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discoveries contributing greatly to the advancement | son's Institution, opened the first session of lectures by both of private and public wealth. The failure of these this address on the nature and utility of phrenology. attempts, and the useless waste of money which Letters of individuals favourable to phrenology are apmany of them exhibit, show in a highly forcible manner

pended. the national importance of well-educated mining engin The Artificial Preparation of Turf. By R. MALLET, Dublin. eers. In France, Prussia, and Saxony-countries far Peal-Coal versus Pit-Coal. By R. M. ALLOWAY, Esq. inferior to Britain in mineral wealth, this fact has been

Pamphlets on the nature and economical preparation long recognised, and institutions for this purpose sup

of peat as fuel. Mr Mallet recommends, instead of the ported by the government. With so many indications

usual plan of cutting the turf or sod, the Dutch method of lead ore in almost every part of Scotland, it can hard

of spreading the thin mud of peat bogs on dry soil, then ly be doubted that many valuable mines remain to be dis

forming it into square pieces after it is partially dried, covered, and that this branch of national industry might

and finally drying the peats in a kiln. Ample directions be very greatly extended.

and diagrams are given. Fossil REMAINS.—The horns and bones of a stag have been found near to the church of Dores, Invernesshire, under

The British Mother's Magazine. nine feet of successive strata of gravel diluvium. The A neat monthly periodical for the nursery and family strata decline regularly at an angle of from twelve to fif circle. teen degrees. Above where the remains were found is

The Bible Cyclopedia. chiefly small gravel, with few stones; at a foot below the bed of the bones is an open bed of water-worn stones, with The prefix of “ People's Edition,” shows that this has no gravel intermixed, from a foot to eighteen inches in been a successful work, and we have nothing farther to depth-the stones from six to ten lbs. weight; and under do than to state that the plan embraces the biography, this, a stratum of considerably indurated fine sand: proba

geography, and natural history of the Scriptures, -a bly below this, but not ascertained, the deep bed of mountain clay which forms the subsoil of the adjacent bank of

plan, which, if treated scientifically, would, like Dr Kitto's Lochness for miles. Considerable pains were taken to find

Cyclopædia, have required associated effort, but which, more of the remains, but without success.

being treated popularly, may well enough be left to a DIMENSIONS.

veteran litterateur like Mr Parker Lawson, who ransacks Longest diameter of root of the horn, . .

whole libraries before he takes pen in hand. Circumference between the brow antlers,.

Portrait of Professor Wilson.
Length of lower brow antler (entire), .
Ditto of upper ditto (broken, .

One of the series of portraits issued by Mr Schenck, Mean circumference of upper ditto

the enterprising lithographer. Judging from many fragment of another antler, broken at both ends

failures, it seems difficult to give good portraits of men length,

of genius, particularly those who speak in public, and Circumference of ditto at 1 inch from lower end.

the reason seems to be, that as the whole physiognomy Ditto at 1 inch from upper end, 3

speaks with them as well as the mouth, they are not, The PLANET ASTRÆA.—This new member of the solar system still occupies the attention of astronomers. Our

when sitting to the painter, lighted up in the same way townsman, Mr Galbraith, has received a communication

as they are at the desk, platform, or pulpit. This has from M. Schumacher of Altona, dated 9th January, which caused failures in the portraits of Chalmers particularly. gives the elements of Astræa, as calculated by Encke. In this one of Wilson, the animation has been well caught, They are as follow:

and is highly creditable to the artist, Mr Crawford. Epoque, 0. January 1846, Berlin mean time.

Lays and Laments for Israel.

Deg. Min. Sec. Mean longitude,

94 48 11.8

We last week had the pleasure of noticing a volume Mean anomaly,

54.8

of poetry on Flowers, and we have similar gratification Longitude of perihelion, . 135 45 17

in referring to a collection on Palestine and the Jews. Ascending node, . .. Inclination,

7.2

The classification of selected poetry shows that the popuAngle of eccentricity, .

