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L:1:1 ::e. Lowe's Edinburgh Magazine.

A new magazine, essaying a more systematic treatment of the subjects within its range than any chat has yet appeared. The divisions are, 1. Theology; 2. Literature; 3. Foreign affairs; 4. Notices of New Books. It does not profess to be the organ of any given denomination,—but rather to unite the evangelical bodies by the prominent discussion of those points on which they agree, -keeping in abeyance those on which they differ. Time alone can develope the practicability of supporting a vigorous periodical work on this foundation. Mr Lowe announced many great names in his prospectus, and we see the vigorous pens of some of them in his first number. Scott's Poetical Works. People's Edition.

The sale of Scott's works should not now excite surprise,--for, like those of Shakspere, they will cease only with the language. When Lord Jeffrey republished his reviews, he omitted his quotations from the Waverley Novels, -as lie learned from Mr Cadell that instead of diminishing after the death of the author, the demand was increasing. Could Scott have foreseen this, his crushing labour might have been intermitted, and his “ grey hairs," like Wordsworth's, allowed slowly and peacefully to descend to the grave. Others are reaping what he sowed, but when his publisher advanced L.30,000 to pay off the whole of the Scott debt, on the alone security, as Lockhart informs us, of profits contingent on after sales even of Scott's works, the man who did so is entitled to his reward. The statistics of these sales would form an interesting chapter in literary prosperity, and we shall probably be able to give some account of them at an after period. Meantime here is Scott in two-penny numbers, and that should take a feather from the plumes of the anti-copyright fraternity. The Curate of Linwood.

A story gracefully told, illustrative of the doctrinal differences subsisting between the two schools of theology that agitate the Church of England. The authoress (the sex of the writer is apparent), espouses the evangelical side, and makes out a good case. We have doubts whether the fictional form be the best for discussing the solemn and abstract questions at issue in this controversy ; but the other side has set the example, and the public has given its seal to the present work, by calling for that which is a test of good authorship, a second edition. Curiosities of Modern Truvel.

Some of the critical brethren sneer at compilations, which may be explained on the principle that their own vocation lying greatiy in the extract line, they are jealous of competitors. To make good selections, whether from prose, poetry, or books of travel, requires both judgment and taste; and both these qualities having evidently been called into play, in the getting up of this neat volume, we have every confidence in recommending it as a most suitable gift-book. The Diplomatists of Europe.

A series of sketches from the portefeuille of M. Capefigue—and embracing Metternich, Talleyrand, Welling. ton, Richelieu, Castlereagh, and other well known names. The sketches are interesting and graphic; and by the aid of the foot notes of the Editor, Major Monteith, may be safely and profitably perused. Essays on Total Abstinence. By ANDREW PATERSON.

The “ Scripture argument,” in favour of tee-totalism, is here discussed fairly and temperately, but without much novelty.

Hengstenberg on the Psalms. Vol. 1.

The first volume of Clark's Foreign Theological Library, a ponderous speculation for private adventure; and one which shows that in the matter of producing not only cheap but solid books, the booksellers are determined not to be behind the publication societies, which have of late multiplied so much. This competition between those who publish for “ love” and those who publish for “ money," will produce wholesome effects, if confined to works of such standard character as the above,-and as ends, not means, are what we look to, we are indifferent as to who distances the other, although we should think the professional book-venders will most likely be successful, just as in the case of fighting, where the exterporaneous bravery of the crowd is soon extinguished by the steady, although less bustling movements of military forces. Wild Flowers and their Teachings.

The press has from first to last teemed with books, original and selecied, on the subject of flowers, but all must yield the palm to this lovely volume. Instead of man's engravings of the “poetry of eurth,we have here the fragile leaves, stems, and petals of nature, fastened with delicate touch to the pages of the book, --and “flowers of lovlieness” they are, although transfixed to paper, and berest of the perfume of vitality. Then we have botanical descriptions, and afterwards all worth recording that has been said about flowers, whether in prose or verse, by philosophers and poets, from Bacon and Shakspere, down to the days of Whewell and Mrs Hemans. This is no book-making speculation,--it is evidently the fruit of a beautiful conception, long thought of and assiduously pursued to completion. The Almanack of the Month.

