Imágenes de páginas

sant roe.' In the eye we look for meaning, for hu- , ing death, when the four voluntary muscles resign their man sentiment, for reproof.

action, and insensibility creeps over the retina, the ob-, We have said, that the eye indicates the holier emo- lique muscles prevail, and the pupil is revolved, so as tions. In all stages of society, and in every clime, the to expose only the white of the eye. It is so far conposture and expression of reverence have been the solatory to reflect, that the apparent agony indicated same. The works of the great masters, who have re- by this direction of the eyes, in fainting or the approach presented the more sublime passions of man, may be of death, is the effect of eneroaching insensibilityadduced as evidences: by the upturned direction of the of objects impressed on the nerve of vision being no eyes, and a correspondence of feature and attitude, they longer perceived. address us in language intelligible to all mankind. We thus see that when wrapt in devotional feelThe humble posture and raised eyes are natural, whe- | ings, and when outward impressions are unheeded, the ther in the darkened chamber, or under the open vault eyes are raised, by an action neither taught nor acof heaven.

quired. It is by this instinctive motion we are led to On first consideration, it seems merely consistent, bow with humility--to look upwards in prayer, and to that when pious thoughts prevail, man should turn his regard the visible heavens as the seat of God. eyes from things earthly to the purer objects above.

“ Prayer is the upward glancing of the eye, But there is a reason for this, which is every way wor

When none but God is near. thy of attention. When subject to particular influences, the natural position of the eyeball is to be directed

Although the savage does not always distinguishı

God from the heavens above him, this direction of the upwards. In sleep, languor, and depression, or when affected with strong emotions, the eyes naturally and

eye would appear to be the source of the universal beinsensibly roll upwards. The action is not a voluntary

lief that the Supreme Being has His throne above.

The idolatrous negro, in praying for rice and yams, or one; it is irresistible. Hence, in reverence, in devotion, in agony of mind, in all sentiments of pity, in

that he may be active and swift, lifts up his eyes to the bodily pain with fear of death, the eyes assume that

canopy of the sky. So, in intercourse with God, alposition.

though we are taught that our globe is ever revolving: Let us explain by what muscles the eyes are so re

though religion inculcates that the Almighty is every volved. There are two sets of muscles which govern

where, yet, under the influence of this position of the

eye, which is no doubt designed for a purpose,-we the motions of the eyeball. Four straight muscles, at

seek him on high. 'I will lift up mine eyes unto the tached at cardinal points, by combining their action,

hills from whence cometh my help.'” move it in every direction required for vision; and these muscles are subject to the will. When the

His remarks on the “ Dying Gladiator" are also very straight muscles, from weariness or exhaustion, cease 10 guide the eye, two other muscles operate to roll it appropriate, and marked by his usual scientific acumen; upwards under the eyelid: these are the oblique mus but, indeed, every page is full of instruction to the cles. Accordingly, in sleep, in fainting, in approach. sculptor and painter.



Few, perhaps, of our numerous smoking friends have who smooth and finish them. This operation is geneever had the curiosity to enquire into the formation rally performed by females. When dressed, they are of a tobacco-pipe. It is a simple object, yet, like a pin, laid along shelves in a room heated with stoves, in orit goes through many hands ere it comes to be filled der that they may be dried. They are next taken and with the true Cavendish and stuck into the mouth of the placed in round cylinders of brick, and subjected to a smoker. First of all, pipe-clay has to be procured from strong heat in furnaces for eight or ten hours. After the valleys of Devonshire, for Scotland cannot produce this they are laid aside to cool slowly, for if cooled has. a clay pure enough for the purpose. This clay is then tily, they would be quite brittle and useless. They well beat up with water, till a soft ductile mass is ob- have yet to undergo another process, that of glazing. tained. The pipe-moulder then cuts it into pieces of This is done by applying with a small brush a mixture small determinate size, each of which is rolled out by of red lead and water over about two inches of the end the hand into a cylinder corresponding to the intended of the stalk. These stalks are then subjected to a red length of the stalk, while a thick end, about an inch in heat, when the glazing is rendered permanent. The length, is formed for the bulb. A sufficient number pipes are then sorted; all those with flaws are rejected, of these having been prepared, the moulder then takes and the approved ones packed up for sale. A clever one of them, passes a small wire through the centre of the moulder will make about one thousand pipes in a day. stalk, and afterwards places the whole in a mould which we saw twelve such at work in the manufactory we is divided into two halves. After the clay has been inspected in the Canongate, and we shall suppose that adjusted by a touch of the finger around the part which on an average ten thousand are produced by these and is to form the hollow of the bulb, the two halves of the their fellow workmen per day, and that the working mould are closed, and the whole is subjected to the days in the year may amount to three hundred; we shall pressure of a hand-press. The mould is then opened, thus have three millions of pipes produced from one mathe pipe is found perfectly formed; it is gently slipped nufactory alone during one year. This would be someout, and the wire is withdrawn from the stalk. All what more than a pipe annually to every individual in this is the work of a few seconds. The pipe is laid Scotland. So much with regard to pipes. aside to dry, and another piece of clay taken up in succession. The pipes thus formed still retain the seam