30

lar taste is improving, and this may safely be reckoned Log. of half of greater axis,

0:413564

a good sign of the times. And, moreover, this identifiMean daily motion,

50,473 sec. cation of Verse with all great questions, tends to exalt Period, . . . . . 1524 days. poetry to its proper place; for how could the importance --Scotsman.

of any subject be better estimated than by gathering together the spontaneous aspirations of the sons of melody

regarding it? The Lays and Laments are, with few exLiterature.

ceptions, quoted, and the original pieces for the most History of Civilization. By W. A. MAKINNON, F.R.S.M.P.

part are anonymous; but the whole form a most agree2 vols. 8vo.

able collection,-and one evidently the work not only Traces civilization from Egypt, Greece, Rome, to of a tasteful and deliberate, but well-read compiler. The modern Europe-sketch of English history, as bear Rev. Mr Anderson has an introductory essay, which, ing on civilization-France, Spain, and other Euro although rather sermonic in its divisions and sub-divipean states—war as influencing civilization-state of sions, is interesting and useful. female sex-witchcraft, &c. A comprehensive subject, Sketch of the Life of Dr James Johnson. treated discursively rather than philosophically. Nume

An able and interesting account of a gentleman who rous facts and opinions, both selected and original, are

might have been designated the Cobbett of medical literbrought to bear upon the subject. Some slight inaccu

ature. Although drawn up by a son it is free from the racies occur in the historical statements; but the book

nauseous, though natural twaddle that generally characwill be instructive reading to those who wish a general terises filial biography. The lifu affords a most interesting view of the subject.

example of what perseverance, probity, and indefatigable Notes on Reformation in Germany. By George COMBE. exertion will accomplish, especially when joined to such

A concise account of the state of religious opinions talent, and we may even say genius, as the worthy Docin Germany, with an appendix on the schools of Massa tor possessed. chusetts America, for the diffusion of common educa A Book of Christmas Carols. tion among all sects indiscriminately,

The Good-natured Bear. Address to the Students of Anderson's University, Glasgow. The first is an elegantly illustrated work, with illumin. By ANDREW COMBE, M.D.

ated borders from ancient MSS. in the British Museum, Dr Combe, as one of the trustees of the late Mr Hen and missal pictures. The second, a pretty story from derson, the founder of a chair of phrenology in Ander- | the German, both well adapted for presentation.

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Songs of the Vineyard. By the Rev. J. G. SMALL.

A tiny volume of soft and sacred lays, to sweeten “ days of gloom and sunshine.” Dr Johnson has said that religion affords no scope or incident for poetry; but such subjects as “The Martyrs of the Isles,"_" The Faithful among the Vaudois, &c., go far to disprove this assertion. People's Edition of Jardine's Naturalist's Library.

The Naturalist's Library has been long and favourably known as a work, the merits of which have been universally admitted, and the accuracy and beauty, as well as the profusion of its pictorial illustrations, have been the subject of deserved approbation. In the people's edition the same care and ability in colouring and printing the illustrations, are manifested, as at first gained for it the estimation in which it was originally held.

Gleanings.

SELF-IGNORANCE. Men carry their minds as for the most they carry their watches, content to be ignorant of the constitution and action within, and attentive only to the little exterior circle of things, to which the passions, like indexes, are pointing. It is surprising to see how little self-knowledge a person not watchfully observant of himself may have gained, in the whole course of an active, or even an inquisitive life. He may have lived almost an age, and traversed a continent, minutely traversing its curiosities, and interpreting the half-obliterated characters on its monuments, unconscious the while of a process operating on his own mind, to impress or to erase characteristics of much more importance to him than all the figured brass or marble that Europe contains. After having explored many a cavern or dark ruinous avenue, he may have left undetected a darker recess within where there would be much more striking discoveries. He may have conversed with many people, in different languages, on numberless subjects ; but, having neglected those conversations with himself by which his whole moral being should have been kept continually disclosed to his view, he is better qualified perhaps to describe the intrigues of a foreign court, or the progress of a foreign trade; to depict the manners of the Italians, or the Turks; to narrate the proceedings of the Jesuits, or the adventures of the gypsies; than to write the history of his own mind.

