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BOARD FOR ENCOURAGEMENT OF ARTS AND MANUFACTURES
IN SCOTLAND. As the origin and present state of this national in- shall be wholly applied towards the encouraging and stitution may not be uninteresting to our readers, we promoting the fisheries and such other manufactures and have given the substance of a report which was recently improvements in Scotland as may most conduce to the drawn up for the New Statistical Account of Scotland, general good of the united kingdom, and to none other subjoining also an account of the School of Design. use, intent, or purpose whatsoever, in such manner as
The Board of Commissioners, Trustees for the En. shall hereafter be directed by Parliament couragement of Manufactories, Fisheries, and the Arts in In 1726, the act 13 Geo. I. c. 30, was passed for enScotland, had its origin at the period of the union of the couraging and promoting fisheries, and other manufać. two kingdoms. By a part of the 15th article of the tures and improvements in Scotland. Upon this act treaty of union (220 July 1706, 5th Anne, c. 8), it is followed the royal patent of his Majesty King George agreed that L.2000 sterling per annum, for the space of | II., "registrate and sealed at Edinburgh, July 18,1727," seven years, shall be applied towards encouraging and in which, inter alia, by the 18th section, a board of compromoting the manufacture of coarse wool, within those missioners are nominated and appointed, any five or shires in Scotland which produce the wool; and that the more of them to be a quorum, with full power and aufirst L.2000 sterling be paid at Martinmas next, and so thority to exercise the several powers and authorities yearly at Martinmas during the space aforesaid; and thereinafter mentioned. The funds under the manageafterwards, the same shall be wholly applied towards ment of this board were, (1.) A sum of L.14,000 sterling, the encouraging and promoting the fisheries, and such arising from the seven years of the annual sum of L.2000, other manufactures and improvements in Scotland as which was to have been devoted to the encouragement may conduce to the general good of the united king- / of the manufacture of coarse Scottish wool, but of which doms. This may be considered as Scotland's grand no part had ever as yet been appropriated. (2.) The said charter of right to the annual sum which she has since annual sum of L.2000, which was to have been devoted received for the encouragement of her manufactures, to the encouragement of the fisheries and manufactures out of the nacional funds, and which cannot be taken of Scotland, and which, by act of Parliament, became away without a direct infringement of the treaty of payable from and after the year 1719, not having been union.
called for until the constitution of the board in 1727 In 1718, seventeen years after the above treaty, by | produced eight years of it, making L.16,000,which the act 5th George I., c. 20, it is provided that the said added to the above-mentioned L.14,000, made L.30,000 sum of L.2000 per annum shall continue and be payable in all; which sum was paid into the hands of their cashfor ever, and shall be paid or payable at the four most ier, on 29th December 1727. (3.) The surplus of the usual feasts in the year, by even and equal portions; and malt duty produced from 1734 to 1784, a grand total of by the 14th clause of the same act, it is enacted and de- L.36,000; but it afterwards fell off greatly in subsequent clared, by the authority aforesaid, that the same shall be years, and yielded nothing after the year 1799. wholly applied towards the encouraging and promoting | Out of these sums the board was enabled to save the fisheries, and such other manufactures and improve. L.10,000, which they added to the L.30,000 already ments in Scotland as may most conduce to the general accumulated : hence the principal fund of L.40.000, good of the united kingdom, according to the tenor and which was placed in the Royal Bank at 5 per cent. in. true meaning of the said 15th article of the said treaty terest. The interest of this sum added to the L.2000 of of union, and to none other use, interest, or purpose annuity made the income L.4000 a-year, besides those whatever. And by the 15th section of the same act, sums which arose from the surplusage of the malt dury it is further provided, that the said sum shall not be posterior to 1784. liable to any arrestment or attachment that shall be laid About ten years after the rebellion of 1745, an act thereupon, any law, custom, or usage to the contrary was