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government control and receive government patronage. Indeed, the great purpose of the authorities would seem to be not so much to make education universal as to educate experts in every field of art and industry. Skilled leadership, in the civil service, in the army and navy, in the professions, in shops and on farms, seems to be the great aim of the most enlightened educational systems of the Old World. In this country we allow our higher institutions of learning in the main to take care of themselves; there are men among us even who would ruthlessly strike down our partially-developed public high schools, while in happy contrast with our narrowness is the liberal course of nations abroad who “with one hand furnish elementary education to all, and with the other make every effort to aid the born leaders of society in fitting themselves for their appointed sphere."
These, it seems to me, are some of the weaknesses of our system of public education. There are others, but time is wanting to speak of them now.
Mr. WICKERSHAM was followed by Messrs. PHILBRICK and Eaton, the latter presenting copies of French Reports on Education.
Alex. Hogg, of Texas, then read the following paper designed for the Department of Industrial Education, which had been crowded out by the length of Mr. Spring's practical illustrations of sculpture,
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION, OR THE EQUAL CULTIVATION
OF THE HEAD, THE HEART, AND THE HAND. When Sir William Hamilton gave utterance to that grand conception,
“ on earth there is nothing great but man;
In man there is nothing great but mind," *
he evidently had in view man as a duality.
Still further, in this duality, he ranked the mind as the higher, or spiritual nature—the body as the lower, or material nature; the mind as the gem-the body as the casket; the mind as that which should be cultivated,-polished ;-the body as the mere vehicle or receptacle only, to be considered as the environment of the citadel, the seat of the mind.
And we find this idea coming down from time long anterior to HAMILTon, and even since his day, as is exemplified in the partition which is kept up by the doctors of medicine and the doctors of philosophy—the former claiming the body, the latter the mind, agreeing only in the determination that this partition shall be eternal. And we find their partisans following the same law of separation, contrasting and alienating these two, to the certain disadvantage of both the mind and the body.
What is needed, is first, to consider man as an entirety. As an entirety, so far as no one part shall be secondary to any other, shall neither be dependent nor independent, but shall be distinct yet united into one harmonious whole. And, secondly, to educate him as such. This education may be roughly considered in relation to the Head (the mental), the Heart (the moral), and the Hand (the physical man).
* HAMILTON quotes this from an ancient philosopher whom he does not name. It was PHAVORINUS.---Secretary.
And now, in order to do this, of the whole range and vast extent of studies, there must be some selection.”
And here again arises the question: What shall we select? That which will best prepare the whole man for the active and real duties of after life, whether these duties be professional or otherwise.
To the learner, I would say, study that which will fit you for the selected business or chosen profession of your life; and to the teacher, teach that which will be the most beneficial, will be the most useful to your pupils, taking into consideration the vast fields of employment which lie spread out before you; and which from their importance and utility, will most likely draw to them the greatest number of the human family, but who can not, or do not, at an early age, select definitely their future vocations.
Turning to the census of the United States, 1870, and carefully comparing the occupations, “upon the basis of all occupations” being 12,505,928, we at once see that of this number there are engaged in Agriculture, 5,922,471, or nearly one half; in professions and personal service, 2,684,798, or over one sixth; in trades and transportation 1,191,238, or over one twelfth ; in manufacturing, mechanical and mining industries, 2,707,421, or over one fifth.
It was, doubtless, to give those following industrial pursuits an opportunity to obtain a liberal as well as practical education, that the Congress of the United States, in 1862, donated 10,000,000 acres of the public lands to the several states and territories, to establish and endow colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts. Our wise statesmen saw there was a great disparity in the advantages educationally, as presented by the older colleges for the training of the professional classes. There were scores of universities and hundreds of colleges, but all for the sole purpose of educating professional students, Lawyers, Doctors of Medicine, and Doctors of Divinity; or institutions of high grade endowed and maintained for the education of the one sixth, while nothing had been done, except through the liberality of a few large-hearted and enterprising individuals, for the education of the agriculturists, the manufacturing, mining, and mechanical industries, trades and transportation, or in round numbers, for the remaining five sixths of all occupations.
