lishes down all its facts and affirmations, to suit than it does with rationalism. his own entirely earth-formed views. He has

Revelation leads us to expect evil, and frailty, conceived an abstract view of the universal bene and narrow-sighted judgment in every human volence of the Deity, therefore anything like fu- being, of whatever grade or capacity. It leads ture punishments is an absurdity-he sues nature us to expect a particular moral government of and nature's laws proceeding upon a system of the Deity, instead of a general and apparently continual uniformity, therefore anything like equable dispensation to the whole human race. miracles is but a dream of a sickly fancy. Man Thus certain nations and individuals are placed holds audible and visible communication with man, in circumstances highly favourable to their proand the language of nature speaks from her re- sperity and happiness,-others again in condimotest bounds; but the spiritual influence of God tions where there are what experience proves inon man, a creature formed after his own image, superable barriers to the full development of their and the avowed object of his solicitude, would be mental and physical conditions. Such arrangea ridiculous conceit to the mind of the Rationalist. ments we cannot, of course, reconcile with any of There are many things in the laws and history our mere human views of strict impartiality,- but and civil pulity of the Jews, which appear very

the facts are no less certain, both in actual practice unaccountable-many things cruel, and vindic as in the revealed word of the Being who so tive, and exterminating in their early wars and arranged them. The Rationalist may toil and sweat conquests, therefore to the Rationalist it is all a

to cure these, but he cannot alter them. Therepiece of humbug, and so would the singular ano fore it is that the Scriptures appear practically maly of the dispersion and present scattered state | right, and the Rationalist practically wrong. But of that people-the only people on earth without a R:ationalist is never a practical man,—he is a a country and without a government-were it not speculatist, a declaimer, and a special pleader, but that such a state cannot be denied, seeing that we he never goes in search of facts on the other side can prove it by our senses, the almost only proof of his question. His aim is, to make out a case tu of facts which a Rationalist will allow. Then the build up his theory, and to lull and satisfy his Rationalist repudiates the accuracy of the historical ever-gnawing and uneasy mind. The main object record, because there are several apparent confu of the Rationalists, from the Epicureans downwards, sions of dates, and other uncertainties in regard to is to push the Deity as far away as possible. Man circumstances with which that record had little oc has a natural repugnance to look his Maker in the casion to be precise or particular.

face,-he wishes him far off,—some abstract essence, It is the object of the systein of the Rationalist who little heeds, and leaves his worlds and their to put all things on a right footing, to order mat inhabitants to work on according to some general ters aright in this world, and to reconcile the ways laws which were at the beginning impressed upon of God to man. He maintains that every thing is them. To them the sublime song of the Psalmist

would be deemed an insult and intrusion, instead ..See some facts bearing upon this subject in the article which follows

of the filial approach of a son to a father.


"O Lord, thou hast searched me, and known me; | the ablest and most knowing scientific minds in thou knowest my down-sitting and mine uprising the whole world. We take not the opinion of the Thou understandest my thoughts affar off. Thou Hindoo, because he knows nothing but his own compassest my path and my lying down, and art system; nor of the Chinese, for the same reason; acquainted with all my ways. Thou hast beset me nor of any other half-informed nation in the world. behind and before, and laid thine hand upon me. And so it stands with their systems of religion. Whither shall I go from thy Spirit; or whither | The Hindoo and the Bhuddhist know no religion but shall I flee from thy presence. If I ascend up in their own, and therefore their narrowed intellects to heaven, thou art there. If I make my bed in can be no test of the truth or falsity of any religion. hell, thou art there. If I take the wings of the The Christian knows all other religions, and testmorning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the ing the evidences of all these, and comparing such sea, even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy | with Christianity, he is enabled to come to a more right hand shall hold me.”