passed, 26 George II. c. 20, for encouraging and notwithstanding. The 17th clause of this act provides, improving the manufacturing of linen in the Highlands that at any time, upon payment by the parliament of of Scotland, by which it was provided, "that from and Great Britain of the full sum of L.40,000 sterling, with. after the expiration of the term for which the bounties out any deduction or abatement whatsoever to be made on the exportation of British and Irish coarse linen, by out of the same, or any part thereof, and all arrears (if the said herein-before-recited acts' are granted, continany such be) of the said annuity or yearly sum of L.2000 ued, and made payable, the sum of L.3000 be paid then due, computing the same quarterly to the end of yearly, and every year for the space of nine years, to the next preceding quarter of a year, and from thence- the cashier of the said commissioners and trustees for forth by the day, until the day of such payment made, improving fisheries and nianufactures of Scotland, to be then, and not till then, and from thenceforth, the said charged and chargeable upon and payable out of any annuity or yearly fund of L.2000 shall cease and deter- of the customs, duties, excises, or other revetues' in mine. By the act 12th George I., it is provided, that Scotland, introduced by the treaty of union, or to which if the rate of threepence per bushel, to be levied on malt the subjects of Scotland are or 'shall be liable, and to be in Scotland, shall produce a greater sum than L.20,000, applied by the said commissioners and trustees for en. clear of all charges of management, the surplusage so pro- couraging and improving the manufacturing of linens in duced over and above the said clear sum of L.20,000, the Highlands of Scotland only, and only in those parts
BOARD FOR ENCOURAGEMENT OF ARTS AND MANUFACTURES. 73
thereof wherein the manufacture of linens have either the act by which the annuity of L.2956, 138. 8d. was not been already introduced, or if the same hath been granted. The Board, however, acquiesced in the withintroduced, have not yet arrived to any considerable de drawal of the flax fund, the distribution of which had gree of perfection.” The purposes to which this annual not produced all the beneficial effects that had been ansum is devoted by the act are " for instructing and in ticipated from it. Such were the nature and amount of citing the inhabitants of most parts of Scotland to raise, the funds placed within the control of the commissioners. prepare, and spin flax and hemps, to be used in the The first meeting of the Board was held on the 20th manufacture of coarse linen, and to weave yarn there July, 1727, when the commissioners proceeded to carry spun into such linen, and for providing the said inha into effect the provisions of the act of Parliament. They bitants with fit materials and utensils for those purposes, held out encouragement for the manufacture of coarse and for distributing the rewards and prizes to the grow wool, by pecuniary aid, by prizes, and other means. ers, preparers, and spinners of such flax and hemp, and
They instituted regulations for the encouragement of to the weavers and other manufacturers of such linen the fisheries, appointed officers to superintend them, and in respect to the quality or excellence of the flax or to give practical instructions for the proper curing of hemp so raised and prepared, and of the yarn so spun,
the fish ; and awarded bounties to the vessels engaged, wove, or otherwise manufactured, and for such other and for the discovery of herring shoals and cod banks. like uses as by the said trustees shall be thought pro
By these means, they gradually fostered into existence per for promoting the true interest of this act." No those fisheries which have since been carried to such a part was to be applied in encouraging the manufacture scale of importance; and for the regulation and superof sail-cloth. The commissioners were yearly to make intendence of which they afterwards instituted a special up accounts of the moneys, and report proceedings to
board. The commissioners also brought over a number the annual committee of the Convention of Royal Burghs
of weavers from Picardy in France, for the introduction of Scotland; and at Christmas 1753, the commissioners of cambric weaving, and purchased ground for their were to lay a plan for the application of the said sum be establishment in the immediate precincts of the city of fore his Majesty, and in any other year, any other plan
Edinburgh, where Picardy Place now stands. They for the like purpose.