TOBACCO. or mark where the two halves of the moulding-machine We owe the tobacco plant to the New World, of met. They are accordingly handed over to dressers, ' which it is a native. John Nicot, of Nismes, ambas

sador from the King of France to Portugal, pro- | up by pairs, upon lines or ropes stretched across, leavcured some of the seeds from a Dutchman who had | ing a space between, that they may not touch one anoobtained them from Florida. The first plant from ther. In this state they remain to sweat and dry. these seeds is said to have been presented to Catherine When they become perfectly dry, the leaves are stripde Medicis-no very acceptable present to a lady one / ped from the stalks and made into small bundles, tied would think--but from whence sprung the French with another leaf. These bundles are laid in heaps, name, herbe à la reine. The common English name is and covered with blankets. Care is taken not to oversaid to be derived either from Tobago, in the West heat them; for which reason the heaps are laid open Indies, or Tobasco, a district in Mexico. But Hum- to the air from time to time, and spread out. This boldt, a good authority, tells us that tobacco was the operation is repeated till no more heat is perceived in Indian name for a pipe, and that hence the Spaniards the heaps; and the tobacco is then stored in casks for adopted this name for its contents also. According to exportation. Linnæus, tobacco was known in Europe from the year In the manufacture of tobacco the leaves are first 1560. Ralph Lane introduced the plant into Britain cleansed of any earth or decayed parts; next they are in 1586. Sir Walter Raleigh was the first to render gently moistened with salt and water, or water in which smoking fashionable in the court of James I., much to salt, along with other ingredients, has been dissolved, the annoyance of that monarch, who denounced the according to the taste of the fabricator. This liquor practice in his famous “ Counterblast to Tobacco," and is called tobacco sauce. The next operation is to rewho no less hated and persecuted the noble-minded move the midrib of the leaf, then the leaves are mixed and ill-fated smoker.

together, in order to render the quality of whatever The tobacco plant is arranged by botanists under the