FORMATION OF CHARACTER. Consider the number of meetings with acquaintance, friends, or strangers; the number of conversations you have held or heard ; the number of occasions on which you have been disgusted or pleased, moved to admiration or to abhorrence; the number of times that you have contemplated the town, the rural cottage, or verdant fields; the number of volumes you have read; the times that you have looked over the present state of the world, or gone by means of history into past ages; the number of comparisons of yourself with other persons, alive or dead, and comparisons of them with one another; the number of solitary musings, of solemn contemplations of night, of the successive subjects of thought, and of animated senti. ments that have been kindled and extinguished. Add all the hours and causes of sorrow which you have known. Through this lengthened, and, if the number could be told, stupendous multiplicity of things, you have advanced, while all their heterogeneous myriads have darted influences upon you, each one of them having some definable tendency. A traveller round the globe would not meet a greater variety of seasons, prospects, and winds, than you might have recorded of the circumstance capable of affecting your character, during your journey of life. You could not wish to have drawn to yourself the agency of a vaster diversity of causes : you could not wish, on the supposi. tion that you had gained advantage from all these, to wear the spoils of a greater number of regions. The formation of the character from so many materials röminds one of that mighty appropriating attraction, which, on the fanciful hypothesis that the resurrection should reassemble the same particles which composed the body before, must draw them from dust, and trees, and animals, from ocean and winds.

NEGLECT OF A SUPREME BEING. Why did you not think of him? One would deem that the thought of him must, to a serious mind, come second

to almost every thought. The thought of virtue would suggest the thought of both a lawgiver and a rewarder ; the thought of crime, of an avenger; the thought of sor. row, of a consoler; the thought of an inserutable mystery, of an intelligence that understands it; the thought of that ever-moving activity which prevails in the system of the universe, of a supreme agent; the thought of the hu. man fan

mily, of a great father: the thought of all being not necessary and self-existent, of a creator; the thought of life, vi'a preserver; and the thought of death, of an un. controllaule disposer. By what dexterity, therefore, of irreligious caution, did you avoid precisely every track where the idea of him would have met you, or elude that idea, if it vare! And what must sound reason pronounce of a mind which, in the train of millions of thoughts, has wandered to all things under the sun, to all the permanent objects or vanishing appearances in the creation, but never fixed its thought on the Supreme Reality ; never approached, like Moses, " to see this great sight ***

IGNORANCE OF ONE ANOTHER. It has several times, in writing this essay, occurred to me what strangers men may be to one another, whether as to the influences which have determined their characters, or as to the less obvious parts of their conduct. What strangers, too, we may be, with persons who have the art of concealment, to the principles which are at this mo. ment prevailing in the heart." Each mind has an interior apartment of his own, into which none but itself and the Divinity can enter. In this secluded place the passions mingle and fluctuate in unknown agitations. Here all the fantastic and all the tragic shapes of imagination have a haunt, where they can neither be invaded nor descried. Here the surrounding human beings, while quite insensi. ble of it, are made the subjects of deliberate thought, and many of the designs respecting them revolved in silence. Here projects, convictions, vows, are confusedly scattered, and the records of past life are laid. Ilere, in solitary state, sits Conscience, surrounded by her own thunders, which sometimes sleep, and sometimes roar, while the world does not know. The secrets of this apartment, could they have been even but very partially brought forth, might have been fatal to that eulogy and splendour with which many a piece of biography has been exhibited by a partial and ignorant friend. If. in a man's own account of himseli, written on the supposition of being seen by any other per. son, the substance of the secrets of this apartment be brought forth, he throws open the last asylum of his cha. racter, where it is well if there be nothing found that will distress and irritate his most partial friend, who may thus become the ally of his conscience to condemn, without the leniency which even conscience acquires from selflove. And if it be not brought forth, where is the integrity or value of the history, supposing it pretend to afford a full and faithful estimate ; and what ingenuous man could bear to give a delusive assurance of his being, or

wing been, so much more worthy of applause or affection than conscience all the while pronounces? It is ob vious, then, that a man whose sentiments and designs, or the undisclosed parts of whose conduct, have been deeply criminal, must keep his record sacred to himself; unless he feels such an unsupportable longing to relieve his heart