encouraged the manufacture of linen by bounties and In consequence of this act, the Board established fac otherwise, until they brought it to so high a state of tories at three different stations in the Highlands, and prosperity, that in 1822, 36,268,530 yards were manuappointed skilful and trustworthy persons to superintend factured, valued in the books of the stentmasters at them. And the commissioners did all in their power, by
£1,396,295 sterling. money grants, and by the distribution of looms and other But, in the following year, an act was passed doing manufacturing implements, to lead the people into manu away with the law requiring linen to be inspected and facturing habits, and so to plant the linen manufacture stamped by public officers; the whole of whom were conin the north. But at the end of the nine years, when sequently set aside, with small pensions, according to the L.3000 annuity ceased to be given, the manufacture their services. The board, however, still went on giving gradually declined, and at last finally ceased in those a small encouragement to the linen manufacturer until highland districts where the money bad been distributed. the year 1832, when all their exertions in this particular
By the act 10 George III. c. 40, seven fifteenth parts were terminated. of certain duties on foreign linens imported into Great The funds under the control of the commissioners Britain were granted for encouraging the growth of flax amount to L.4170, lls. 6d. of annual income. The and hemp in Scotland, and placed under the manage annual payments of money granted to the Royal Instiment of the Board of Commissioners of Scottish manu tution, the Horticultural Society, &c., at present amount factures; the other eight fifteenth parts of these duties to L.1000, to which falls to be added the compensation having been granted to England for the same purpose. annuities still payable to the retired stampmasters, From this source the board for many years derived amounting to L.695, 68., and the feu-duty of the institularge annual sums, varying in amount for each year. tion, L.125, making in all L.1820, 6s. 3d., leaving of Then, they distributed over the country, in public pre disposable income L.2350, 5s. 3d. This sum was exmiums, salaries to certain inspecting officers, and other pended, 1st, In premiums for manufactures annually, wise for the encouragement of the culture of flax and L.700; 2d, Salaries of the three masters of the school hemp, though very little hemp was thereby produced. of design, and the lecturers on pictorial anatomy, L.700; In the year 1787, however, an act was passed (27
3d, The official salaries charged on the board, L.671. George III. c. 13), granting in lieu of the fluctuating The remainder is disposed of in the purchase of casts, fund, which was derived from the above-mentioned and objects connected with the school of design, and duties, a fixed annual sum of L.2956, 13s. 8d., being the other contingencies. amount of the average produce of the seven-fifteenths of The premiums granted at the public expositions of the said duties. This sum was annually distributed over manufactures were intended to encourage new manufacthe country in premiums for the encouragement of the tures, or the introduction from abroad of such as had growth of flax, in the same manner as that arising from no previous existence in this country--to foster such the seven-fifteenths, till the year 1833, wheu the Treas manufactures as were inferior in Scotland, into a greater ury intimated that Government had resolved to with- degree of excellence. But so soon as any of these ardraw the flax and hemp fund, which was done accord- | rived at a certain degree of perfection and prosperity, ingly. This appears to have been done solely by an act the commissioners considered it to be their duty to leave I the Treasury, and without any legislative repeal of them to their own efforts.
The premiums were awarded by a committee, which, they have been enabled to place their school of design called in the aid of experienced tradesmen, acquainted in a most efficient state. It now consists of one class for with the different kinds of goods, the whole being con- | the study of drawing from the ancient statues, under one ducted in the most impartial manner.
master; a class for the study of pictorial colouring un
der another master; a life academy under the especial SCHOOL OF DRAWING AND DESIGN, ROYAL INSTITUTION.