may be the final application equal; next they are cut same family with the potato, the deadly nightshade, into pieces with a fixed knife, and crisped or curled beand a number of other narcotic and highly poisonous fore a fire. The succeeding operation is to spin them plants. It is an annual herbaceous plant, with a stem into cords, or twist them into rolls, by winding them five or six feet long, and long narrow pale green leaves, with a kind of mill round a stick. These operations with simple bell-shaped flowers which appear in July are all performed by the grower; and in this state of or August Like the potato, it will grow in all cli- rolls the article is sent from America to other countries, mates. It is raised in Germany, Sweden, France, and where the tobacconists cut it into chaff-like shreds by Spain, and was formerly cultivated to some extent in a machine like a straw-cutter, to be used as smoking England and Ireland, but it is found to exhaust the tobacco. They also form it into small cords for chewsoil very much, and on this account, and for reasons ing, or dry and grind it for the various kinds of snuffs. bearing on national taxes and colonial commerce, its The three principal' kinds of these are called rappee, cultivation was prohibited by law. In America, and in Scotch or Spanish, and thirds. The first is only grathe West Indies, it is extensively cultivated. Long, nulated, the second is reduced to a very fine powder, and in his history of Jamaica, describes the manner of its the third is the siftings of the second sort. The best cultivation thus:-When a regular plantation of tobacco Havannah cigars are made from the leaves of a finer is intended, several beds are prepared, well turned up species. with the hoe. The seed, on account of its smallness, is An infusion of tobacco, when taken into the stomach, mixed with ashes, and sown upon them a little before becomes a deadly poison. To one not accustomed to its the rainy season. The beds are then raked or tramp- action, even the inhalation of the smoke, or a quantity led with the feet, to make the seed take the sooner. of snuff taken by the nose, produces sickness, giddiness, The plant appears in two or three weeks. So soon as and vomiting. Both the taste and smell to the unioitithey have acquired four leaves, the strongest are drawn ated are extremely disagreeable. The essential oil apup carefully, and planted in the tobacco field by a line, plied to a wound is said by Redi to prove as effectually at the distance of about three feet from each plant; fatal as the bite of a viper. The experiments of Albinus this is done either with a stick or with the finger. If. do not altogether confirm this, however, but the oil ocno rain falls, it should be watered two or three times, casioned vomiting and death when given to pigeons to make it strike root. Every morning and evening According to Du Tour, not less than a hundred volumes the plants must be surveyed, in order to destroy a have been written against this herb, of which a German worm which sometimes invades the bud. When they has preserved the titles. Amongst them is that of the are grown about four or five inches high, they are royal author and pedant, James I. At its first introto be cleared from weeds and moulded up; and as soon duction into Europe it was violently opposed both by as they have eight or nine leaves, and are ready to put kings and ecclesiastics. The Grand Duke of Moscow forforth a stalk, the top is nipped off, in order to make the bade its entrance into his dominions under pain of the leaves longer and thicker. After this the buds, which knout for the first offence, and death for the second. -sprout at the joints of the leaves, are all plucked, and The Emperor of Turkey, the King of Persia, and Pope not a day suffered to pass without examining the leaves, Urban VIII. issued similar prohibitions, all of which to destroy a large caterpillar which is sometimes very were as ridiculous and ineffective as those which atdestructive to them. When they are fit for cutting, tended the first introduction of Jesuits' bark or coffee, which is known by the brittleness of the leaves, they or the sale of smuggled' opium at Canton. At present, are cut with a knife close to the ground; and after all the states of Europe derive a very considerable item being left to lie there some little time, are carried to of their revenues from tobacco. Yet, with all this opthe drying-shed, or house, where the plants are hung position, and with its intrinsic repulsive qualities, how strange is it that millions of human beings eagerly use round of all these inquiries, and no doubt, by some one it in some way or other daily and almost hourly! It is or other of them, completely convinced and satisfied barely three centuries since it was known or heard of in all our smoking and snuffing friends, let us look into a the Old World, and now almost every second man you few other plain and obvious facts, and see whether from meet throughout Europe, Asia, and America, either them we cannot afford some consolation and satisfaction snnffs or smokes it. Turk, Jew, Mussulman, and Christ- to our non-smoking and non-snuffing friends.

tobacco is one of the chief solaces of existence. Britain second or third man and boy we meet now-a-days is a is supplied with tobacco chiefly from our West Indian tobacco user; yet, allowing this, we have the other half possessions, and from America. In 1828, the import or two-thirds non-tobacconists, and we have almost all or home consumption amounted to 14,000,000 of pounds the women in this category. Now, how fares it with weight; and the duty alone, at about 38. to 4s. to nearly you, my friends, who have never tasted the narcotic L.3,000,000 sterling. Since that period, the annual weed. You seem rosy, healthy, all beautiful. Come consumpt must have increased considerably with the forward, Mr Broadface, till I examine you. You have population; and if we take into account the quantities lived to the age of fifty; you carry no silver box in smuggled, for which the high duty holds out strong your waistcoat pocket. What is this—a cigar case ! temptation, we may rate the annual amount at little no, a memorandum book. You never use tobacco in short of 20,000,000 of pounds weight for Great Bri- any shape! Never. You say you are healthy, you eat tain and Ireland. This is nothing short of a pound and sleep well. Can you stand a shower, and continue of tobacco a-year to every person above the age of to live and be merry in this damp atmosphere of ours ! infancy. A revenue to Government of upwards of You can stand cold and heat, fatigue, solitude occasionL.3,000,000 sterling, and an expenditure to consumers ally-in short you need nothing beyond your usual fare of L 4,000,000 to L.5,000,000 sterling yearly.

to make you healthy, serene, and comfortable. Is it

not so ! Exactly so. We shall next take John Hedger OF WHAT USE IS TOBACCO !