confiding its painful consciousness, that he can be content to hold the regard of his friend on the strength of his penitence and recovered virtue. As to those, whose memory of the past is sullied by shades if not by stains, they must either in the same manner retain the delineation for solitary use, or limit themselves in writing it, to a deliberate and strong expression of the measure of conscious culpabilities, and their effect in the general character, with a certain, not deceptive but partially reserved explanation, that shall equally avoid particularity and mystery; or else they must consent to meet their friends, who share the human frailty and have had their

iations, on terms of mutual ingenuous acknowledgment. In this confidential communication, each will learn to be. hold the other's transgressions fully as much in that light in which they certainly are infelicities to be commiserated, as in that in which they are also faults or vices to be condemned; while both earnestly endeavour to improve by their remembered errors.-Foster on a Man's writing Memoirs of Himself.

LIFE.—The mere lapse of years is not life. To eat, and drink, and sleep; to be exposed to darkness and light; to pass round in the mill of habit, to turn the wheel of wealth; to make reason our bookkeeper, and turn thought into an implement of trade--this is not life. In all this, but a poor fraction of the consciousness of humanity is

awakened; and the sanctities still slumber, which make it | Unibersity and Educational Intelligence. most worth while to be. Knowledge, truth, love, beauty,

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY.-It is said that Dr Monro is to goodness, faith, alone can give vitality to the mechanism of existence; the laugh of mirth which vibrates through

resign his professorship of anatomy in the Edinburgh the heart, the tears that freshen the dry waste within, the

University, at the conclusion of this session. music that brings childhood back, the prayer that calls the

The LIVERPOOL MECHANICS INSTITUTE.—This institution future near, the doubt which makes us meditate, the death was established in 1825, after the model of the Glasgow which startles us with mystery, the hardship that forces us and Edinburgh Schools of Arts, for the purpose of afford. to struggle, the anxiety that ends in trust--are the true | ing, at a cheap rate, instruction to the working classes. nourishment of our natural being.-Martineau.

At first it was begun on a small scale, in apartments hired STATISTICAL ClassifICATION OF SOCIETY.

for the purpose, but was subsequently enlarged, and the 1. Upper class includes all those who can command present edifice in Mount Street built by public subscripthe work or time of 100 labourers, or more, the average tion, and first opened in September 1837. Besides a amount of wages of each of these labourers being about school for the education of the working classes, another L.30 a-year. The income of each of the upper class may was now added for the sons of merchants, and those in be estimated at L.3000 a year and upwards, a permanent the middle and higher ranks of life, distinct in its arrangeincome, which may be transmitted to their descendants. ments from the other, and termed the High School, with

2. Middle class includes those individuals who can com a preparatory school for the junior pupils. In this mand the labour of from 5 to 100 men, and the indivi school all the branches are taught which are generally dual incomes varying from L.150 to L.3000 a-year. included in what is called a liberal education, embracing

3. Lowest class consists of all those persons not in the elements of physical science and the fine arts. The cluded in the other classes, who live on their own labour, institution contnins a sculpture gallery, with an extensive and whose ineomes vary from L.30 to L.150 a year.--- collection of casts, busts, &c., formed under the direction Makinnon's Hist. of Civilization.

of Mr Haydon,-a library,-a museum of natural his

tory,-a chemical laboratory, and a lecture-hall, capaProceedings of Societies.

ble of containing nearly 1500 persons. The whole cost

of the building as it now stands amounted to about Paris ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Jan, 12.-1. From some

L.15,000. The classes in all the departments commence experiments on the conduction of the earth, M. Matteucci is of opinion that the earth does by its mass present a full

at nine in the morning; the pupils change their classes compensation for the non-conductibility of its nature. every hour, when they are allowed five minutes recrea2. M. Letellier, in 1837, pointed out the means of prepar tion; from an hour and a half to two hours recreation ing wood by immersion,-first by impregnating it with are allowed at mid-day; and the average time of attendeuto-chloruret of mercury, and then with gelatine, which

dance during the day is six hours. Corporal punishrendered the mercurial salt insoluble. He condemns the

ment is strictly prohibited, confinement after school hours use of pyrolignite of iron. 3. M. Luog, on the cultivation of tea in France, shows its practicability.