care of the head master; a school for instructing pupils So far back as the year 1760, the board saw the im in all the various departments of ornamental design, portant influence which a school for teaching drawing both in form and in colour, including architecture, geoand design would produce on the improvement of manu- | metry, perspective, modelling, fresco, and encaustic factures, and it was in that year, that the commission- painting, &c., divided into classes, and under the superèrs appointed their first master for that purpose. This ! intendence of one master and an assistant ; to all which appointment, and the gradual accumulation which the 'is added a course of lectures on pictorial anatomy. board afterwards made of casts, ancient statues, and The school is in the most active and flourishing con. fragments of ancient architecture for the use of students, dition. The number of pupils is at present about 130, together with the necessity of providing apartments for all of whom receive instruction gratis. Candidates are the meetings of the board, induced the commissioners to at first admitted as probationers for three months, ducome to the resolution of erecting the building now ring which period the board is enabled to ascertain whecalled the Royal Institution. They accordingly procured ther their talents are such as to warrant their continua warrant from his Majesty Géorge IV., dated 28th De ance, and if so, to determine as to what department they cember, 1822; which, with subsequent warrants after shall be attached. wards granted, empowered them to erect the present Prizes are awarded to the most eminent pupils. The building from their accumulated funds at an expense of annual exhibitions of their works bave proved the great L.40,000. This splendid edifice is from a plan of Mr progress which many of them make; and it may be Playfair, and the last finish has lately been given to it stated that one of the pupils of this school carried off a by surmounting it with a statue of her Majesty Queen prize at the competition of the cartoons for the designs Victoria, executed by Mr Steel. The building includes that are to embellish the new houses of Parliament. a grand gallery for the collection of casts ; apartments The sculpture gallery contains casts of the Elgin for carrying on the business of the two boards of manu marbles ; casts of all the celebrated antique statues; of factures and of fisheries ; a suite of apartments where the the well known Gliberti gates of Florence; and a series Royal Institution for the encouragement of the fine arts of casts of antique Greck and Roman busts of high inte. has its gallery of ancient pictures; and apartments for rest, seeing that they form the only collection of pictothe meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, which rial busts in Great Britain. This collection was made two last Societies are tenants under the board.
at Rome by the Alborini family, from whom they were In order to command sufficient funds for this school, purchased for the gallery, where they are now placed. the commissioners have been compelled to give up, for The public has free admission to the gallery. Much a time, so much of their former scheme as provided for praise is due to the liberal and patriotic efforts of the regular annual exhibitions of manufactures; though it commissioners, which are effectively seconded by their is understood that they contemplate having them occa zealous and able secretary, Sir Thomas Dick Laader, sionally, when their funds will admit of it. In this way, I Bart.
(By the late John MALCOLM, Esq.)
The flowers as gaily deck the stem,
The leaves as greenly shade the tree ;
I weep no faded cbarms in them;
The change is all in me!
The heart, the heart! I trace it there,
Whose brightness, and whose bloom is gone,
That mantled ocean, earth, and air,
With beauty all its own.
The heart, the heart! each breath of joy
May sweep its broken cords in vain-
O'er tuneless harps as breezes sigh,
But wake no answering strain.
Laura, you pant to know it; prying elf!
| marine bed before alluded to, pervades an area of 2! GEOLOGICAL APPEARANCES IN THE PLAIN
miles by 4, and may be seen in the sections made by
drains and ditches maintaining the same water level OF MORAY.
throughout. These marine shells present the appearBy PATRICK DUFF, Esq.
