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community, and inclined to aid its

have the hope," he says, “that these healthy progress. In the view of little stories of the lot of the poor the writer, the class of a large city in cities, and the incidents related most perilous to its prosperity of their trials and temptations, may morals, and political life, are " the bring the two ends of society nearer ignorant, destitute, untrained, and together in human sympathy." The abandoned youth; the outcast characteristic dedication must close street children grown up to be

our notice: “To the many covoters, implements of demagogues, labourers, men and women, who feeders of the criminals, and the have not held their comfort or even sources of domestic outbreaks and their lives dear unto themselves, but violations of law.” To do justice to have striven, through many years, this volume, we ought to compare to teach the ignorant, to raise up its facts and scenes with those of the depressed, to cheer the despairour own metropolis, and to consider ing, to impart a higher life and a low far the remedies applied with Christian hope to the outcast and such zeal and success across the neglected youth of this city, and Atlantic suggest improvement or thus save society from their excesses, extension of our reformatory efforts. this simple record of common But we cannot do this in detail. labours, and this sketch of the We must content ourselves with terrible evils sought to be cured, is indicating some of the subjects respectfully dedicated.” discussed : “ The condition of neglected children before Christianity,

Books received:and the change wrought by means

The Life and Writings of St. of the Gospel;” “Dens of crime and Peter. By the Author of Esfever-nests in New York;"“Prisons says on the Church.London: and Reformatories;""Orphanages;" Seeley, Jackson, and Halliday. “ The weakness of the marriage-tie;" “Overcrowding;'“ Intemperance;"

Overland, Inland, and Upland. “ Boys' meetings ; ” “ Industrial

A Lady's Notes of Personal schools; " “ Remedies for the social

Observation and Adventure. By evil;"“ New methods of teaching;" A. U. London : Seeley, Jackson, “ Emigration;" “ Free reading

and Halliday. rooms; " " Girls' lodging-houses; '

The Story of Daniel. For the “Factory-children;'

Use of Young People. By the late “ Foundlings; “ Criminal chil.

Professor Louis Gaussen, Geneva. dren; “ Secular education rather

Translated, with Additions, by than none;" and “ The true causes

Mr. and Mrs. Campbell, Overend. of success in relation to all these."

Edinburgh: Johnstone, Hunter, Most heartily do we commend

and Co. the book to the attention of those who are working or seeking to Science and Humanity; or, А inaugurate comprehensive and or- Plea for the Superiority of Spirit ganized movements of their fellow. over Matter. By Noah Porter, citizens. There can be no doubt D.D., LL.D., President of Yale that the wish so modestly expressed College. London: Hodiler and by the author will be realized. “I Stoughton.

« Alms;





THE TURN OF THE YEAR: SOME the interests of Christianity and SIGNS OF THE TIMES.

civilization at heart, was so closed It is not long since the first of as to give the promise of a proJanuary was regarded by States. tracted European peace. On the men with unwonted interest, and contrary, the embers of the great often with profound anxiety, conflagration are scarcely extinthroughout Europe. On that day guished before efforts a few oracular sentences, from one doubled in preparation for its of the high places of the political outburst elsewhere, under other world, were supposed to go far conditions which no one appears towards settling, or unsettling, able clearly to discern. A peace of international questions of the ten years' duration would be worth, weightiest order : potentates to France, many of the famous trimmed the sails of their several “milliards ; " to Germany, repose ships of the State as mariners do for an equal period would be cheap after a fresh observation of their if procurable by the return of the longitude; and merchant-princes war-fine many times over,-to and capitalists enlarged or give opportunity for the consolidatracted their operations as they tion of an empire such as with augured peace, or discerned com- doctrinaires has been a dream plications, misunderstandings, war, through many ages, and which the from what was then spoken. Till fortune of war at last seems to * the Emperor” had opened his have made possible. And to the other lips no one could presume to fore. States, to Italy, in whose coffers cast the next twelve months. It is gold and silver are so strange that instructive to look back to those she is scarcely able, in some of her times : to see how vain are nine- fairest districts, to give security for tenths of the speculations of those life or property to her subjects; who are accredited as the most to Austria, contending with the far-seeing of public men, and how almost impossible task of inducing wide of the desired mark are the her heterogeneous races to blend in efforts of exalted personages, when a political system under a single nations are the subject of discourse suzerainty; to Russia, whose future or manipulation.