being substituted. As all books used by the pupils are Royal SOCIETY.-This Society met on Thursday, when

provided by the institution, no lessons are prepared at a paper was read. “On the Supra-renal, Thymus, and

home. [If this is a general practice throughout all the Thyroid Bodies," by John Goodsir, Esq., communicated by

classes, we would be inclined to question the propriety Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S.

of it much, both as regards efficiency and as promoting ASIATIC SOCIETY, LONDON, Jan, 17.--A letter was read order and occupation at home.] The vacations are six from Captain Newbold, on some remarkable tombs near weeks at mid-summer, two weeks at Christmas, and Chittoon, North Arcot, which bear a close resemblance to three days at Easter. The evening classes are more the Cromlechs and other Druidical remains of Britain, and

varied and extensive than those of the day. In addition which are attributed by the natives of India to dwarfs and

to the subjects taught during the day, there are instrucfairies. These tombs covered an area of more than a square mile. The bones found in these sarcophagi were of

tions given in mechanical, architectural, and naval archithe ordinary stature, and belied the popular belief of tectural drawing, painting and modelling, navigation and dwarfs. Vessels of elegant shape are also found in those nautical astronomy, together with the German and tombs and common ones of terra cotta.

Spanish languages, -vocal music, dancing, and public WERNERIAN NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, 10th Jan.-1. A speaking. The evening classes meet four times a-week, notice from Dr D. Munro on the Dinornis or Moa of New There is also a public lecture delivered two evenings in Zealand. A thigh bone of this gigantic bird was exhibited

the week, on some subject connected with literature, 16 inches long, and a tibia 32 inches, indicating the stra

science, or the arts, which lectures are open to the whole ture of the animal to have been at least 12 feet. From the state of preservation which the bones exhibited when

institution, to the subscribers and public generally. The dug out of the alluvial deposit, Dr Munro conjectures number of pupils attending the lower school is about 700, that they may not be more than 200 years old, but he re with 19 teachers. The number attending the higher gards the Moa as extinct, at least in all those parts of and preparatory schools, 250, and 13 teachers. The New Zealand yet explored. 2. Specimen of the wild goat

attendance on the evening classes, which meet from 7 to of Scotland from the highlands of Sutherlandshire. These

9 o'clock, is--of master-tradesmen 28, of merchants' animals are extremely shy, and were formerly hunted as game. 3. Specimens of the silvery fox, brought by Dr

clerks, and others engaged in commerce, engineers, ship Gillespie jun. from Hudson's Bay. 4. A communication

carpenters, sailors, from 3 to 400. Many sailors attend by Dr Hamilton on the excrementitious matters of various while their vessels are in barbour. Connected with this West India insects. 5. Communication on the lesser spot institution and in an adjoining building, an infant and ted woodpecker, by the Rev. Zachary Hamilton of Bressay. girl school, for the education of the lower and middle

MUNICIPAL LIBERALITY.-The inunicipal council of Mar classes of females of all ages, was opened in 1844. It is seilles has voted a sum of 10,000f. towards the expenses of

superintended by a head governess and fourteen teachers, the meeting of the scientific congress, which is to be held this year in that city.

and is attended by about 300 pupils. The seminary thus contains as complete an arrangement for general

instruction as can well be conceived; and from perFine Arts.

sonal inspection, we know that it is conducted with AXATEUR THEATRICALS. It has been decided upon that

great regularity and propriety, and that it continues to a body of artists shonld perforin at St James's Theatre, on

meet with a success commensurate with its usefulness. Tuesday, in aid of the funds of the “ Artists' General

ENGINEERING,---We are glad to observe that both King's Benevolent Institution," a society formed for the purpose of dispensing aid to distressed artists generally.

and University Colleges, London, are to re-commence their

classes or Engineering, Surveying, and Field Work. DurMANCHESTER ASSOCIATION.- A prize is to be given by

ing the railway mania, we had too much of amateur surthe association for the best unpublished engraving.

veying; and leaving out of view other disabilities, the EDINBURGH STATUE OF BURNS, --The Town Council has blundering in this department alone would have prevented agreed that this statue be placed in the College Library, | numerous lines from obtaining parliamentary sanction.