comprehensive and just conclusion. Though we The object of the Rationalist being to get quit of by no means say that the individual belief of the Scripture altogether, and to set up in its place his | Christian rests and is founded on this argument goddess, Reason, he aims at doing so by one of two | alone, yet it appears a sufficient refutation of the asways. He either denies the authenticity of the Sac sumption of the Rationalist. red Record in toto, or he takes the whole in a sort of To not, a few we may have appeared to have metaphorical sense,—as a work in which there are spent too many words on this subject to many who some truths, and some good ideas, but mixed up have no doubt themselves, and who are not aware with a great deal of mystical and imaginary mat that such doubts are widely abroad in society. ter which deserves no attention. The first kind of Will such believe, however, that Germany swarms scepticism'we can understand, -it may exist in a with works on Rationalism; that the Scriptures are vigorous and powerful enough intellect, but with printed with copious Rationalist commentaries, strong prejudices, and frequently with a total want explaining away their real meaning altogether; of information on the subject. The second indicates that books, written in America, openly denying ihe a mind, or a state of mind, which we have consider most sacred parts of the New Testament, and scofable difficulty in comprehending, and yet it char fing at these, in the coarsest language, are reacterizes the Strauss school with its innumerable published and sold in great numbers in London; disciples in Germany. That the Scriptures should and that self-styled clergymen preach such doccontain even one particle of inspired truth, mixed trines from week to week to crowded audiences up and jumbled with a mass of metaphorical error, of our large manufacturing towns. or call it at hest imaginary fiction, is a tenet which, It is the nature of such advocates to brand their we think, could scarcely gain implicit credit in any opponents with bigotry, narrow-mindedness, shalkind of reflecting mind. And yet, we suspect, lowness of intellect, and facile belief; and these some such idea of the Scriptures is perhaps the vituperations they make to stand too frequently in most prevalent of any, and is by no means confined place of logical argument, but there are no greatto the Rationalists of Germany.

er bigots than those who aspire to the extreme of

liberality. Their so-called liberality too often deA common question suggested is, amid so many

generates into license; and license is impatient of different codes of religious belief existing in the

all control, especially the control of strict and world, how are we to distinguish which is the true logical thought. and which are the false. A Jew, a Mahommedan, It is curious to mark the progress of scepticism a Bhuddhist, all have separate creeds, and each

in nations,-it goes on from one degree to another, believes that his own is the true one, just as the

assuming various shapes, and taking up various

positions, till at last the mind becomes, as it were, Christian does. Now these cannot be all true, and

a void, in which condition it may remain for a hence the Rationalist insists upon abiding by the time, in a state of entire neutrality or insensibility, light of reason, and rejects all indiscriminately, as or its continual cravings and restlessness may at equally the offspring of blind superstition. This is

last be terminated by conviction. Such latter con

dition seems to be the state of many parts of Gerscarcely fair reasoning, and would not be satisfac

many and France at present. Scepticism has altory in any other matter—as a question in science,

most thoroughly purged the mind both of old lingfor instance. Thus, suppose that the question were ering supcrstitions, as well as of truth, and now a the truth of Newton's theory of gravitation and the movement or re-action has taken place,-the mind planetary system-to decide this question would turns again to those subjects of high import,-it we reason thus :- The Hindoos have a system of

looks at truth as from a new position,-it begins

to speculate, to inquire and to compare truth with astronomy-the Chinese have another—the Mexi

falsehood. The state of matters was somewhat cans have a third-many other pations have their similar at the period of the Reformation-wben a own views of the heavenly bodies, but very vague new dawn broke in upon benighted Europe. Is and often absurd, -now, as all these are false, why

it too much to hope that a great periodic change of

a similar nature is about to follow the present premay not Newton's be so too? The reason why we

valence of aroused thought; and that thus another give the preference to Newton's theory is, that it

grent wave of progressive intellectual amelioration has been tested, scrutinized, and approved of, by will flow onwards upon society.