An arrow from the inexhaustible quiver of Punch, containing wit, racy and sparkling with a modicum of the useful, in the shape of chronology and calendar of the month,--the former decidedly good. In the critical notices, we have a slight rebuke administered to Dickens, charging him with juvenility in the early part of the “ Cricket," -- which shows that fraternizatism in amateur theatricals has not corrupted Punch criticism. In the same paper it is stated, that Leech and Doyle would have been better illustrators of Dickens, than Maclise and Stanfield, we think so too, but not because their dignity is compromised by illustrating small books, but because the former would have given the public better anatomy and more modesty.

Gleanings. POPULAR KNOWLEDGE.-If knowledge be in itself a good, the fuller the measure of it the better for the posses. sor, no matter whether he be of the higher or the lower, the learned or the unlearned, caste. For our own parts, we are strongly of opinion that superficial knowledge is not much better than no knowledge, and all must agree that inaccurate knowledge is worse than none at all. Hence we are no friends of what is commonly termed popular literature that is, literature fit only for the ignorant, which finds and leaves them so. We may be told that their capacities will not admit of higher teaching-a libel on common sense! Complaisantly as we may regard our own mental superiority, we may rest assured that most literary subjects may and should be made as intelligible to the peasant, if he can read and reflect, as to our noble selves. But, unluckily for popular improvement, they are not made intelligi. ble; books of eleinentary instruction are often written without method, and generally abound in unmeaning conventional terms, and we call every body ignorant that does not understand them. The maxim, “Every man a mouth. ful and no man a bellyfull," has been current long enough -more so within these fifteen years than at any former period, and its value we may now fairly begin to dispute. -Atheneum.

THE PRESS IN 1812.- The following extract from the ing a bond and statute merchant to repay her when he Edinburgh Courant of July 1812 is curious, as exhibiting should be of ability. He little thought he should ever the wonderful change which has taken place in the char hear of these securities, which afterwards were supposed acter and quality of periodical literature " thirty years to be the cause of his death,-and before he had even ago," as compared with the present day,

reached the degree of apprentice or outer barrister, he “Modern literature affords no examples of the multi joyfully transferred himself from his dull chambers in plication of copies equal to those of Moore's Almanack, the Temple to a gay apartment assigned him in the and Mavor's Spelling-Book. Of that famous Almanack, palace, near the queen's. He was henceforth the reignabout 420,000 copies are sold annually; and of that ing favourite, and his official promotion was rapid. He generally used Spelling-Book about 120,000 in the same was successively made a gentleman of the Queen's privy period; yet, as the former consists of only 2 sheets, chamber, captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners, and the latter of 7, each consumes 840,000 sheets, or vice-chamberlain, and a member of the privy council. 1680 reams of paper! If, then, one printing-press can The delight of the Queen to honour him caused him work 3 reams per day, Moore's Almanack will employ 4 much envy, and some scandal. Complaints were uttered, presses, or 8 men, nearly 6 months; and Mavor's Spel that under the existing government nothing could be ling-Book 2 presses, or 4 men, all the year, besides the obtained by any others than dancers, and carpet knights, employment of binders, &c. The press of no country such as the Earl of Lincoln and Martin Watson, who boasts of works of similar circulation."