News of the week.

the trial of a deaf and dumb youth on a charge of house

breaking and theft. The utmost difficulty was experiencOREGON GEOGRAPHY.- People are now beginning to find

ed in ascertaining whether the culprit understood the naout where Oregon is, but considerable obscurity still seems to exist as to what may be called its comparative geo

ture and consequence of a plea of guilty or not guilty-his

interpreter stating that the only form in which, in these graphy. For instance, some have an idea, that being in America, the disputed ground could more easily be reached

circumstances, he could put the question, being to ask, by

means of signs, whether the panel had stolen the property. by Americans than Britons,--whereas, not only from its distance from the principal towns in the United States, but

Shields and his accomplices were found guilty, and sewa

traced to transportation for stien torx. Had Shields been also from the direct intervention and great height of the

educated, the question of guilt or innocence, and many Rocky Mountains, which lie obliquely parallel to the whole

others not less important to the ends of justice, might have American side, American troops could not enter without

been put to him in writing or by means of the finger almuch difficulty and much loss of time, whilst the British

phabet. Strange that the law which holds such persons could enter easily from Canada, as the mountain range

amenable to punishment, should not at the same time north of latitude 55° falls to a comparatively low elevation. Then others have the idea, that America could transport

make it imperative upon the overseers of the poor to pro

vide them with education. As matters at present stand, troops by sea much more rapidly than Britain, which is

we do humbly think that instead of transportation for also an erroneous notion, because vessels from the United

seren wars a more just and considerate sentence would States, before they could clear Cape Horn, would require

have been, transmission of this poor ignorant and friendto sail in an easterly direction, so far as the 30th degree

less youth to a deaf and dumb school, where he would of w. longitude, somewhere about the point to which British vessels would have to proceed before descending

have been taught a knowledge of right and wrong, and

that moral restraint which instruction alone will awaken the Atlantic. Again, the commercial importance of Oregon

in the ignorant mind. With the deepest respect for the is not to be measured by its internal capabilities, about

laws of our country, especially our admirable criminal which we hear so much, but by its accessibility to inter

administration, we do think that it looks something like a course with China and the Indian Archipelago. If rail

farce to see judges and jury and a whole array of lawyers way communication were established between Oregon and !

lemnly deliberating on such a case as this, and at an the western shores of the United States, the products of China

expense too, as Bailie Mack lately stated, of £200, One could be conveyed to Europe via America, much more ex

fifth part of this sum would have educated this youth and peditiously than at present, and this is a consideration of

perhaps placed him on the road of rectitude, which he no small consequence, and shows besides, that our fleets in the China Seas could bear down on Oregon, in half

would have ever after pursued. the time required for a voyage from the United States. We MILITIA PROTECTION.--Excessive action is always folmake these remarks, not for the purpose of adding our lowed by debility. A few months ago, we had proprietary mite to the cause of national fomentation, for war we de companies, who were to run lines through every bog in the precate, but simply because telling the truth can do no country, introduce gas into every hamlet, construct gravharm. Indeed, we have no idea that war will take place, ing docks in every creek, and insure against fire, death, and for, as the Spectator justly observes, the American govern all contingencies. Where be these enterprising capitalists ment is so , entirely representative in its character, that now that the practical evil of militia ballot threatens every every thing must be done before the people, and hence, man in the empire-they have left the cominunity to deCongressional discussions are at first nothing else but the fend themselves by mutual protection clubs, at the very thinking aloud of the Senators. Here we would call them

time that a really “ eligible investment" might be made. deliberations which would not transpire beyond Downing ADDITIONAL INSULT TO IRELAND.-Sir Edward SugdenStreet, or the limits of an opposition parliamentary dinner. the barber-Chancellor, is to be removed from Ireland to