Well might Prof. PERRY, of Williams College, say, that he could point out one hundred lawyers, who have exerted more political influence in the State and nation than all the six millions of farmers have done. Politics is the business of the lawyer,—the forthcoming statesman; and is it not fair to suppose that, in his chosen field of action, he should be skilled, and highly skilled too? Farmers, mechanics, and, in a word, the whole industrial fraternity, pay little or no attention to politics—it is not their stock in trade. Just as fair an argument could be made by stating that a few priests control the great bulk of the church, and, therefore, they wield more influence than all their followers.
I agree with President ABBOT that, “ farmers, as a class, do not take the social and political rank that their numbers and influence entitle them to.” Nor do those following other industrial pursuits, that is, they have not done it, but that they may do it is the object of the industrial education now taking place and rank in every State and territory in the Union. That they may do it, that their influence and rank may be commensurate with their numbers, is the object of this distinct and specific and separate training given them in our colleges specially endowed, organized, and conducted for them by the various governments of the old countries, as well as the states of our own. And if we are permitted to run a parallelism between the two kinds of institutions, taking the rich and munificent endowments of the colleges and universities for the education of the literary classes and the centuries through which they have existed, and the results which they have accomplished; the industrial schools, with their meager appliances and short duration, will not lose in this comparison.
But it is not the object of this paper to underrate or overrate, to decry or magnify, but simply to plead for the industrial classes, equal chances, equal endowments, equal appliances—endowments and appliances commensurate with the importance and numbers of the industrial classes.
In our country, we need Harvard and Yale, Princeton and Columbia, and the Universities of Michigan and Virginia. We need these and more too. But we need, also, the industrial colleges, brought into existence by the act of Congress, July, 1862, enlarged, more liberally endowed, and more thoroughly equipped for the education of the industrial classes in their several pursuits and professions in life. Congress should at once, since every State and territory has accepted the donation, take steps to increase and enlarge the usefulness of these institutions. Most of them, owing to the unequal distribution of the land, are still without the proper means to carry into effect the full intention and scope of the grant. Few, indeed, if any, have the means to go much beyond the bare curriculum of a literary college. Some few are attempting, upon a small scale, the agricultural feature, while fewer still, if any at all, are attempting the mechanical department.
I am better acquainted with the status of my own section, and I know from a lack of proper funds as endowment [is] obtained wholly from the grant, little, if any thing, is attempted beyond the teaching of “such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts.” The military department is well equipped and well handled, the United States furnishing both the arms and the drill officers. Again, besides the glitter and glamour, the hope of distinction and its sure and speedy reward, the regulations of all these colleges make it obligatory that all students not physically incapacitated shall belong to the corps and perform military duty.
If anywhere, in these peaceful times, a choice should be given a student to select or elect, it seems to me, there is abundant space in the military department. I have heretofore written out at length and defined what I thought should be a proper course of instruction for these Industrial Schools-what branches of study should be set before the student,
This course should embrace the following studies as lying at the foundation of a practical, as well as liberal education :
The order of study need not be insisted on, for here, as well as elsewhere, large latitude should be given to the student, in all cases regarding his preparation, his time, and his means.
A COURSE OF INSTRUCTION:
I. LIVING LANGUAGES: English, and French or German.
Mechanics and Astronomy.
Drawing. IV. Physics: Properties of Matter, Molecular Forces, Heat, Light,
Sound, Electricity and Magnetism. V. CHEMISTRY : General Chemistry; Chemistry Applied to the Arts,
Laboratory Practice, with Reagents, Blow-Pipe, and Spectroscope. VI. Natural HISTORY: Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, Physiology,
and Hygiene ; Botany, Geology, and Physical Geography. VII. HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE: General History, Special History,
Political Economy, Rural and Constitutional Law. VIII. Music: Vocal and Instrumental.