as he returns from his work. You use no snuff or toSeeing that this substance is so universally and exten- bacco ? Never. You know John Cutty! Yes, we have sively used by men of all climes and conditions, one feels wrought together for the last twenty years. In all naturally inclined to endeavour to find out what good pur- weathers, wet, cold, and warm, under days of great fapose it serves in the animal economy; what additional tigue, and enjoying times of rest and relaxation | Yes, pleasures or benefits are enjoyed by those who use it; all of these. Cutty smokes, does he not ! That he does. what sweets follow or accompany its nauseous bitter. It is Is he healthier, stronger, merrier, richer, or in any way suid to enable people the better to resist the effects of a a better man than you? He aint, your honour. I'll cold, poist, or variable climate ; or, on the other hand, it work with Cutty, or wrestle with him any day. Now, soothes the heat and languor of a warm and dry one. evidences of this kind can be obtained every day in the With some it is the solace of the fatigue of long-con- year in the country, in the city, under the same roof, tinued and exhausting labour; with others it is the and under the influence of identical circumstances. If spother of idle and unoccupied hours. One takes to to we go to other countries, and to extreme climates, we hacco from toothache, headache, or heartache; others everywhere meet with the same obvious and practical from study, from listlessness, or inability to fix the at- contrasts. Who, then, for a moment, could hesitate to tention. Some extol it on a journey, on the old-fa- affirm that the use of tobacco, under any form or modishioned creeping pace of eight or nine miles an hour on fication whatever, does at least no good. If millions of the top of a coach; others fill up the long rainy day at men and women who never use tobacco are as healthy, av inn with this solitary solace alternated with the pe- as long-lived, as beautiful, as serene and cheerful, and rusal of a thrice_thumbed newspaper. The majority, as patient of labour and fatigue as the millions who use again, snuff and smoke to-day, just because they did it it, then all mankind could be as well if tobacco had neyesterday, the day before, and from time immemorial,

ver grown out of the earth, or had never been converted because they could not do without it. A few maintain to human use. But if the moderate use of tobacco does that it is a bad and useless practice, speculate about no harm, why lay it aside? We answer, the use of what giving it up, but are afraid of the consequence to brain, is useless by all rules of logic must be an absurdity. eyes, and ears; they think, ponder, resolve, re-resolve, But, moreover, the use of such things leads to the abuse. yet die gonfirmed tobacconists. But we must next con- The use of everything of the kind originates in folly, sult the chemico-physiological physician. What does

It generally commences in youth from the love of imihe say! The peculiar and highly azotized narcotic tation—the false craving for undue excitement, and the principle in tobacco and similar substances appears to continual tendency of the human mind to shrink from afford direct nutriment to the brain and nervous sys. the duties or salutary reflections of the moment, and to tem, and hence the stimulating and exhilarating effects grasp at anything which lulls the acute and gnawing of such substances; or, after great muscular or mental edge of ever wakeful conscience. For one prudent exertions, the vital power being considerably lowered person who uses any one stimulant wisely and healthin action, the chemical and decomposing forces in the fully, there are hundreds who by such debase and ensystem attain the ascendancy. In sueh a condition, feeble their natures. Is it not among savage and rude the effect of narcotica appears to be to lull, modify, nations that we find the cava-bowl, the mead, and every and restrain such action till the vital energy is again narcotic and stupefying draught in greatest repute! Bestored and reinvigorated by rest. Having gone the But tobacco is not merely harmless, it is prejudieinl. Medical men can point out cases of diseased digestive , off; they are put upon plain but wholesome fare, and, organs, of tremors and affections of the nervous system, instead of disease and death, renewed health is the conwhich are of daily occurrence from excess of this sub- sequence. We know several individuals who have had stance. Amongst the poorer classes, one of the most sufficient strength of mind to break off the habit of excommon causes of inflammation of the eyes, and that cessive snuff-taking at once and for ever, though many particular kind of loss of sight arising from disease of others again are found to relapse after having gained the nerve of vision, are said to arise from excessive half the battle. In this, as in other things, happy are smoking of tobacco. A German philosopher is reputed they who persevere unto the end. to have lately applied to his medical friend, as labouring We may here subjoin an extract from the last " geunder a most deplorable depression of mind, loss of neral orders” of the Iron Duke. It is not expressed in appetite, sleeplessness, and general tremors, when the the very best English ; but the noble Field Marshal is cause was discovered to be an excessive use of smoking | better accus:omed to wield the sword than the pen; and and snuff-taking. On laying aside these practices, his ; his views, however expressed, are most considerate and usual state of health again returned. It is a common paternal:opinion that long habits of the abuse of stimulants can- “The Commander-in-Chief has been informed that the not be suddenly stopped without imminent danger to practice of smoking by pipes, cigars, or cheroots, has the health. Nothing can be more erroneous; there are become prevalent among the officers of the army, which abundant proofs of this,—the best and most satisfac- is not only in itself a species of intoxication, occasioned tory, probably, being of daily occurrence in the com- | by the fumes of tobacco, but undoubtedly occasions mittal of criminals to jails, where all their bad habits, drinking and tippling by those who acquire the habit.” smoking and snuffing among the rest, are at once cut