were admitted to the Queen's privy chamber,---CampThe Late DR WELSH.-The following letter of the

bell's Lives of the Chancellors. late Rev. Dr Welsh, written upwards of twenty years RAIN AND RESOLUTION.-Blanchard and Jerrold had ago, is interesting, as showing how his clear and acuto serious thoughts of joining Lord Byron in Greece—they intellect plainly foresaw the rapid advance which know were to become warriors, and assist the poet in the liledge was to make in this country by means of cheap beration of the classic land. Many a nightly wandering literature. “To JOHN ANDERSON, jun., Esq., Edinburgh. found them discussing their project. In the midst of CROSSMICHAEL, 17th May 1825. MY DEAR SIR, I for one of these discussions, they were caught in a shower some time past have been thinking of writing to you of rain, and sought shelter under a gateway. The rain upon a subject that has perhaps occurred already to your continued, when their patience becoming exhausted, self, and been approved of or rejected. But in case it Blanchard buttoning up his coat, exclaimed, “ Come on should not, I shall briefly state my ideas in regard to Jerrold, what use shall we be to the Greeks if we stand it, as I think something might be made of them, and wish up for a shower of rain ?" So they walked home, and you to have the benefit.

were heroically wet through.--Blanchard's Sketches from “You would probably read Brougham’s pamphlet about Life. Education, the substance of which appeared in the last SELF-EDICATION, -- Burns, Bloomfield, Clare, Hogy, number of the Edinburgh Review, but one;---now from and Cunningham,—these all fall spontaneously into one what he says about cheap editions, from coarser paper

bright cluster, which we may call the Constellation of the and a more crowded page, I am alınost certain that a

Plough. They are all, in current phrase, self-educated, very material change will, in a short time, take place in

though verily we like not the phrase. Either all men are

self-educated or none. We incline to the latter alternative. the style of printing books,-the popularity of his pamph

A poor weakling were one who, in the strict sense, could be let, and the reasonableness of the suggestion, will partly called a self-educated man. To educate any man it takes a bring this about,--and, besides, the town orders are universe ; for what is any man but the complex result or speedily arising into a degree of importance, that till focus of ten thousand lines of education, coming in from the within these few years, was altogether unknown, and a extremities of the creation to meet in him ? Call the men market is thus likely to be opened up for cheap books, of

of whom we speak not self, but heaven-taught men, and you

approximate the truth. Such an one stepping forth into inconceivable and ever increasing extent. Now, I should

consciousness, finds himself in an illustrious academy, and think, a speculating man like you, with plenty of money, his head schoolmaster is the sun. Subordinate teachers might do a great deal of good, and make a great deal of he has not a few, in the “silent stars," the whispering money. Take some of the most popular books, such as breezes, the waving trees, the sparkling waters, and the Ferguson's Mechanics, Cowper's Letters, if the copyright voices within his own soul, which respond to these in prea is at an end, and print them on such paper, and in such

ablished harmony. And thus does his education go on a type, as Brougham's pamphlet, and sell them at very

briskly with the revolving seasons, till his overflowing

thoughts voluntarily move harmonious numbers; and little profit. The sale would be immense,--you ought

because he cannot speak, he sings his emotions. to have a prospectus written, and resolve upon a consi

POETICAL ADAPTATIONS.—The two following are cases of derable number of books likely to take and be useful,

adaptation from Shakespeare, by two of the authors of the and advertise extensively,-Anderson's Cheap Editions

Paraphrases of the Church of Scotland. -or Cottagers' and Mechanics' Library,-or some such

(1.) "How long your strength and substance waste title. A good collection, consisting of extracts in this

On trifles, light as air"-Par. nr. 2. style, might sell to a great extent. I think I might | The last line is from the following, make one more likely to be popular than any I have

Trifles, light as air,

Are to the jealous, confirmations strong seen, I don't mean for schools, but for general readers

As proofs of holy writ."--Othello, Act ill. Soene 3. among the lower orders. You can give me your ideas

(2.) “ Tin death'a pale ensigns o'er his cheek,"--Par. xlly.), about this latter matter,-the former, however, is of is borrowed from more consequence, and is for your consideration. If, " Thou art not conquered; beauty's ensign yet

Is crimson in thy lips, and in thy choeka, without much trouble, I can be of any use in giving

And death's pale flag is not advanced there. hints for a prospectus for the books to be so printed, I

Romeo and Juliet, Act v. Scene & shall be happy, and I am, my dear Sir, yours truly,

The 44th Paraphrase was written by Blair, the author “ David WELSH."