HORSBURGH.-The Singapore Chamber of Commerce fill up the vacancy about to be caused by the retirement of propose erecting a lighthouse at Singapore Strait, in me alien Lyndhurst from the English Chancellorship.mory of the eminent hydrograper, Horsburgh. The East London Correspoudent of Limerick Reporter.-[If IreIndia Directory for navigation compiled by this merito land sanctions this language, she deserves to be “ inrious man, is the most stupendous instance of individual sulted.” Sir Edward Sugden's politics, or his nationality toil ever performed. No ship goes to India without it, and are fair matters for dispute--but his being the son of a vet the name of this benefactor to his country and the barber is his “ glory," and it is to the "shame" of any world, is not to be found even in a biographical dictionary. writer to attempt to reproach him with it. We say attempt, GEOLOGICAL MAPS.--The Ordnance have commenced a

for Sir Edward himself is above being hurt with such an series of geological maps of all the existing railways, on a

allusion, and we are sure that the people, be they Irish or scale of six inches to a mile. The British Association is

Saxon, will never sympathise with such coarse provocation.] said to have suggested this series.

CRITICISM.-- Not only did the Quarterly review Lord PREVENTION OF RAILWAY ACCIDENTS.—A Railway Com Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors before the book saw pany has had to pay to Sir George Huyter L.2000, as a

the light, but Mr Murray was able to quote the opinion of compensation for an accident sustained by him. A few pay. the Quarterly upon an unpublished work before the rements like this will be the surest method of preventing

view itself appeared.- Shropshire Conserrative.-(Provided railway accidents,--and we trust a similar system of com no complaints can be made against the impartiality of the pensation will be exacted from steam-boat proprietors.

review in question, we do not see any great harm in this.

A much more reprehensible act has been committed by PREMATURE INTERMENT.--From a paper by M. C. Guern,

the Shropshire Conservative, in quoting the l'orch without read in the French Academy of Sciences, it would appear

acknowledgment.] that, since 1833, not less than 94 premature burials have been prevented by accidental causes. 35 of the persons

Douglas JERROLD'S NEXT.--Encouraged no doubt by the supposed to be dead had awoke from their lethargy at the

success of Mrs Caudle's Lectures, a new series of domestic moment when the coffins were about to be nailed down, 13

papers has been commenced in Punch, under the title of had been revived by care, 17 by the upsetting of the coffins

* Mrs Bib's Baby.” All married men could derive consolain which they had been placed, 9 by incisions or punctures

tion from Mrs Caudle's prelections, but only those having in pinning their shrouds, 19 by accidental delays in the

“ little responsibilities" will be able to fathom the mysteries ceremony of interment, 6 by delays which had been created

of Mrs Bib's oratory. Jerrold has now to take up Misses, purposely by their friends, and 5 by other causes. On the

and then he will have matched Mrs Ellis with her “ W'o. whole, he supposes that 27 premature burials take place

men," “ Wives," and “ Mothers" of England. yearly. The usual period between death and interment in DR WOLFF.-A subscription has been set on foot to reFrance is not given; but on the whole we are disposed to ward Dr Wolff for his adventurous journey to Bokhara. look upon M. Guern as a bit of an alarmist.

He has written a letter, disclaiming personal recompense, RATIONALISM IN GERMANY.-A new movement of the but suggesting that the sums advanced by Captain Grover people in Germany, under the denomination of the “Friends should be paid off, and he also petitioned parliament to the of Light," is agitating the public mind. They discard the same effect. Lord Aberdeen has promised to provide for revelation of Scripture as uncertain and unsatisfactory, and Dr Wolff’s son in the Foreign Office. seek the greater light of reason, as if one were to shut out Mr FRERE.—Mr Frere, the coadjutor of Canning in the the sun, and study by the light of a farthing candle. Ronge

iacobin, and author of some amusing poetry in the is said to have u

ave united this section of religionists to his party. manner of Pulci, published under the name of “WhistlePUNISHMENT OF DEAF AND DUMB.-Considerable interest craft," and which Byron imitated and excelled in his lighter was excited in the Justiciary Court, Glasgow, lately, by poems, died at Malta on 7th January, aged 77 years.