By Joun Kitto, D.D. 2 Vols. London: 1845. These are two very interesting volumes, written by a Kirby's Wonderful Magazine ;' and I now dwell the very interesting man. On the deprivation of one of the rather upon this circumstance, as, with other facts of senses, that of hearing, he thus writes feelingly and from

the same kind, it helps to satisfy me that I was already

a most voracious reader, and that the calamity which sad experience.

befel me did not create in me the literary appetite, but “ I became deaf on my father's birth-day, early in the only threw me more entirely upon the resources which year 1817, when I had lately completed the twelfth year it offered. of my age. The commencement of this condition is too The other circumstance was that my grandmother' clearly connected with my circumstances in life to allow had finished, all but the buttons, a new smock-troch, me to abstain from troubling the reader with some par- ! which I had hoped to have assumed that very day, but ticulars which I should have been otherwise willing to which was faithfully promised for the morrow. As this

was the first time that I should have worn that article of My father, at the expiration of his apprenticeship, was attire, the event was contemplated with something of enabled by the support of his elder brother, an engineer that interest and solicitude with which the assumption well known in the West of England, to commence life as of the toga virilis may be supposed to have been cona master builder, with advantageous connections, and templated by the Roman youth. the most favourable prospects. But both the brothers The last circunıstance, and the one perhaps which seein to have belonged to that class of men whom pro- | had some efiect upon what ensued, was this. In one of sperity ruins ; for aftersome years they became neglectful the apartments of the house in which we were at work, of their business, and were eventually reduced to great a young sailor, of whom I bad some knowledge, had distress. At the time I have specified, my father had died after a lingering illness, which had been attended become a jobbing mason, of precarious employment, and with circumstances which the doctors could not well in such circumstances that it had for some time been | understand. It was, therefore, concluded that the body necessary that I should lend my small assistance to his should be opened to ascertain the cause of death. I labours. This early demand upon my services, joined knew this was to be done, but not the time appointed to much previous inability or reluctance to stand the cost for the operation. But on passing from the sui ee iuw of my schooling, and to frequent head-ache which kept the yard, with a load of slates which I was to take to me much from school even when in nominal attendance, the house-top, my attention was drawn to a stream of made my education very backward. I could read well, blood, or ratber, I suppose, bloody water, flowing through but was an indifferent writer, and worse cypherer, when the gutter by which the passage was traversed. The the day arrived which was to alter so materially my con idea tat this was the blood of the dead youth whom I dition and hopes in life.

had so lately seen alive, and that the doctors were then The circumstances of that day-the last of twelve at work cutting him up, and groping at his inside, made years of hearing, and the first of twenty-eight years of me shudder, and gave what I shouid now call a shock deafness, have left a more distinct impression upon my to my nerves, although I was very innocent of all knowmind than those of any previous, or almost any subse ledge about nerves at that time. I cannot but think that quent day of my life. It was a day to be remembered. it was owing to this that I lost much of the presence of The last day on which any customary labour ceases, mind and collectedness so important to me at that mothe last day on which any customary privilege is en ment; for when I had ascended to the top of the ladder, joyed,—the last day on which we do the things we and was in the critical act of stepping from it on to the have done daily, are always marked days in the calendar roof, I lost my footing, and fell backward, from a height of life ; how much, therefore, must the mind not linger of about thirty-five feet, into the paved court below, in the memories of a day which was the last of many Of what followed I know nothing: and as this is the blessed things, and in which one stroke of action and record of my own sensations, I can here report no. suffering,-one moment of time, wrought a greater thing but that which I myself know. For one mochange of condition, than any sudden loss of wealth or ment, indeed, I awoke from that death-like state, and honours ever made in the state of man. Wealth may then found that my father, attended by a crowd of be recovered, and new honouis won, or happiness may people, was bearing me homeward in his arms; but I be secured without them; but there is no recovery, no had then no recollection of what had bappened, and at adequate compensation, for such a loss as was on that once relapsed into a state of unconsciousness. day sustained. The wealth of sweet and pleasurable In this state I remained for a fortnight, as I aftersounds with which the Almighty has filled the world, wards learned. These days were a blank in my life, I of sounds modulated by affection, sympathy, and ear could never bring any recollections to bear upon them ; nestness,-can be appreciated only by one who has so and when I awoke one morning to conciousness, it was long been thus poor indeed in the want of them, and as from a night of sleep. I saw that it was at least two who for so many years has sat in utter sileuce amid the hours later than my usual time of rising, and marvelled busy bum of populous cities, the music of the woods and that I had been suffered to sleep so late. I attempted to mountains, and more than all, of the voices sweeter than spring up in bed, and was astonished to find that I could music, which are in the season heard around the do not even move. The utter prostration of my strer gth mestic hearth.