ance of having lived and died where they now lie enIn the plain of Moray, extending from the river tombed. The beaches of rolled boulders come next to Spey to the Findhorn, and embracing a district of 21 be noticed. They run parallel to the sea line from the miles in length between these rivers, and 10 miles in River Spey to the headland at Lossiemouth, and attain breadth from the Moray Frith to the sub-alpine a height of from 14 to 25 feet above high water mark. country, the following rock formations present them Near Lossiemouth, beds of sea shells occur in them, but selves in ascending order: 1st. The old red sandstone. these, while they are surprisingly entire, exhibit such a 2d, The inferior oolite. 3d, The Wealden. 4th, The mixture of deep-water with littoral species, as for inboulder clay. 5th, Fresh water shell marl. 6th, Peat. stance, buccinum undatum, cardium echinatum, ostrea 7th, Beds of marine shells. 8th, Drift, including alluvi. edulis, with littorina littoria, patella vulgata, &c.; as to al clay, gravel, blown sand, and beaches of rolled bould forbid the conclusion that this had been their original ers. The present condition of these deposits affords bed, but rather that they had been gathered into the ample scope for reflection on the various modifications beach by the waters. In the Bay of Burghead, is a subof the earth's surface, since the deposition of the old marine forest, extending a considerable distance into red sandstone, a detail of which, the limits of this no the Moray Frith. tice will not admit of. A few of the more remarkable ap Now it will be instructive to apply to these detailed pearances can only be pointed out, as bearing on the facts the rival hypotheses, viz. first,—That land has been unsettled questions whether the sea has not in former raised while the level of the sea continued stationary ; times maintained for indefinite periods a higher and a or secondly,-That the sea level has fluctuated upwards lower level than at present, or whether the sea has not and downwards at indefinite intervals of time. The always had the same level, and the land been repeatedly first hypothesis assumes that the old red sandstone has elevated by subterranean forces, so as to have been at been raised up out of the bed of the ocean, and this asone time productive of animal and vegetable life, and sumption is fully borne out by the evidence of the inagain and again depressed under the waters by subsid clined beds of that formation, but it also assumes that ence. That the sandstone has been elevated from its the wealden or fresh water deposit has been depressed original horizontal position is attested by the inclination under the level of the sea, while no other evidence can of the strata at an angle of 15° N.W., and this dip is be obtained of such depression, than that the sea had singularly uniform over the whole area, without disturb flowed over it, the sandstone beds lying close at hand ance from volcanic outburst, or even the occurrence of exhibiting no indication of such disturbance. Again, a trap dike ; the beds rise to an altitude not exceeding the first hypothesis supposes a similar depression of the 600 feet in the parallel ridges of Covesca, Quarrywood, shell marl and peat moss beds, so as to enable the waters and Pluscarden, where they break off by a strip escarp of the sea to flow over them, and to furnish the beds of ment, and at the base resume the uniform dip of 15°, marine shells which overlie them; but the difficulty here is except at the eastern end of the Quarrywood ridge, that there exists no corresponding settling down of the where the cornstone is brought up at an anticlinal angle; sandstone beds to attest the subsidence ; while it is eviin this point the beds of the wealden present themselves, dent that to submerge the peat and marl beds to a depth at which a cliff of 30 feet in height has been exposed by sufficient to form a habitat for the oyster in particular, quarrying operations, a covering of the boulder clay a depression of at least 60 feet would be required, and three feet thick lies on these beds; they appear again at an equal amount of elevation to bring them to their prea lower level at Pitgaveny about 30 feet above the sea. sent position. It does not seem necessary, in order to Here the boulder clay is absent, but its place is occupied fulfil the requirements of the hypothesis under consideby a bed of recent marine shells, mostly composed of ration, to demand such an amount of elevation for the littorina littoria ; here is evidence that the wealden beds, so-called raised beaches, in consequence of their being composed in a great measure of the exuvia of fresh evidently littoral accumulations; but the partial elevation water mollusca, have formed at one period the bottom of of them does not appear to have been accompanied by the sea, though now dry land yielding crops of grain. any raising up of the sandstone strata beyond their orThe next noticeable appearances, as bearing on the ques dinary inclination, and certainly no alteration of the dip tions propounded, are the coast lines which stretch along to a different direction, which would have been the conthe northern slope of the Quarrywood hill from east to sequence of a local