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During his absence, the tificial means, are enumerated Metro. chamber in nlich Scopas and his guests dorus, Hipapias, and I heodectes. wele carousing, fell in, and in its fall The Romans bestowed no less attenthey were crushed to death. The rela- tion on this art, the subject of Cicero's tions of these unfortunate revellers, anxi- panegyric and discussion throughout a ous to honour thein with funereal ob whole chapter of his ma-terly treatise on sequies, here unable to recognize their Oratory.* Yet Cicero's conviction of persons in the mangled and distigured its utility did not prevent Quinctilian's corpses, which lay strewed around, vil assertion of its inctiiciency, a short time Siniunides overcame this dilemına, by afterward); for we find the latter sumremembering the distinct places cach ming up his thoughts upon it, in these bad occupied at table; and thus pointing vehement
Wherefore, botb out each individual to those who sought Carncades, and the Scepsius Metrodorus, his remains. * This event suggested (of whom I be just spoken,) who, as to his inind the prac.icability of making Ciccro say's, lad used this exercise, may external impressions subscrvient to the keep this method to themselves : we will strengthening of memory, by sclec ing paas over to a more simple subject.”+ places and images, as so many reposito. Fabiuis, the historian, also ridicules this d's and symbols of ideas. llence, he art in his lith book. Alnemonics, was led to propound a method of asso however, still continued in great repute; ciating the ideas of things to be retained and Cicero, strengthening precept by in the ineinory, with the ideas of objects example, boasted that they were the Couveyed to the mind by that acutest basis of his excellent mémory. It is said, of our senses--the sight; and already their practice was cultivated with sucimpressed upon it in a regular series. cess, by others of no less repute; amongst The invention of this method stamped whom, Crassus, Julius Cæsar, and him as the Father of the Mnemonic Artit Seneca, are particularly noticed. Cicero tills us, that when Sinonides Tlis art appears to have lain dormant offered to insiruet Themistrcles in his in alier-ages, till that luminary of method, bis oster was rejected in these science, Raimond Lulle, I thought fit to memorable words: “Ah! (repiico the bring it once more into notice among the bero,) rather teach me the art of forget- learned; and wooed it with such dilia ting; for I otien remember what I would gence, that it has ever since been called nut, and cannot forget what I would." Lule's Art.' I shall not detain your
From this tine; Muemonics became a readers, by entering into an analysis of favourite pursuit with ihe Greeks; and Lulle's method, wilich is amply detailed being brought to perdiction by Scepsius by Myrhof, and in Gray's Memoria Metrodorus, I was in great vogue among
Technica. their orators. They are said to have Mnemonics had not yet attained the made use of the statue's, paintings, or meridian of their greatness: this epoch Danienis, and other external circun was reserved for the sixteenth century; stances, of the places where they ha- and I question much, whether any art Desdyled, for reviving, in progressive or. der, the topics and matter of their ora
* De Oratore, lib. i. sect. 86, 87. tion, which they had already appro
to Quare et Carneades et Scepsius (de priated to each circunstance. In the
quo modo dixi) Nietrodorus, quos Cicero dicit,
usos hac exercitatione, sibi habeant sua : nos list of the who prided themselves on
simpiiciora tradamus '- Inst. Orat. ut supra. baring perfected their memory by ar
Pr. Benidic 2159 says, in conclusion of his
remarks on Artificial Memory, “I cannot This story is handed down to us, both
bus think with Quinctilian, that the Art was by Cicero and Phaedrus, in his fables.
[09 complex, and that Memory may be im+ This system of Sinonidei, is founded on that theory of emblems, wbich Bacon so
prora. Dy casier methods." Diss. Mor, and
Cre, chap.ji. sect. 3. Lord Bacon held a justly characterizes : “ Enr:ll.nia verò deciziet intellectuait at sensibile : se cibili autenter.pro
similar opinion, as well as Morhof, in whose
" Polyhistor Literar." (lib. ii. cip. v. de fortius percutit memoriun, atque in ea fucrits
Alte Luliiana, and cap. vi. De Memoriae imprimitur, quoon intellettum?le.” Foblem redicto conceits intellec ual to images son
Suosiuiis,) is preserved an elaborate account
of the writers on this subject. Gise, wiúch always strike the merry more forcibly, and a e therefore the more easily
I Gispar Scioppius, speaking of this
Doctor iluminatus,' terms him, with jusimprinted, than intellectual conceits --BA
rice, "lutulentum et ineptum scriptorem, fun's 1499. Scientiari. Li vi. cap. 2.