subdued all curiosity within me. I experienced no On the day in question my father and another man, pain, but I felt that I was weak ; I saw that I was attended by myself, were engaged in new slating the treated as an invalid, acquiesced in my condition, though roof of a house, the ladder ascending to which was fixed some time passed-more time than the reader would in a small court paved with flag stones. The access to imagine, be ore I could piece together my broken rethis court from the street was a paved passage through collections so as to comprehend it. which ran a gutter, whereby waste water was conducted I was very slow in learning that my hearing was enfrom the yard in the street.

tirely gone. The unusual stillness of all things was Three things occupied my mind that day. One was grateful to me in my utter exhaustion ; and if in this that the town-crier, who occupied part of the house in half-awakened state, a thought of the matter entered my which we lived, bad been the previous evening pre mind, I ascribed it to the unusual care and success of vailed upon to entrust me with a book, for which I had my friends in preserving silence around me. I saw long been worrying him, and with the contents of which | them talking, indeed, to one another, and thought that, I was most eager to become acquainted. I think it was out of regard to my feeble condition, they spoke in

whispers, because I heard them not. The truth was speak. This appears, under all the circumstances, to be revealed to me in consequence of my solicitude about a very strong corroboration, if not an absolute proof of the book which had so much interested me in the day of the position I have ventured to suggest. And it is a my fall. It had, it seems, been reclaimed by the good fact, that under all the modifications and improvements old man who had sent it to ine, and who doubtless con which my vocal organs have since sustained, this recluded, that I should have no more need of books in this semblance to the voice of the born deaf and dumb has Kife. He was wrong; for there has been nothing in this been preserved. It is evident that this cannot be aclife which I have needed more. I asked for this book counted for by any of the reasons which have been supwith much earnestness, and was answered by signs which posed to explain the imperfect development of the vocal I could not comprehend.

organs in those born deaf and dumb ; seeing that my " Why do you not speak ?" I cried. “ Pray let me vocal powers were once in a perfect condition, and speech have the book.”

acquired before I became deaf. I see not how this fact This seemed to create some confusion ; and at is to be accounted for in any other way than that which length some one, more clever than the rest, hit upon the has been suggested. happy expedient of writing upon a slate, that the book Although I have no recollection of physical pain in had been reclaimed by the owner, and that I could not the act of speaking, I felt the strongest possible indispoin my weak state be allowed to read.

sition to use my vocal organs. I seemed to labour under “ But," I said in great astonishment, “ Why do you a moral disability which cannot be described by compawrite me, why not speak ? Speak, speak.”

rison with any disinclination which the reader can be Those who stood around the bed exchanged signi supposed to have experienced. The disinclination which ficant looks of concern, and the writer soon displayed one feels to leave his warm bed on a frosty morning, is upon his slate the awful words— YOU ARE DEAF.' nothing to that which I experienced against any exer

Did not this utterly crush me ? By no means. In cise of the organs of speech. The force of this tendency my then weakened condition nothing like this could af to dumbness was so great, that for many years, I habifect ine. Besides, I was a child ; and to a child the full tually expressed myself to others in writing, even when extent of such a calamity could not be at once appa not more than a few words were necessary; and where rent. However, I knew not the future-It was well I did this mode of intercourse could not be used, I avoided not; and there was nothing to show me that I suffered occasion of speech, or heaved up a few monosyllables, or auder more than a temporary deafness, which in a few expressed my wish by a slight motion or gesture ; days might pass away. It was left for time to show me signs, as a means of intercourse, I always abominathe sad realities of the condition to which I was reduced." ted ; and no one could annoy me more than by ad

opting this mode of communication. In fact, I came to All efforts used proved ineffectual to restore his sense

be generally considered as both deaf and dumb, exceptof hearing, and thus one means of communication with | ing by the few who were acquainted with my real conhis fellow-men was cut off for ever. Dr Kitto has some dition ; and hence, many tolerated my mode of expresinteresting remarks regarding the connection of speech

sion by writing, who would have urged upon me the

exercise of my vocal organs. I rejoiced in the protecwith hearing.