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EIGHTEEN hundred years ago, or in the first cen- | tribes and nations may have wandered far from tury of the Christian era, Diodorus Siculus thus its guidance, and plunged into the darkness of igdescribes our country: “ The Mæatæ or Caledo norance, but the light still was cherished, and still nians inhabit mountains very rugged, and wanting shone, always ready to communicate its illuminwater, and also desert fields full of marshes. They ating influence. We accordingly find the best have neither castles nor cities. They live on milk portions of human society early appearing as a soand the produce of the chase, as well as on fruits. cial community-with their corn and wine, and They never eat fish, of which there is a very great their domestic animals, their herds and their quantity (in their seas). They dwell in tents, | flocks—their faithful dogs—their patient camels, without shoes, and naked, and have wives in com and their fleet horses. The exclusive appropriamon, each bringing up his own offspring. Their tion of such things proves the very early period of whole life," in which he is corroborated by Strabo, civilization. Thus all the plants of the Cerealia “is spent in wars and plunder.” He gives a similar have been so completely appropriated by man as account of the Irish-calls them savages, and even articles of food, that botanists now search the cannibals. With regard to the latter fact we world in vain for any wild or natural specimens have some hints by St Jerome; it is true the testi- of wheat, oats, rice, or other grains. It is the mony is not direct, yet he affirms that he saw hu- | same with domestic animals -no wild camels, or man flesh eaten in Gaul by certain strangers called horses, or even dogs, are to be found, which can Scots or Attacots, the same race who afterwards truly be said to be the original species from whence are conjectured to have come to Scotland and the domestic animals sprung; and what is singular given their name to this country. From all ac- enough, with all our extended knowledge of anicounts however, even down to much later periods, mal beings, modern science has scarcely been able it appears perfectly evident that as regards civiliz- to add one to the number of our domestic list. It ation, the great mass of the population of the | is different with respect to vegetables; though the whole of the British Isles were in the first few most useful of these seem to have been early apcenturies of the Christian era much upon a par propriated to the purposes of man, yet every centuwith the inhabitants of the South Sea Islands at ry adds many to the list of those conducive to food, present. Yet centuries before this period, lived the or clothing, or other purposes. refined Greeks and Romans; these again were pre Hitherto in the world's history the great drawceded by the Etruscans, and thousands of years an back to civilization has not been its actual and actecedent the art-cultivating Egyptians, and other cumulated amount in particular localities, but the enlightened nations almost lost in the dim uncer difficulty of its effective diffusion. Civilization has tainties of history and tradition.

been broken up and retarded by the wandering, It is singular thus to trace the progress of civil unsettled propensities of man-by masses of the ization, dim and obscure as the lights are which people leaving the centres of knowledge and art, irradiate the history. We can, it is true, very and retiring to remote regions, where an unsettled readily take up particular tribes and nations, and and precarious life of hunting or fishing left them follow out their progress from rudeness and igno no means of retaining the information they origirance to a state of refinement and intelligence, but nally possessed, far less of acquiring and accumuthe great march of civilization itself in the world lating more. If to this be joined the propepsi-the indications of its existence and prevalence ty for castes and clanships, and petty feuds and from the very earliest periods—its devious path- wide-spreading wars, we have sufficient causes for its interruptions—its sudden diffusions-its wide all the degenerations which we meet with in remote spread in one era, its curtailment and decline in and savage nations. The pride and tyranny of another,—but on the whole its steady onward and man too, has grievously retarded the diffusion of a accumulating progress, are all circumstances which beneficial civilization. Much of the grandeur and mark the process as one of those great and abiding magnificence of ancient states were but false indiarrangements which have been peculiarly designed cations of true refinement. Ambitious and powerfor human society.

ful tyrants goaded on the inferior classes to toil It is needless to speculate on the origin of civil and labour, not for the amelioration of the condiization, or the original state of man in society-to tion of their subjects, but for their own individual trace it as some have done from a community of pleasures. Hence arose the Pyramids of Egypt, savages passing by degrees through various stages, those stupendous monuments of the rude taste and and accumulating knowledge and art by their own vanity of kings gratified by the toil and tears of experience. As far back as we can penetrate, the their degraded slaves. Hence too the more refined light of knowledge burned; this light never ap temples and monuments-the paintings and palapears to have been extinguished, but on the con ces of antiquity, while the mass of the people livtrary to have been transmitted through every age: / ed in huts and in rude abodes scarce fit for the THE TORCH, NO. VI.

FEB. 7, 1846.

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