sed pužtentusi acuminis,”-Comnicat. de Styla 1 Plinii His. Nat. lib. viii. e. 94.
has ever been the subject of a more self as commissioned by Schenkel, ço tedious and ubstinate controversy;
instruct the whole world. has been brought forward under more " A lawyer, (says he,) who has a hene illustrious auspices, with greater solem- dred causes and more to conduct, hvihe nity, or a more bare-faceri impudence. assistance of my Mnemonies, may stamp These will be sufficiently manifest in the, them so strongly on his memory, that he account I shall now render of the Mnie- will know in what wise to answer each monistic Duumvirate of Lambert client, in any order, and at any hour, Schenkel, and his baud indignus ple- with as much precision as if he had but nipotentiary, Martin Sommer.
just perused his brief. And in pleading, Lambertor Lamprecht Schenkel, he will not only have the evidence and bom at Bois-le-Due, 'in 1517, was the reasonings of his own party, at his fingers' son of an apothecary and philologist. ends, but (inirabile dictu!) all the He went through his academical course grounds and refutations of his antagonist at Lyons and Cologne, and afterwards also! Let a man go into a library, and became a teacher of rhetoric, prosody, read one book after awother, yet shall be and gymnastics, at Paris, Antwerp, Ma. be able to write down every sentence lines, and Rouen; not forgetting, as the of what he has read, many days after at custom of the age required, to claim his home. The proficient in this science uitle to scholarship, by writing Latin can dictate matters of the most opposite verses. From these, however, he ac- nature, to ten, or thirty writers, altero' quired no celebrity proportionate to that nately. Afier four weeks' exercise, he which was reared on his discoveries in will be able to class twenty-five thousand. the Mnemonic Art. The more eliec. disarranged portraits within the saying tually to propagate these discoveries, he of a paternoster:~aye, and he will do travelled through the Netherlands, Ger- this ten times a day, without extraordimany, and France; where his method nary exertion and with more precision was inspected by the great, and transmit- than another, who is ignorant of the art, red from one university to another. can do it in a whole year! Ile will no Applause followed every where at his longer stand in need of a library for reheels. Princes and nobles, ecclesiastics ferring to. This course of study may be and laymen, alike took soundings of his completed in nine days"-(perhaps in the depth; and Schenhel brought himself same way that foreign languages are through every ordeal, to the astonishment now-a-days taught in twelve lessons !)-and adıniration of his judges. The toco “and an hour's practice daily, will be suf. tor of the Sorbonne, at Paris, having ficient: but, when the rules are once previously made trial of his merits, per- acquired, they require but half an hour's mitted him to teach his science at that exercise daily. Every pupil, who has university; and Marillon, Maitre des afterwards well-grounded complamts 10 Requêts, having done the sa.ne, gave aileye, shall not only have the premium him an exclusive privilege for practising paid 1:1 the first instance, returned to Mnemonics throughout the French do. bim, but an addition will be made to it, Ipinions. His auditors were, however, The professor of this art, makes hat a prohibited from communicating this art short stay in every place. Wben called to others, under a severe penalty. As upon, he will submit proofs, adduce his time now becane too precious to testimonials from the most eminent admit of his maring circuits, he dele- characters, and surprise the ignorant, ghted this branch of his patent to the after four or six lessons, (observe !) with licentiate Martin Sommer, and invested the most incredible displays.” Here him with a regular diploma, as his ple- follow testimonials from ihe most celempotentiary for circulating his art, under brated universities. Nine alone are procertain stipulations, through Germany, duced from learned men at Leipzig, and France, Italy, Spain, and the neighboer- precede others from Marbury, and ing countries. Sommer now first pub. Frankfort on the Oder." lished a Lalin treatise on this subject, At the same time was, published, which he dispersed in every place he Gazypholium Artis Memoriæ, illustravisited, under the title of " Brevis Delia tum per Lambertum Schenkelium de. neatio de utilitatibus et effectibus adui Strasb. 1619 :" but this is for outdone by sabilibus Artis diemo jap.” (Venet. 1019, the preceding treatise ot' Sommer. The 12, 24 pp.) In this hic celebrates the rare student, destitute of oral instruction, feats of his master, and announces bini- will gather about as much of Mnemonics