tion which that impression afforded; for nothing · It has often occurred to me that there is really more distressed me more than to be asked to speak ; and from connection between the organs of hearing and of speech

disuse having been superadded to the pre-existing causes, than is usually supposed. It is now the received be there seemed a strong probability of my eventually juslief that the deaf and dumb are naturally only deaf, and

tifying the impression concerning my dumbness which that they are dumb also because they have never had was generally entertained. I now speak with consideropportunity of learning to speak. It is undoubtedly true

able ease and freedom, and, in personal inter course, that for this reason they do not speak ; but I am per

never resort to any other than the oral mode of com nusuaded there is also-apart from this, and physically

nication. connected with deafness-a sort of inability to utter articulate sounds. I have no physiological acquaintance It is probable that in Dr Kitto's case the nerves of with the subject; but the impression growing out of my

the tongue were injured by the fall, as well as those of own experience and observation is, that the same functional causes act upon both organs. The hearing, being

the ear, and that he gradually recovered the use of the the more delicate organ, is utterly extinguished by that lingual nerves afterwards. It seems also probable, that which only suffices to impede or deaden, without utterly the majority of deaf mutes are also deprived of the full destroying, the vocal organs; leaving in them so much use of speech by an affection of the nerves of the vitality as may, under a certain artificial training and

tongue. Fortunately for Dr Kitto, nature had endowed stimulus, be awakened into imperfect action. The deaf can thus be taught to speak, as a bear can be taught to

him with an enlarged and active mind-be took to dance, or a man without hands to fabricate baskets ; but reading and literature-appears to have travelled in the a natural indisposition to use this acquired art, with East, and to have accumulated by personal observation more or less difficulty, or pain in the use of it, remains ;

great stores of useful knowledge. Since his return he and this I am disposed to attribute not to the education

has found a solace as well as a source of profitable em-. being left imperfect through deafness, but to a physical difficulty in the formation of articulate sounds.

ployment in the exercise of his mental faculties—he is It will be seen how far my own experience bears upon the editor of the Pictorial Bible the notes to, which, as or illustrates this hypothesis.

illustrative of oriental manners and usages, are particuBefore my fall, my enunciation was remarkably

larly interesting, he has also edited the Biblical Cycloclear and distinct ; but after that event it was found that I had not only become deaf, but spoke with pain

pedia, a most valuable book, and other works. In the voland difficulty, and in a voice so greatly altered as to be

umes before us the history of the deaf, dumb, and blind, is pot easily understood. I have no present recollection of recorded with much feeling and with no little philosophihaving ever experienced positive pain in the act of cal acumen. It has often struck us that more practical speaking ; but I am informed by one who was present,

information might be acquired regarding the powers of the and deeply interested in all which took place at that time, that I complained of pain in speaking ; and I am

human mind, from studying the sensations and acquirefurther told, that my voice had become very similar to

ments of peculiar deficiences, which the absence of one that of one born deaf anel dumb, but who has been taught to | or more of the senses gives rise to, than from all the