I have interchanged the order: placing “practical” before “liberal education. This has been done for a reason, because whatever insures the one must insure the other, for, whether we examine the courses of the old or new education, we find the same classification of the same studies. It is only the how these studies or courses are pursued-how they are taught—that makes the difference in the result, “Hath not the potter power over the clay ?” “Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it: Why hast thou made me thus?"
Again, let us borrow an illustration-wisdom, indeed, from every branch of industry. The carpenter uses the same tool to do very different kinds of work. The same saw to cut across as to rip, to cut lengthwise, but he “sets the teeth," as it is termed, very differently; so with his planes and chisels, still they are all planes or all chisels.
So I conclude that it is in the direction of these studies, which are but the “tools” of the teacher.
Put into the schools and colleges what you would have appear in the people; put into the teachings what you would have appear in the scholars.
Let illustrations of the truth be taken from the farm, from the workshop, from the mason, from the calico printer; turn to account every example; show how this truth is used, or that fact is embodied in the every-day concerns of life. We must comprehend at once, and admit in the beginning, that the objects of the industrial college are very different from the objects of the common college; the former are for the education of men for an industrial pursuit, the latter for the so-called learned professions. The object and result of the curriculum college is culture, mental discipline; the object of the scientific college is investigation, and the result should be KNOWLEDGE.
To revert to the “Course of Instruction.” It may not be amiss to set out how these several studies should be pursued; for example of the living .languages, take the English. It seems to me that the language of MILTON and SHAKESPEARE is as classical as the language of HOMER and VIRGIL, and doubtless were a moiety of the time spent in our mother-tongue that is. spent in trying to collect a little Latin and Greek, we should have, at least, better English scholars—more practical business men.
In the study of our mother-tongue we may profit by a remark of HERBERT SPENCER: As grammar was made after language, so it ought to be taught after language.” Words are simply symbols; they are the tools of the speaker and writer in order to express his ideas. Then to acquire facility to express—power to convey our thoughts-seems to be the object of studying our own language. This, like any other acquirement, can only be attained by constant practice in the language-practice in writing and speaking. The actual use of the language is, therefore, the only method to acquire it. As the apprentice acquires dexterity from the actual planing and sawing, so the student of English becomes fitted or able to speak and write his language by speaking and writing it, and that continually.
But while doing this, a step further should be taken, really is taken, in the literature, in the etymology, and in the history and philology of the language; so that, in addition to the facility and power of expression acquired, there will also be acquired the equal training or mental discipline attributed to the study of the classics.
French and German should be studied, as the classics used to be, as the repositories now of scientific investigations-investigations pertaining alike to agricultural as well as to other industrial arts.
Although I have adhered to the common division of mathematics into pure and applied, I think such division unfortunate, as leading to the belief that there are two kinds, and that pure is different from applied. This classification originated in the usage in teaching or studying pure mathematics as a means of disciplining the mind, nor do I doubt this at all; but I as heartily affirm that the study of the application of these mathematical truths also disciplines the mind; and, therefore, with the advantage that in an addition to the abstract truth gained only by the former, is added the application or the knowledge of how this is done. Or, to put it differently still, the solution of a mere problem does not increase the ability to think; it is the thinking itself that gives vigor to the mind; and hence, if the problem to be solved is a practical, and not merely an abstract one, there is a gain of the knowledge of the application.
Besides, even in the mathematics, “facts are before theories.” Take the celebrated proposition of PYTHAGORAS (the 47th of Euclid) and the history is, that PYTHAGORAS said he saw the truth long before he could prove (or demonstrate) the fact, that “the square on the hypothenuse of any right-angled triangle is equivalent to the sum of the squares on the other two sides."
And the carpenter daily uses this same principle in his concise rule“6," “ 8,” and “10”– in “plumbing” and “squaring,” as it is termed.
One other illustration in what is called the higher mathematics. 'It is