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Metallo-therapy. Grace Peckham.- Archives of Medicine, 1883.
1888. Midwifery cases, analysis of 187 in private practice. Marie Zakrzewska.
Boston Med, and Surg. Journal, Dec., 1889. Myoma, uterine, 13 lbs., removal. Mary Dixon Jones. — Am. Jour. Obstet. Myxcedema, case of, with microscopic examination of cord. Elizabeth Cushier.–Archives Med., 1882.
Archives Pediatrics, 1885.
Ovarian complications of endometritis. Mary Putnam Jacobi. -Am. Jour.
Obstet., 1886. Ovaries, hemorrhage into. Ibid.—Record, 1872. Ovariotomy for double ovarian tumor with tubercular peritonitis. Mary S.
Whelstone. -Am. Jour. Obstet., 1886. Ovaries and tubes, support in treatment of. Sara A. Post.--N. Y. Med.
Paquelin cautery, value of. Sarah A. Dolley.- Trans. Monroe Co. Med.
Soc., 1879. Paralysis in puerperal state, two cases. Imogene Bassett. - Jour. Nerv.
Dis., 1880. Parovarian cyst with twisted pedicle attended by persistent uterine hem
orrhage. Elizabeth Cushier.-N. Y. Med. Jour., 1884. Pemphigus neonatorum, epidemic of. Eleanor Kilham.-Am. Jour. Obstet.,
1889. Pericarditis in a child. Mary Putnam Jacobi. — Record, 1873. Perineo-rectal laceration, extensive, of 32 years' standing, cure by opera
tion. Victoria A. Scott.—Am. Jour. Obstet., 1883. Pontine tumor, or diffuse brain sclerosis ? Mary Putnam Jacobi.—Jour.
Nerv. Dis., 1889. Placenta, waxy degeneration of. Jeannette Greene. -Am. Jour. Obstet.,
1880. Placenta, hyaline degeneration. Sara A. Post.— Trans. Am. Gyn. Assoc.,
1888. Poisoning by sulphate of iron, case. Lucy M. Hall.-N. Y. Med. Jour.,
1883. Prolapsus, complete, and Lefort's operation, three cases. Fanny Berlin.
Am. Jour. Obstet., 1881. Prophylaxis of insanity. Mary Putnam Jacobi. — Archives Med., 1881. Pseudo-muscular hypertrophy. Ibid.-Pepper's Archives. Pseudo-negative sphygmographic trace. Sara A. Post.–Archives of Medi
cine, 1884. Persistence in individual consciousness. Frances Emily White.—Penn
Pulse tracing, showing cardiac inhibition during sudden pain. Mary Put
nam Jacobi. - Archives Medicine, 1879. Psychical Society, English ; critical digest of proceeding. Grace Peckham.
-Jour. Ment. Dis., 1888. Periodical insanity among women. Alice Bennett.—Medico-Legal Jour.,
1883. Primary Education. Mary Putnam Jacobi.—Popular Science Monthly,
Quinine, effect of, on cerebral circulation. Mary Putnam Jacobi.—Archives
of Medicine, 1879. Quinine, indications for, in pneumonia. Ibid.-N. Y. Med. Jour., 1887.
Relations of the sexes. Frances Emily White. — Westminster Review, 1879.
State Med. Soc., 1888. Septicæmia and pyæmia. Mary Putnam.-Record, 1872. Sternum, trephining, case of. Ibid. -Am. Jour. Obstet., 1881. Specialism in medicine. Ibid.–Archives of Medicine, 1882. Spinal myelitis and meningitis in children. Ibid.-K'eating's Cyclopædia, 1890. Spastic double hemiplegia of cerebral origin. Sarah J. McNutt. - Am.
Jour. Med. Science, 1885. Surgical notes in hospital for women and children. Charlotte Blake
Brown.-Pacific Med. Jour., 1889. Syphilitic brain disease, a case, with autopsy. Lucy M. Hall.—N. Y. Med. Jour., 1884.
T. Therapeutics children's diseases. Sarah J. McNutt.— Quarterly Bulletin
Post-grad. Clin. Soc., 1884. Typhoid fever, two peculiar cases. Mary Putnam Jacobi. — Archives Med.,
Urethra, rare case of absence of. Sara A. Post.-Am. Jour. Obstet, 1885.
Woman's place in nature. Francis Emily White.—Pop. Science Monthly,
1875. Women in professions. Ibid.-Penn Monthly. Wormian bones, their effect in childbirth. Grace Peckham.-Record, 1988.
do. Ibid.- Wood's Handbook Medical Sciences.
To Article X.-Woman in the State.
THE CIVIL RIGHTS OF WOMEN.
Women born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. The right of suffrage is regulated in each State by its own law, subject to Article XV. of the Amendments to the constitution of the United States. When the right to vote is denied to any of the male inhabitants of a State, being twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, except for participation in rebellion or crime, the representation of such State in Congress is proportionately reduced ; but there is no penalty attached to the denial of the right of suffrage to women. The constitutions of all the States, except Wyoming, specify that the elective franchise is confined to males. This relates to the right of voting for the federal electors and the State legislature and executive, and statutes permitting women to vote in local elections are deemed to be constitutional. In many States women may vote at the election of school officers or upon any measure relating to schools. In Wyoming and in the Territory of Utah women vote in all respects like men. Woman suffrage also existed in the Territory of Washington, but was rejected at the election for the adoption of the constitution, when Washington became a State. The right of women to vote is by the constitution of South Dakota to be submitted by the legislature to the electors at the first general election after the admission of the State. The constitutions of Colorado, Wisconsin, and North Dakota provide that the legislature may at any time extend the right of suffrage to women, such enactment to take effect, if approved by a majority of the electors, at a general election.