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Paysical Geography is a science almost in its infancy : mountain ranges, and plains and valleys, together with in this country. It has hitherto been deemed sufficient the distribution of heat and moisture over the earth's to acquire a knowledge of the outlines and boundaries surface. Its second department, and perhaps its most of continents and kingdoms,-to learn by rote the interesting, describes the localization of plants and aninames of the chief mountains, rivers, and towns, to tell' mals in certain groups over the different regions, marks on what stream a city is built, and for what manufac- out the prevalence of particular classes and families in ture or other circumstance it is remarkable. This has certain positions, the correspondence of these over cerbeen called Geography. But as to conducting the at- tain hemispheres, and lastly, delineates the localities intention to the grand and harmonious principles upon habited by the various races of the human family. All which the various terrestrial arrangements are so aptly these circumstances are, in the work just mentioned, iland beautifully contrived, and pointing out the relations lustrated by such ingenious diagrams, and condensed which each system or department bears to another, lit- and classified with such a lucid order, as at once to contle of this, we are sorry to say, has ever yet found its vey both to the eye and intellect a most comprehensive way even into our highest seminaries. Seeing then, and wonderful view of a world contrived with consumthat there is such a defect in one of the most important, mate intelligence, and tenanted throughout its remotest and certainly one of the most interesting of youthful bounds with a profuse variety of animal and vegetable studies, we hail with no small satisfaction the appear- existences. ance of the Physical Atlas, at present in course of pub- The earth is an oblate spheroid revolving in space, lication by the Messrs Johnston of this city. The work with its surface nearly three-fourths covered with wa. is based upon that of Professor Berghaus of Berlin; and ter. The atmosphere is a zone of air surrounding the his plan, in many respects admirable, has been extended earth to the height of 45 to 50 miles. Its extreme and filled up by the intelligent editor, Mr A. K. Johnston, particles are kept within a definite circumference by the with the assistance of the ablest men of science in this force of the earth's attraction; but beyond the limits of the country. The work is indeed a magnificent one, beau- atmosphere we know of the existence of no matter,--and tifully engraved and copiously illustrated; and we are call this empty space. The air of the atmosphere, besides proud to think, that the first work of the kind in Britain affording a necessary support to vegetables and animals, should have been produced in Edinburgh. It must take is also the medium by which heat and moisture are distri. its place in every library; and as a work of general re- buted over the earth. It is continually in motion, and ference and interest in almost every subject of natural agitated by currents. From the sun are derived light and geographical science, it might, with great advan. and heat, the prime vivifiers of organized existences. tage, be substituted in the drawing-room in place of the As light and heat are most intense in the torrid zone, Himsy and trashy volumes which are there generally and gradually diminish in intensity towards the poles, it displayed.

is singular and beautiful to mark the corresponding pre· Physical Geography embraces a view of the atmo- valence and decrease of plants and animals. The most sphere and its relations to the ocean and the earth,, luxuriant kinds of vegetation, and some of the largest then it illustrates the depth and extent, the temperature, animals are seen clustering around the tropics,---as the tides, currents, and shoals of the ocean,--the distribu- towering palms, the prolific bananas, the majestic eletion of continents and islands,—their mean elevations, phant, the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus; while, as we approach the polar regions, both plants and animals de- and eastwards through the valleys to the ocean, markcrease in numbers, and generally in size, until at last ing out distinctly the natural boundaries of certain diswe come to a point where life ceases to exist. The same tricts of country: Direct his eye again to the southern arrangement prevails if we take the perpendicular height sides of these Grampians, and let him mark how the of elevated land; for the temperature is found to dimi- rivers descend in a contrary or south-east direction; nish in a certain proportion as we ascend in the atmo- explain to him the cause of this, arising from the wellsphere. Then we have some beautiful arrangements . known laws of fluids in motion, and you then imbue by which the excess of heat and of evaporated moisture his mind with a philosophical principle which will take are conveyed by atmospheric currents from the equator fast hold of it, and remain, while mere words and jumto the poles, and thus, along with corresponding cur- bled explanations will be forgotten or never attended to. rents in the ocean, a degree of medium warınth and Let the same principle be pursued as he rises to the moisture is distributed over every region. But we do higher branches of the study; carry him onward from not mean to enter into particulars at present, each of the mountain chains of Europe and America to the these subjects would require a separate consideration, great laws of atmospheric and oceanic influences already and the investigation of the laws which regulate each, alluded to,-from this to the distribution of plants and and conduce to one harmonious whole, may form suit- animals; and then he will be ready to appreciate the able themes for future consideration.