greatness depends far more on its But if the return of a particular gradual absorption in the European day in the year is no longer feared, system of nations than upon the it can scarcely be said that the hordes of troops which the Emuncertainty and confusion that peror can in time of peace

maintain gathered about it do not still on a war-footing; to each of these, exist. No oracle speaks at some

and to the minor States, whose favoured shrine, it is true, but movements as satellites must be there seem everywhere around us governed by those of the great mysterious voices, ominous whis. planets, a guarantee against an perings, which keep the nations in outbreak of hostilities for a single an incessant state of unrest. It decade of years would be a boon does not yet appear that the late beyond calculation. In this all are war, so afflictive to all who have agreed, but none will abate a regi.

ment of soldiers, or dismantle a speech " in the Prussian Chambers fortress, in pledge of agreement; in 1866, that to change his front is the consequence being those war. the pledge which he has to give for like precautions, universally taken, the maintenance of his position at which are hardly less disastrous, the head of the Prussian or German being continued year by year, than Government. The result will be, as war itself, were it to make the half the "Counties' Bill" just carried by of Europe a scene of its desola- packing the Herrnhaus shows, the tions. This forms the constant abolition of the feudal system which background to every picture which has hitherto had its stronghold in the imagination draws of the proxi. Prussia, and to which the Prussian mate condition of modern Europe. monarchy as a military power has It shapes the policy of Govern- owed so much in former times. ments, is the inevitable factor of Three difficult problems are, in transactions on the exchanges, and fact, clearly before this prosperous determines the course, at least, in strategist; the amalgamation of which religious and philanthropic Eastern and Western Prussia in a enterprises shall develop them- system equally clear of aristocratic selves.

feudalism, and of the democracy of Nothing has of late taken place Prussia's near neighbour and here. in neighbouring States of more ditary foe; the preservation, by importance than the change in the the unification, of the empire attitude of Prince Bismarck towards recently created ; and the Prus. his late political associates, and sianization of Germany, as opposed towards the Papacy. As to the to that Germanization of Prussia former, the explanation is easy. We which the mere preponderance of have of late, moreover, so often seen numbers, if we distinguish between the same thing done,—the sudden Prussians and Germans, would embracing of principles that a life- seem to threaten. Every step in time has been spent in resisting, the peaceful solution of these

vice versa,—that we seem important questions, fraught with scarcely to wonder at it. In the destinies of Central Europe, recent times (we do not speak as will be watched with the deepest political partisans) a Sir Robert interest. Peel, in the matter of the corn- Nor is it as to political affairs only laws; Austrian Metternichs in that all eyes are fixed for the time giving and revoking a reformed upon Bismarck. His dealings with constitution


from the the Ultramontanes must in the Emperor by the troubles of 1848; nature of things put the top-stone on a Disraeli, in the “ Conserva- his state-craft, or entirely subvert it. tive surrender," have shown us There can be no medium. The afresh that, no matter what the gauntlet is thrown down by the antecedent professions of great sudden expulsion of the Jesuits. Statesmen, Horace Walpole's The success of the policy, whether sneer, Every man has his price,” greater or less, in every country of contains more truth than is pleasant Europe in bygone times, is not the

So swiftly have the question; it has been deemed the opinions of his former opponents best step to take as a preliminary made way since the German blow at the power which interferes Chancellor's famous "supercilious with the civil obedience due to the


to dwell upon.

imperial crown from so many mil. selves, the French might even now lions of its Roman Catholic subjects. claim a place in European councils The long truce, in other words, not unworthy of her former presbetween Protestantism and Roman tige; and a very few years would Catholicism is broken; and if this see her healed of every trace of the divergency should soon become a calamities through which she has quarrel on religious no less than on lately gone, except that ineffaceable political grounds, no one, in these scar of wounded honour. She has days of speedy developments, will the advantage of that national be greatly surprised. The danger unity, the unity of manners and here is lest the instinct of self- customs, literature, government, defence in the rulers of the new laws, and religion, which the re. empire should degenerate into cently-created empire of many something allied to persecution on States has yet to acquire. She has, account of religion, and so the risk too, an inexhaustible source of be incurred of defeating their own wealth in her favoured soil, a just aspirations. A struggle at all population buoyant by constitution, events is begun in which, to judge and geographical advantages which from the current of modern history, put profitable commerce, in addition an abasement of no common kind to her industries and manufactures, is probably in store for the Papacy. . within her easy reach. Yet what do