upheavement; had these beaches west. These breaks on the slope of the hill, four in num been formed at the period of the supposed elevation of the ber with intervening level spaces, are extremely inter peat and marl beds, their height ought to be more than esting, from their prominent and regular markings. Al double that which they have obtained. though very observable at this point, these coast lines To apply, in like manner, the second hypothesis, viz., are not confined to it, but may, it is believed, be traced that the sea level has fluctuated upwards and downwards at intervals all round the island, and, probably, corres at indefinite intervals of time, to the same appearances, pond in elevation above the sea, with the celebrated it is only necessary to suppose that at a period subseroads of Glenroy. Their existence seems to have been quent to the upheaval of the sandstone, and to the depocontingent on a retiring relative sea level : an advan sition of the wealden, marl, and peat, the sea had obcing one would have obiterated each in succession. The tained a higher level, now marked by the range of the low carse land of Duffus and Drainy, lying between the boulder clay, thus submerging the whole of the plain of Covesca and Quarrywood hills, at the eastern end of | Moray ; that from this height it subsided at intervals, which is the now circumscribed bed of Loch Spynie, lies leaving marked coast lines. That the waters of the sea throughout on a bed of marine shells, of which the most occupied the trough forming the bed of Loch Spynie for abundant are ostrea edulis, cardium edule , mactra soli a space of time sufficient to admit of the existence and dula, tellina solida, and others. Beneath this bed is one propagation of the myriads of mollusca, whose exuviæ of peat, intermixed at the lower surface with the shells still remain, and then that it finally retired within its of fresh-water mollusca, of which the most frequent are present limits. That, moreover, it has not yet receded lymnea peregra, planorbis, and others; underlying the to the limit of its former shore, seeing that forests of peat is a bed of marl, composed of fresh water mollusca, land plants still continue submerged. resting on sand and gravel, and below these lie the beds It would thus appear that the evidence furnished by of the inferior oolite, the surface of which had been dis. the slightly disturbed district of Moray, is in favour of turbed in cutting the canal for draining the lake. The i the hypothesis which supposes an elevation of the level of the sea, and a subsidence at intervals of time to nearly 1 of apparent trouble, yet as there must be as vast an interits former limits, while the rocky strata had been only val between mere inorganic matter and the minutest and slightly upraised in one of their formations; this state most simple animated being, as between this being and of comparative repose has few examples in the island, an elephant, or even a man, we do not see why it should for few sections of country of similar extent are devoid seem to us a less complicated task to form the extreme of disturbance by volcanic outbursts of igneous rocks, link of the chain with all its perfections, and allow it of and by trap dikes, producing by their convulsive heav itself to run downwards, than to begin at the end with a ings abundant examples of dislocation and upheavement degree of simplicity, and work upwards with extreme of strata, as well as of depression and subsidence; the complexity. According to our theory, Monboddo need one operation being attested by strata tilted up at a not have laboured to prove that men got rid of their high angle, and the other by slips and faults, at the con tails by the incessant friction of sitting, carried down templation of which, the mind in generalising, is led into from one generation to another, but might have simply erroneous conclusions.
asserted that men, taking a fancy to the horizontal posture, and the quadrumanous progression from tree to
tree, at length encouraged the growth and complete LAMARCK'S THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT. development of this useful prehensile organ.
But, seriously speaking, all these attempts at theoriz· Lamarck's progressive development of the higher
ing will not tend to throw a single ray of light on the animals from the lower, by which he supposes that a
operations of nature, or the diversities of animal existpolypus, by passing through innumerable gradations of
ence. We must take animated beings as they exist bereptile, fish, quadruped, at last arrives at man, is an
fore us, grouped occasionally, it is true, into certain idea entertained, we should almost suppose, purely from
great classes and divisions, yet in every one of these its startling novelty, and from an excessive desire of
affording such dissimilarities of structure as can never forming a system different from any thing yet broached.
be reconciled to a common origin, even by the most exIt has for its support, a certain similarity of parts pre
pert systematiser. We may arrange and classify, dívide vailing throughout the whole animal world, and in many
and subdivide, but all our knowledge comes to this, that instances where the outward form and habits of an ani.