of the “ Grave,”, but the composer of the 26th is un.

known. HATTON THE DANCING CHANCELLOR.—The tender heart

TASTE FOR BEAUTY.--Shakspeare says, “the man that of Elizabeth was at once touched by his athletic frame,

hath not music in his soul is fit for treasons, stratagems, manly beauty, and graceful air, and she openly expres and spoils; let no such man be trusted.” But what can we sed her admiration of his dancing. An offer was instantly say of him who hath not in his heart that crystal spring! made by her to admit him of the band of gentlemen

who hath not in his spirit that divine afflatus which creates pensioners,-he expressed great willingness to renounce

and inspires the beautiful! that exquisite perception that

renders truth most lovely! which invests every change all his prospects in the profession of the law, but in

with meaning, and gives intelligence and grace to thought! formed her that he had debts which were beginning to

Divest life of its poetry, and it becomes a blank. Divest be troublesome to him. She advanced him money to nature of_that gorgeous robe, and she veils her face in pay them off, at the same time after her custom--tak- | clouds.-F. E. Davies.

EUGENE SUE.-M. Eugène Sue, whose fictions are at | and a long close gallery, walled in with sculpture and present so popular, was born at Paris on the 10th of plants, leads from the house to a little outer gate quite December 1804. The Empress Josephine and her son hidden under an artificial rock. The interior of the prince Eugène Beauharnois, were his godmother and house is composed of very small apartments, somewhat godfather. The Sue family is very ancient, and has been confined, and rendered obscure by the flowers hanging established for many years at Lacolme, near Cannes, down the windows. The furniture is crimson, with in Provence. It is still represented there by M. golden nails: the sleeping apartment alone is lighter, Sue, a retired officer of high rank, and great-uncle to and of a blue colour. There is scattered about a little our author. The inajority of Eugène Sue's relatives of every style-Gothie, Renaissance, Fantastic, and have been physicians of great celebrity. His great French. The walls of the drawing-room are hid by grandfather, Peter, and his grandfather, Joseph, have works of art, painting, and sculpture, various curiosileft extensive anatomical works; and to them the ties, family portraits, masterpieces, and works of moFrench medical school owes the introduction of the pa dern artists, his friends. Glorious names shine in every thology of Gaubius, which succeeded that of Boerhaave, part-Delacroix, Gudin, Isabey, Vernet, &c. A drawJoseph and Jean Joseph both graduated at the Edin ing of Madame Lamartine, and some verses of the illusburgh University, and made known to their country trious poet occupy a conspicuous place. One picture men, in numerous translations, the works of the Scotch in particular has a privileged situation, upon canvas, in school of medicine. Our author's father was chief phy the midst of the coquetries of the drawing-room. It is sician to the Imperial Guard in the Russian campaign, an anchorite of Isabey, of terrible effect, forming a reand has also published several popular works. Imme markable contrast in that little temple of luxury. The diately after the restoration he became the king's physi. favourite horses, dogs, &c., of M. Sue are the subjects cian, and lived in intimate friendship with the Empress of the majority of the remainder, painted either by Josephine, Franklin, Massena, Moreau, and all the hinself or by M. Alfred Dedreux. In all these we degreat personages of the consulate epoch. He made a tect traits of character, a passion for luxury and strong generous bequest to the Academy of the Fine Arts of a emotions, with a reaction towards retirement and medimagnificent collection of comparative anatomy, and ob tation, an enlightened taste for the fine arts, and a love jects of natural history, formed in his own family by of animals and plants. Among the many authors who four generations of physicians, and which constitutes a

may be termed successful, few have attained a populargallery in the Palace of the Fine Arts of great value. ity so extensive as Eugène Sue.- Correspondent of GlasEugène Sue himself, according to the wishes of his fa gow Eraminer. ther, entered upon a medical career. He was surgeon [What a pity that the subject of the above sketch, giftattached to the military suite of the king; then to the

ed with an active imagination, and with powers to lead staff of the army in Spain in 1823; and also, in the the masses around him, should only follow their impulsame campaiga, to the seventh regiment of artillery. ses for fleeting excitement or wild and impracticable He was present at the siege of Cadiz, at the taking of schemes of bettering society.] Trocadero, and at that of Tarafa. In 1824 he quitted the land for the naval service. He made several voyages in the Atlantic; and having traversed the West Indies, he returned to the Mediterranean, visited