In the absence of special statute or of the necessity for special license, it would seem that there is nothing to prevent an unmarried woman from engaging in any occupation she may choose. In Georgia and Louisiana, however, the statute declares that women cannot hold any civil office or perform any civil functions, unless specially authorized by law. The constitution of California provides that no person shall on account of sex be disqualified from entering upon or pursuing any lawful business, vocation, or profession ; and in Illinois there is a law that no person shall be debarred or precluded from any occupation, employment, or profession (except military) on account of sex. But this does not extend or modify the right of women to hold office, nor does it enable or require them to serve on juries or to labor in the streets. Military, jury, police, patrol, and road duties are generally specifically confined to males. The constitution of Missouri specifies that the Governor and members of the legislature must be male, and in other States such a restriction follows from the requirement that office-holders shall be chosen from among electors. Certain offices, such as that of recorder of deeds, notary public, etc., may in many States be held by women, and in many States women may hold any office under the school law. In Massachusetts, the office of overseer of the poor may be held by a woman.
At common law, a married woman, however, had in general no capacity to contract, and hence could not engage in business or follow an independent vocation ; but the common law disabilities, imposed upon married women, have been very generally removed by statutes. In Louisiana and North Carolina, however, the contracts of a married woman are declared to be generally void, and so says a statute of Georgia, which seems, however, to be overruled by constitutional provision, as judicially construed. In Alabama and New Mexico a married woman may contract, provided she have her husband's assent, and in certain cases this is allowed in Louisiana. In Illinois a wife may make all kinds of contracts, except that she may not enter into a partnership without her husband's consent, and in South Carolina it is held that the law does not empower a married woman to enter into a partnership. But in most of the States, a married woman may as a general rule make all kinds of contracts as if she were unmarried. In Mississippi, Oregon, and Washington, all the civil disabilities peculiar to married women, except as to voting and holding office, have been expressly swept away. In about a dozen States there is a certain process, such as recording a certificate, etc., by which a married woman can become a “sole trader,” or carry on business in her own name ; but in as many other States she can do this without any formalities. In all the States, the real property of a woman, and in most of the States her personal property, upon her marriage, remain her separate property ; and so generally remains all property acquired by the wife after marriage ; and over this separate property a married woman has now, in nearly all the States, more or less complete control. Louisiana, however, is peculiarly conservative in this respect, and in Texas, Florida, and Idaho, the husband has the management and control of all the wife's separate property. The property claimed by married women must, by the laws of several States, be specially registered. In many States a married woman can convey her own real estate, without her husband joining in the conveyance ; but in a narrow majority of the States the husband must, as a rule, join with the wife to make a valid transfer. In most of the States a married woman may prosecute or defend suits concerning her own property, as if unmarried ; and in about half of the States she may in all cases sue and be sued without joining the husband. As a prevailing rule, the husband is not liable for the debts of the wife, except those incurred for necessaries for herself or the family, nor is he now liable for her torts ; neither is the wife's property liable for the debts of the husband, but her own debts may be enforced against her own property. In many States contracts between husband and wife are now valid, though in some States they are still void at law.
Married women have, as a rule, the same right to dispose of their property by last will and testament as they have to convey it during their life-time ; but in some States, as Maryland, their right so to do is restricted in certain respects. In many States a wife cannot by her will deprive her husband of a certain share of her property. The laws of descent and of intestate succession vary diversely in the several States. In Tennessee it is expressly provided that absolute equality shall be observed in the division of estates of deceased persons dying intestate, and no difference of sex is known in the laws of succession in North Carolina and Louisiana. In many States the distributive shares of husband and widow, and their respective rights of curtesy and dower, are similar ; but in other States there are complicated differences ; in New York, for instance, the husband being favored with respect to personal property, and the wife being better protected with regard
to real estate. In Louisiana women are declared incapable of being witnesses to wills.
The laws of California, the Dakotas, Georgia, New Mexico, Ohio, and Idaho expressly enact that the husband is the head of the family, and that the wife is subject to him. The constitution of Kansas, however, declares that the legislature shall provide for women equal rights with the husband in the possession of their children. Such equality is also provided by the laws of Washington. In Maine, California, the Dakotas, and Georgia, the father is declared to have the right to the custody of his minor child. In Louisiana, in case of difference between the parents, the authority of the father prevails. The common law authority of the husband and father is, with modifications, upheld in most of the States, at least until abandonment, separation, or divorce.
The duty of the husband at common law to support the wife finds further statutory recognition in acts making the husband's failure to support the wife cause for absolute or limited divorce. Alimony is usually granted to the wife on a divorce for the husband's fault. In North Carolina, Kentucky, and Texas, divorce is granted for adultery only when committed by the wife, unless the husband abandon the wife and live in adultery with another woman.
While women, and particularly married women, still in the world of activity, often labor under disabilities imposed upon them by law for their protection and benefit-“so great a favorite is the female sex of the laws of England”-it must be admitted that in the course of a century woman has made a great advance in the direction of personal freedom. When Blackstone wrote, the husband became entitled by marriage to all the personal property of the wife, and to the rents and profits of her lands, and the very being or legal existence of the woman was suspended during marriage, or at least was incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband, under whose wing, protection, and cover she performed everything. The emancipation of married women has been gradually, silently, successfully accomplished.-ED.