“ France is my difficulty” one we witness? A prevailing insoucican imagine some governor-general ance, amounting to recklessness, of Europe exclaiming, were such an with regard to the national future; unhappy functionary to spring into a fresh scope given to the play of being. Rest here, would be rest party-spirit; the Reformed or Proeverywhere. Whether a

testant Church split into two irregenerous treatment from conquerors concilable camps; all possibility of holding the Divine right of Kings constitutional government threatwould not have been a virtue sure ened by disputes that would seem to bring its own reward, we will to leave for the country no choice not now venture to inquire. The but that between communism and design of the treatment which was the intervention, by some happy witnessed, deliberately carried into chance, of another despotism; the effect notwithstanding remon- conscription more strictly enforced strances as strong as friends, re- than ever; and a vast army that is maining friends, could make, has not a servant of the State, but is 50 far conspicuously failed. Three- one of the parties, if not factions, fifths of the huge war-indemnity in it. The horoscope is not good, are discharged, another fifth is truly, either for distracted France ready to be handed over, and the herself or for the Governments that last fifth will be readily paid, should surround her. the present regime continue for Turning our attention homeanother year or two, at its appointed wards for a moment, it is pleasant time. Contrary, however, to what to observe that the New Year finds was looked for, and by some even Great Britain and her Dependesired, France is neither crushed dencies at peace all over the por discouraged, nor indeed per- world, and that the prospect also is manently crippled in her monetary one of peace and material prosresources. At peace among them- perity,-of that indefinable thing



which, for want of a better word, pulpit, or the solitary efforts of here is curtly called "progress.” But to and there a Society devoted to the pleasant calculations of this kind purpose, or now and then a burst of there are some obvious drawbacks, indignation in the columns of a which cannot fail to occasion un- newspaper, that will counteract the easiness, not to use a stronger term, assimilative force of the subtile in many minds. Ever and anon Romanism in ou midst. There is the stealthy advance of Ultramon. but one remedy-we need not tanism and its allied brood of errors describe it—and failing that one, and observances attracts notice; there can be little uncertainty as to but neither public opinion nor (we what the future of our national life, had almost said, of course) the on its religious side, is ere long to Legislature so speaks or acts as to be-Popery or infidelity, or both in arrest it. It is not the violence or unholy alliance, with religious craft of the attack that constitutes freedom struggling for a precarious our danger from this quarter, but existence. an unaccountable neglect of the If we omit comment on the means of self-defence. It seems to grave fact that English governbe assumed that, the temporal power ments, whether Conservative or of the Pope having been in these last Liberal,” have in turn for many times broken before our very eyes, years past yielded to Popish and so signally, we are safe from encroachments; and if we forbear to the inroads of the system which dwell on such things as the growth " Rome embodies.

The same of a luxury which occasions a regret " science” which rejects revelation, on finding in history no instance tosses its head in scorn at the idea of the efficacy of sumptuary laws, that“ free thought " will ever again the widening distance between the be fettered by “superstition;" and working-man and his employer, there are multitudes of religious the moral desolation wrought by people who appear to regard it as the novelist, with many other evils, indicating a want of faith in God to each in itself requiring a disquisition hold the possibility of the “man of to unfold its true import; it is for the sin," if the Pope be he, ever again purpose of devoting a sentence or becoming a power in “ our Pro- two to a feature of our social life testant land.” But a “spirit of which some would not hesitate to slumber" has heretofore fallen say is more ominous, in regard to upon a people, and under similar

the national well-being, than all conditions, we need to remind our- the rest put together. We allude selves, the like may occur once to an evil which has been for some more. How far such conditions time suspected, but whose existence obtain among us, every one who is now put beyond doubt by the “naturally cares for the mainte- statistics of the Revenue Office just nance of evangelical religion, must published by the Chancellor of the candidly judge for himself; that Exchequer. The National Revenue they have no existence whatever, it appears is at present buoyant, a will only be maintained by such as large increase having been realized are either indifferent to the move- over the figures of last year, which ments of society, or incapable of were themselves an advance upon estimating their significance. It is the returns of some previous years. not an occasional philippic from the But at what price? One is filled

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