Proceedings of Societies. Greece, and in 1828 was present in the ship Breslau at the battle of Navarino. On returning from this campaign, AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY ASSOCIATION.-At the meeting he renounced the navy and medicine, and took up his of this association (21st January), a discussion took place, abode at Paris, where, thanks to the handsome income he

whether a report of committee should be read before the enjoys as a paternal inheritance, he was enabled to lead

meeting or not. On taking the sense of the members presa life of brilliant happiness. His favourite occupation

ent, a large majority voted for the report being read, on

which a disruption took place, the minority leaving the at this time was painting, which he studied at his

meeting. Serious difference of opinion has existed in the friend's, the celebrated Gudin. The idea of turning association for some time regarding a proposal to introduce novel writer was not thought of by Eugène Sue till 1830, agricultural chemistry into the parish schools. This joined when an old comrade of the artillery happened, in con

to some objections regarding the duties of the Professor of versation, to remark that as “ Cooper and Marryatt had

Chemistry, has been the main cause of the disruption. The made the sea romance popular, he ought to write his

report, which was a long one, was at last read, and conrecollections, and create the maritime romance of the

tained a very favourable account of the funds and the pro

ceedings of the association, with complimentary allusions French.” This pleased our author. He quitted the to the services of Professor Johnston. A considerable painting brush, and took up the pen. His first work number of farmers from the country parishes were in the was Kernock the Pirate, the success of which caused majority,—they no doubt thinking that, in the education of him to continue to write, following the dictates of a live.

their boys, there was no great harm in alternating a little ly and fertile fancy. Thus appeared in succession nu

practical science with the daily rounds of qui quæ quod. inerous works, which may be arranged in the following ROYAL SCOTTISU SOCIETY OF ARTS.-12th January order .-Sea Romances, Kernock the Pirate, Plick and

1. A development of the operation of the harmonie ratios in I'lock, Attar Gull, the Salamander, and the Watch

& progressive series of scalene triangles, and of their effects Tower of Koatven, Maritime History History of the

upon the rectangles which these triangles produce, by the French Marine under Louis IV., and abridgment of

union of their hypothenuses.---By D. R. Hay, Esq.,

F.R.S.S.A. Mr Hay showed that the beauty of proportion the military marine of every people. Historical Ro and symmetry depends upon the operation of the numbers mances, Latreaumont, Jean Cavalier, and Letorieres, 2, 3, and 5, and that these numbers operate in the formathe commander of Malta. Romances of Manner's— Ar tion of geometrical figures by the division of the circle into ihur, La Concaratcha, Dyleytar, L'Hotel Lambert, Ma

360 degrees, asserting that no other mode of division would thilde, &c. Philosophical and Political Romances, the

produce the same results, because that number is in a peMysteries of Paris, the Female Blue Beard, and the

culiar manner a multiple of these three harmonic num

bers. He also showed that by the combination of the Wandering Jew, a tale of the Jesuits, Dasamar La scalene triangles, resulting from his process, a series of recttreaumont, the Pretendress, and several others of great angles were produced, and that these rectangles had effect, produced in concert with Messis Dinaux and Le peculiar harmonic qualities that belonged to no other gouve. M. Eugène Sue at present inhabits, in the

figures of the same species. Such a scale is still a deheights of the Faubourg St Blonore, a little mansion

sideratum in architecture. 2. Description and drawings covered with creeping plants and flowers, which over

of a circular saw, for general purposes By Captain, G, D. areh the peristyle.

Paterson. 3. Description of railway indicator-By W. AnA fountain plays in his most beau derson. 4. Model of window sashes By W, G, Gover, for tful of gardens, in the midst of rocks and sea plants, the purpose of moving inwards to clean windows.