the Creator, with a few elementary principles, and acting mal would not lead us to recognise any affinity, there is often a striking similarity of structure, which, at least, im
upon some great general plan, has produced an infinitely
diversified number of forms-not apparently to us obserpresses us irresistibly with the idea that one great de
ving a strictly regular systematic gradation, but with that signing mind constructed the whole. It has for its sup
diversified irregularity which is exhibited in many other port, too, the curious development of the animal em
productions of nature ; and that these fixed types or bryo, where, in the class of vertebrated animals, this
forms continue to produce similar forms to themselves, embryo assumes progressive organs, suited to the differ
without any material change, except what takes place ent stages through which it passes, and the successive
from varieties caused by incidental circumstances, and periods of its growth towards the complete state of being
which varieties are again restored to the original type, of the species to which it belongs. This is seen in the
when such circumstances cease to influence them. spawn of several reptiles, as the tadpole, the chick in
No person could be induced to believe that an elephant the egg, and even in the fætus of quadrupeds and man.
had been produced from a bird, or that a bird could This successive evolution of the different parts of the
produce any other sort of inferior animal, and what embryotic brain, for instance, has, we suspect, been often
holds in one department of nature must be true of all misapprehended. The successive parts of the brain are
the others, both because all analogy confirms it, and no evolved apparently just as they are needed. Thus, the
facts have been adduced to the contrary. simple ganglionic or organic portions first, the instinctive or emotional after, and the sensitive or cerebral portions ERICA HYMEALIS.-A beautiful plant of this winterlast; and thus it happens, too, with all the organs and flowering heath, which has been introduced into this counextremities of the body. But beyond this there is no
try within the last five or six years, is at present in full fact to sanction the purely imaginative theory of deve
blossom in the conservatory of the Edinburgh Botanic
Garden. It is nine feet high, and about thirty feet in cir.' lopment—there is no instance where we actually see one
cumference, and carries 260,000 flowers. kind of animal passing into the form of a higher kindthere is no single record of such a circumstance in the
LUCULIA GRATISSIMA.—This is also a beautiful plant of history of animal existence. Surely, among the infinite
the Hydrangia family from Nepaul, also in fiower, and
bearing 176 umbels. diversity of being, some such changes could be detected, if they were going on so universally; and if not now tak
NEW PLANET.-The new star Astrea has been observed ing place, why have these reputed laws of nature ceased,
at Berlin, Altona, Hamburg, and Paris, and it is agreed or why, after a certain time, should they no longer be
that its dimensions are those of a star of the eleventh order.
Its actual volume is compared to that of the four smaller exercised. We have no mixtnre of classes, no transi
planets already known, - Juno, Verta, Ceres, and Pallas. tion of one family into another, no blending of species,
Encke has named it the planet Astrea. Its revolution will and only a limited production of varieties, which appear be about four years and a quarter. to originate from diversity of climate, food, and other circumstances and external conditions.
ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.-On Friday, 16th Jan., the elecOn the contrary, were one disposed to speculate, an
tric telegraph between Edinburgh and Glasgow was put in,
operation for the first time, and in the course of a few miequally plausible theory might be devised, completely
nutes the prices of the share market just closed, both in the reverse of this one of Lamarck. We would suppose,
Glasgow and Edinburgh, were made known at the respecfor instance, that it is the nature of all created things to tive places. degenerate, as indeed we oftener see degeneration take place under our eyes than improvement. We might
TURQUOISE MINES.—The great Turquoise mines of Nickfancy that man proceeded perfect in his structure at
apoor, in the province of Khorassan, whose stones are the once from the formative hand of the mighty Creator
finest in the world for quality and size,--one having been
found there on the first opening, so large as to be fashionthat this structure as it multiplies has a constant ten
ed into a drinking cup for the father of the reigning mondency to fall off-that hence we have oran outangs, arch,--are, it is stated, about to be worked by a Russian monkeys, quadrupeds, birds, fishes, reptiles, till at last company, with the permission of the Persian government. we degenerate into the worm, the polype, and the
New AFRICAN EXPEDITION.-A new expedition has remonad.
cently left Liverpool for the interior of Western Africa, Lamarck, we daresay, very ingeniously contrived an
under the direction of Mr G. W. Daniell, a surgeon, with ascending scale to save the Prime Artificer a great deal the view of following up the discoveries in that region.