á priori speculations of the metaphysicians. Thus the Had you any dreams! and of what kind? I rememexistence or non-existence of innate ideas has been a ber of dreaming often, but I cannot recollect what kind questio vexata with two leading sects of philosophers they were. from time immemorial. Now the experience of all Before you were educated, did you know that it was mutes and of the blind is certainly corroborative of wrong to do mischief, such as to steal, or to tell a lie? Locke's school, that all ideas are obtained through the I did not think there was any sin in stealing, or doing senses. The blind have no ideas of visible things, not any thing of that kind, only imagined it to be disobeying even in their dreams. The deaf have no ideas of sound, my parents' commands, for which I was chastised. and dream only of tangible and visible things. There When you saw a person reading or writing, bad you is one idea which, if any were innate or natural to the any wish to do the same! Although I saw a person mind, would surely be found to be so, and that is the reading or writing, I had no desire to imitate them, for idea of Deity. Yet we have the most satisfactory evi play was my whole delight. dence that perfectly isolated beings have no such idea, Were you ever sick? and had you any thought about until they are informed of it through the medium of death? I remember of being once sick, but I had no some one of the senses. Dr Kitto here details the well idea of death; neither could I understand it. known case of Massieu, the highly intelligent pupil of In what stage of your instruction did you first become the Abbé Sicard. The account of his mental develop- acquainted with the existence of God? It was after a ment when a child is curious and instructive; he de considerable time at school. Although I had often been clares he had formed no conception of a Deity, although told that God made me, yet I did not understand who his father had made him go down on his knees evening God was, till I was made to understand that man made and morning, and make the gestures of one praying. chairs, tables, and many other different objects, but that The testimony of a most intelligent American lady, who he could not make man; it was then that I was convinat a mature age received instructions in a deaf and ced that there must be such a being as God, so that from dumb asylum, is to the same effect. She declares that one object to another I became gradually acquainted the idea that the world must have had a Creator, never with the very existence of God. occurred to her nor to any other of several intelligent Did you form an idea of God at once, or after repeated pupils of similar age, and with equal advantages for ac- tellings? After repeated tellings. quiring ideas of religious truths. Mrs Phelan makes a State any thing else connected with your thoughts and similar statement respecting her pupil, “No idea," she experience? I had many strange thoughts about the says, “had entered his mind of the existence of a su works of the creation, such as grass. I thought birds preme Being. In proof of this, one of the first questions made the trees, when I saw so many birds lodging in he continued to put to me was, whether I had made the them. I thought man made cows. I also thought, sun and moon."

when I saw the rain, that there were men in the air We took occasion some time ago to put a series of ques with pails of water, sprinkling it down upon us; and tions to a very intelligent boy, a pupil of St John's Street many other strange ideas of different things, so that I deaf and dumb school in this city, with a request that he was totally ignorant of the great Creator of all things, would endeavour to carry back his mind to the period of until I came to school, where I became gradually acchildhood, and answer the questions without mixing up quainted with them. with them any thing of his subsequent acquirements. We We have the same practical proof of the absence of give the answers below, verbatim as we received them. all idea of Deity in those savage tribes who have been

What is your name and age! My name is James so long and so completely isolated from more civilized Burgess, and my age is 14 years.

men as to have lost even all traditional notions of a God At what age were you admitted to school! I think or of another state of existence. This is well exempliabout eight years of age.

fied in Moffat's interesting account of a chief of the In your early days, or before you came to school, did Bechuana nation in South-east Africa. you ever direct your attention to the sun, moon, and

“ They had no ideas of any thing beyond this world: stars? Yes, sir.

several, interrogated by the missionaries, Schmelin, What did you think of them! I thought a man Campbell, and Moffat, declared that they had no idea brought a burning fire to the sky, because the sun and whatever of a God, or devil, or any spirit, of a future stars looked red; and also thought the moon had a face

state, or immortality of a soul; and yet they had in

general acute intellects, and excellent memories. Afrilike a man, so I was afraid of it, and hid myself in my

caner, a chief of the Bechuana nation, after conversion, parents' house whenever it shone.

became a sincere believer and deep thinker. Being Did you ever witness the death of any friend or ac asked what his views of God were before he enjoyed the quaintance? and what did you think of this? I saw the benefit of Christian instruction, he replied that he never death of my brother, who was himself deaf and dumb.

thought any thing of these subjects. That he thought

about nothing but his cattle. He admitted that he had I imagined my brother was not dead, but thought he was

heard of a God (from christian colonists), but he stated unning, (deceiving me,) so that after he was buried, I

that his views of the Deity were so erroneous, that the went for several times to his grave, thinking he would rise; name suggested no more to his mind than something but I was disappointed, and ceased going to his grave. that might be found in the form of an insect, or in the When a child, were you afraid when left alone in a

lid of a snuff box."

Dr Vanderkemp says, of the Kafirs, “ If by religion lonely place, or in the dark? I was afraid when left

we mean reverence for God, or the external action by alone. I imagined I saw many things, such as murder

which that reverence is expressed, I never could perers; so I ran with terror to my bed, and covered my ceive that they had any religion, or any idea of the exself with the blankets.

istence of a God. They have no word in their language

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