Fine Arts. DE ABERCROXETE.-The money collected for the best of this erninent physician has been found sufficient to defray the expense of two by Mr Steel, which have accordingly been ordered; the one to be placed in the Physicians' the other in the Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh.

University and Educational Intelligence.

SOOTTISH CSIVERSITY TESTS.-The Witness announces on what it regards as anthority, that Sir Robert Peel is to propose the abolition of these tests, some time during the enkuing session of Parliarnent.

ACADEMICAL ETIQTETTE.-When Lord John Russell was in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, contemplating Dr Anderson's old engine model, the repairing of which first suggested to Watt his great discoveries,-a request wag conveyed to his Lordship by the students that he would favour them with an address." Lord John declined, on the ground that he was not connected with the University.

Fews of the Tweek. SCOTTISH REPORTERS.—The migrations of these gentlemen to the metropolis, either to side with or oppose the Daily News, still continues,-their transportation being generally signalised by a dinner, a piece of courtesy not observed on the other side of the Tweed, or, if performed, certainly with less flourish of drums and trumpets than we have of late been accustomed to. Edinburgh being bereft of reporters, the provincial soil will be scourged, and next time that a meeting takes place in Pife, we suppose some of the Cupar papers will be crying “ the kingdom for a stenographer !"

NEWSPAPER HARLEQUINADES. Some of the newspapers are getting absolutely rabid in their attempts to get into fame and circulation. One has offered to give globes to their subscribers; a second piano-fortes; and a third two thousand pounds. All this is absurd enough; but an evil is at the bottom, in the shape of an incipient revival of the immoral system of lottery allotments, which however disguised by the pretence that these baits are “ given away,” is substantially involved in one and all of the scbemes.

Me BRAHAM.—The veteran has at length announced his intention of retiring into private life by giving lessons in singingbut, like others who take farewells, he will most likely give some more last notes.” Every veteran that we have yet heard of, has “lagged superfluous on the stage.” Garrick, Kemble, Siddons, all did it, and why not Braham!

EXECUTIONS.—The recent executions in London have temporarily revived the subject of capital punishments. Whatever doubts may exist as to the propriety of these punishments, there can be but one opinion as to their brutalizing tendency, and utter inefficacy as street exhibitions. Criminals are never like white mice shown through iron bars when suffering imprisonment-they are not now publicly whipped-neither are they now publicly seen in the tread-mill-why then should they be publicly suffocated? Whatever good ends hanging serves, would, we humbly think, be equally secured by the catastrophe being managed within, and not outside the prison walls. Sir James Graham has excluded reporters from the “pressroom”-would it not be better to carry out his principle by excluding the public from all share whatever in these disgusting tragedies.

Mrs SIGOURNEY.-At a recent competition of an American Institution, the prize for “the best pair of domestic silk-stockings" was awarded to the poetess. This seems to indicate that the “blues" are improving. William Howitt declares, in one of his books, that he does not know a better house manager than his own wife, and we should be glad to have more of this kind of statistics.

MRS WILBON.—The daily papers announce the death of Mrs Cornwall Baron Wilson, a lady who has for many years contributed both poetry and prose to the Albums, and other periodicals.

M188 MARTINRAU.--This lady has published another letter, in which she reiterates her belief in the Mesmeric revelations.

The Rev. H. J. Todd.-Mr Todd, known on this side of the Atlantic as the editor of Johnson's Dictionary, died lately in America, at an advanced age.

AXERICAN WAR-Lond Morpeth has signed his name to the document of the Pesce Society, recommending addresses to be sent by the citizens of Britain to the citizens of America, deprecatory of international butcbery amongst brethren in blood, language, and religion." This is a move in the right direction; for why should peaceable people fall out at the bidding of pagnacious politicians?