works of man, and be much more alive to localities, to Now the system of nature, when thus investigated, towns and cities, and, if you will, to the great Tom of forms also an admirable basis for a system of tuition. Lincoln, than ever he was before. Now, for this system We confuse and repress the young and eager intellect we require, in the first place, well educated teachers,— when we attempt to force upon it crude and unconnect- men familiar, at least, with the elements of science, and ed facts. What interest or liking for the subject can proper books and maps for the purpose. Education is be excited in a boy's mind when we cram him with beginning to make some little progress in Britain, and mere names of hills, rivers, and towns,—with great we hope to see the day when every district will have its Toms of Lincoln, and cathedrals of York, which are to central institution and well-appointed staff of sufficiently him as so many hard words, without meaning or con- educated teachers. nection. But take him, for instance, and display before First of all, however, the present adult public has to him a well-constructed map, or rather series of maps, be taught, or, at all events, made acquainted with what of his native district or country; begin him with a ske- should be taught, and we know no better means of diffusleton map of Britain, where the outlines of the shore, ing light upon this subject than by the study of the Phythe mountain-chains, and the river-courses are the sole, sical Atlas.In so far as our humble pages may be or at all events, the most prominent objects;-point out conducive to the desirable end of fostering a yet higher to him how the great Grampian range intersects Scot- range of education, we may here state, that a portion of land from west to east, forming the highest land of the them shall be from time to time cheerfully devoted to kingdom;-trace out the rivers which take their source such subjects. from one side of those hills, and then flow northward


MR BUCKINGHAM is an unfortunate man. Some years Mr Buckingham may pile statement upon statementago, when he was in the hey-day of his travelling popu- he may be stern or he may be lugubrious—but all will larity, he was subjected to the heavy fire of the Quarterly not silence Punch, nor stifle the merriment of its readers; Review, two, if not more of the articles concluding with and this not “because fools are always on the laughing the complimentary quotations of “ So much for Buck- side,” but because there are such things as people laughingham!” But heavy as the Quarterly artillery was, we ing with tears in their eyes, and because the perception dare say he would rather have been subjected to it than of the ludicrous lies upon the surface of the human conto the rifle bullets of Punch. The Conservative organ stitution, and will have its sympathies acted upon even may have damaged him in the high literary circles, but at the expense of a little cruelty. the jibes and cuts of his hebdomadal assailant have Two courses are open to Mr Buckingham-the first made him a marked man amongst thousands of a class is, to turn the tables on Punch, and pay it back in its whom Mr Gifford's pen never reached. He answered own coin—that however we are afraid Mr Buckingham the Quarterly, and he has answered Punch, but had he could not do without assistance; and therefore we think judged rightly he would have answered neither. Gib

the second one would be the best. It is this—if he is bon has recorded it as his opinion that "no man can satisfied that the British and Foreign Institute (we had refute a sneer;" and the philosophy of the remark is almost said Destitute) be really a good and proper estaconfirmed by daily experience. Facts may be met by blishment, let him persevere with it—for if it be so, we facts—reasoning by reasoning, but sarcasm and wit can defy Punch or any other periodical to write it down—if be repelled neither by history nor logic. Attack and it be defective in any one point, reform it there, and redefence must be homogeneous. Cæur de Lion's ponder- gard Punch's strictures as “most excellent oil;" if it be ous sword could not divide the feather pillow, nor could obviously unsuited to the wants of the age, (and from the Soldan's tiny scymitar dissever the iron bar; but the time it has been in existence this point can easily be each warrior was effective with his own instrument. settled) then let him “reform it altogether,” by abandon

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