BRITISH SOLDIERS.-Anotber right move which we have to record is, that when Her Majesty is pleased to give commissions to non-commissioned officers (which we trust she will often be justified in doing), a sum is to be granted for the purpose of enabling such meritorious persons to keep up their rank-less difficult now since mess-room extravagance has been curtailed. We venture to predict that this will do more good than flogging.

DELUSIONS OF THE DAY.-A pretty exposure was made last week, at a meeting of a Railway Company. The number of shares, it seems, was 121.000 : but on the publication of the prospectus, the sumber applied for was 400,000. The provisional committee allotted 61,000, and reserved 60,000; for the railway fever was then at its height, and there was a golden prospect of premiums to be realized. But the bubble burst. Of the 60,000 shares allotted, deposits were paid only on 23.560! Among the defanlt. ers were 52 of the 65 provisional directors! The total sum collected was £32,395, the sums already expended, £31,903! The preliminary expenses, £4346; for advertising £2000 odds; for clerk's salaries, £557; for engineering and surveying, £14,050; and for law expenses, £8791. Another company met the same week, and for a similar comfortable purpose. On the allotment of 134,000 shares, which should have produced upwards of £260,000, only £10,714 had been paid up, and the expenses were estimated at £17,000. The engineer had drawn £3700, and nevertheless failed to deposit the plans! Of 75 provisionals, only five had paid any deposit! A third held a meeting on the same day. The company was got up by a sharebroker, and an attorney; and the parties whom they induced to take the matter up, gratefully secured these two gentlemen 15,000 shares for the good-will of the bubble.

RAILWAY REVELATIONS.—The list of speculators of L.2000 and under, has just been prepared for parliament, and extends to nearly 600 folio pages. It embraces all kinds and degrees of society; and it will be a wholesome lesson to noblemen, clergymen, physicians, poets, and reviewers, to avoid participation in scrambles where black-legs, beersellers, and scavengers, figure so conspicuously.

THE THORNS OP ROYALTY.-A letter from Venice'speaks of the extraordinary precautions taken by the Emperor Nicholas to escape all attempts that might be made against his life. On his arrival at Padua, he himself visited the apartment in which he was to sleep, striking the walls of his bed-chamber with a hammer. He then caused the mattresses of the bed to be removed, and replaced by a leather mattress, which was filled with hay under his eyes. The emperor refused to taste any of the dishes prepared for his supper; and called for his travelling-case, out of which he took a bottle of Malaga wine, and a cold roast fowl, which he shared with Count Orloff. At Venice, the public expected him with much impatience at the theatre; but he remained in the bottom of the box, and could scarcely be seen, Count Orloff sat in the front, attired in a rich uniform. When the play was over, four carriages drove up to the gate, and nobody could tell which was the one intended for the emperor. The same precaution was observed when he left Venice; and no one could tell whether the emperor repaired by sea or land to Trieste.-The Constitutionel.

[Compare the confidence with which Queen Victoria travels, as a counterpart to the suspicion of this imperial autocrat.]

SCHLEGEL.—The MSS. and most valuable books of the late Augustus W. Schlegel have been purchased by the Prussian government, and distributed among the Royal and University Libraries of Berlin and Bonn. The remainder of the books have been sold by auction at Bonn.

** To CORRESPONDENTS.—The priority of the introduction of gas into Edinburgh is claimed by sundry individuals, viz.:- Adam Anderson, Esq., formerly of South Bridge, by Mr J. Blackwood, for the late R. Blackwood, 4 South College Street; the late Bailie Henderson, South Bridge, &c., &c. The shops above.mentioned were illuminated by private gas works; what was alluded to in Thirty Years Ago,' (Torch, No. 1), referred to the first general illumination from the Gas Company's works, which were first commenced, as stated, in 1817.

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PERIODICAL LITERATURE. When we compare the facility which the press during the middle ages; chiefs, and warriors, and now affords of disseminating information through captains of bands, becanie the organs of intelligence out every corner of the land, and to every human to the inferior subordinate soldiery, and hence from being who has a mind in the least capable of re these the news spread by word of mouth to the inceiving it, to the state of matters before the intro- ferior classes. There were also, among many tribes duction of printing, we would be apt to suppose and nations, an order of priests and bards, as among that a profound ignorance of passing affairs must the Celts and Saxons, who served as the chroniclers have generally prevailed. When we add to this of events and the depositaries of state history. These the absence of railways, steam-boats, and regular were something like the Quarterly Reviewers and mails, both by land and sea, the difficulty of com Annual Registers of the present day,—they collectmunication would appear to be increased ten-fold. ed and methodized the current events, and wove In the ancient civilized commonwealths, among the them into systems, tinged according to the peculiar Greeks and Romans, for instance, who had popular | views of the respective parties and of the times. governments, public orators were wont to entertain The human memory then, too, possessed amazing the people with news of pending transactions. As powers of retention, just because the absence of all these orators were generally heads of parties and other means of record impelled the mind to store factions, were men of rank and consequence, and up and con over incessantly things that are now engaged in public affairs, their information had all trusted to paper and ink; hence it was that long the authority, and as occasion might be, all the poems and historical traditions passed down from authenticity of the Standard, or Times, or Globe, one generation to another, till at last we of this penor Morning Post of the present day. Instead of and-ink age will not give credit to half the facts news-rooms then, or coffee-houses, or club-houses, told of such comprehensive powers of retention. the people assembled in great crowds in the open! A good memory then was a fortune to a wandering air or in the porticoes of their temples, and drank bard or sennachie,- he met with a warm reception in, with as greedy ears, the politics of the time, as at every hearth, and his songs, and legends, and a modern politician gloats over his newspaper. In gossip of passing events, filled up the pauses of a those days every man that pretended to lead his long winter night, just as the columns of the evenfellow-man was an orator and declaimer; and ing papers do now. They were actors and musiharangues from their philosophers, from their cians too, and thus they formed a substitute for the statesinen, and their generals, were always expect opera and the concert of modern times. Songs ed and always made, on every occasion of impor and ballads then had the same effect as political tance, The Greeks were proverbial for their avidity pamphlets now,- they roused the energy, stimufor news, and in their cities, crowds of idle loungers lated the thirst for battle and for conquest, and assembled at particular places every day, to hear often determined the side, and the particular leadwhat was passing. On these occasions, all strangers ers around whom partizans rallied. We do not and travellers were eagerly questioned, and thus know that the liberty of speech or of song was a considerable amount of foreign intelligence was quite as free as the liberty of the press at present. obtained. Warlike expeditions too were so com The office of bard was on the whole held very samon, that the intercourse between remote parts of cred, though occasionally a seditious one got his the country, and even foreign countries, and the head chopped off, just as fine and imprisonment, capitals at home, was continually kept up. The and the deleting pen of the censor are prevalent soldiers composing those armies being also of a among nations of the present time. superior class of the inhabitants-of& much higher The invention of printing opened a new field for grade than the mass of modern soldiery, intelligence the spread of information, and written documents and observation were much more prevalent among gradually assumed the office of oral communicathem. For the same reason too, the commanders tions to the public-books and pamphlets began of such armies found it necessary to inform the to multiply, but it was not till the seventeenth soldiery of the aim, and object, and general lead century that anything like a newspaper was in ing plans of the campaigns, in a way quite differ general use. The Reformation too brought about ent from the reserve and secrecy of modern generals. a wonderful change. It opened up not only views of Thus it is that we have in ancient history, long religious freedom of thought, but led the mind, by harangues of leaders to their troops, and though congenial views, to those fellow-feelings of man for his Inany of these speeches must be received more as neighbour's civil freedom, which the just and mild the words of the historian than actually those of views of true Christianity must eventually engender. the reputed speaker, yet this very practice of the In those memorable struggles of the people, both historian shows that the circumstance was founded in England and Scotland, for their civil rights, in truth,

which occurred during the seventeenth century, The same means of communication prevailed l both the pulpit and the press were called to the aid THE TORCH, NO. V.

JAN. 31, 1846.

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