hy wading through this treatise, as by 'requires that its powers should be at once secking them in the hieroglyphics of an ingenious and perceptive. Its acquireEgyptian obelisk. It is pretty evidentment is founded on the association of that this .Gazyppolium,' was designedly ideas: nor does it fail to cell wit and intended as a labyrinthal series: the imagination in aid of natural memory. author indeed closes his labours by con. Sommer's Compendium,consisting of eight fessing, thai the work was to be intrusted sections, was printed for the use of his only to his scholars, and referring for auditors. After his departure, permisfurther elucidation to oral precepts. sion is given to bis scholars to coinmu. The very basis of his art is concealed nicate their mnemonistic doubts, obserbeneath a jumble of sigus and abbrevi- vations, and discoveries, to each other ; ations: thus, sect. 9. d. a sect. 99; but no one can be present without le"vidilicet, locus, imago ordo locorum, galizing himself previously, as one of the memoria loci, imagines.” And further, initiated, by prescribed signs: and he in setting forth the most important who faits in this, is excluded as a propoints, he amuses himself by evincing a faner. multitude of jingling, and unintelligible In thus tracing the origin of Mnemowords. As this work, besides being a nics, and their progress, down to the literary curiosity, had of late years be, sixteenth century, if the reader's curiosity come extremely rare; Doctor Klueber should be awakened by these memoranda not long since published a German of mine, he will find it gratified by a translation of it, and by his happy dex. reference to Cicero and Morhof, than terity in decyphering, has unravelled the whom no writer has so amply treated ambiguous passages in the original, and of Memory, and its assistants. Gray's illustrated them with a profusion of per- "Meinoria Technica' will supply him tinent annotations.
with much information on this subAt all events, this work is a singular ject, to which the student's attention is production. Agreeably to the character also directed, in a plan of artificial meof Schenkel's system, his development mory, lately laid down in Robinson's of the art does not confine itself to me • Grammar of History.' chanical ideas alone. It sets the tech
Your's, &c. LIPSIENSIS. nical, symbolical, and logical faculties of the memory, in equal activity; and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,
SIR, * Compendium der Mnemonik, &c. IN
N conformity with the usual plan of Compendium of Nnerronics, or the Art of your Magazine, I send you a sum. Memory at the beginning of the seventeenth mary of meteorological observations for century, by L. Schenkel, and M. Sommer. the year which has just expired. I Translated from the Latin, with a Preface and shall begin with setting down the average Remarks, by D. Klüber. Erlangen. Palm. heat of cach month, for the years 1808 1804 8 ; pp. 104.
and 1809, which is as follows:
1808. S00.500 89 •230 39 •230 42.000 64 .733 61 000 68 .000 64 670 60.000 49 .000 43 • 250 36 •825
1809. SSO.130 44 • 200 42 •536 42 .200 56 120 53 .033 62 316 64 .220 61 000 49 350 41 •500 36.500
Mean Temperature 500.619 490.239 From the foregoing Table it will be the highest temperature was in 1808; seen, that the first four months in the and on the whole year, the average last year, and likewise October and De. height of the therinometer was nearly a cember, were hoteer than the same degree and a half lower in 1809, than in months in 1808; but in the other months, the preceding year,
In page 32, of vol, xxvii, of this Ma- small, we conceive, to account for the gazine, we gave the average temperature quantity of rain fallen during the last for the seven years preceding, as it was twelve months; which is equal to 47.875 taken at Camden-town, a village two inches in depth ; and is eighteen inches miles from the metropolis, which was more than the average depth for the 509:48; the average of the last year is above-named period, which will be found therefore rather more than a degree in the page and voluide already referred short of this. At the saune place, and to, to be 29.613 inches. This last for the same period, the average height quantity, is nearly the average depth also of the barometer was 29.786: for the for six years, at Bristol, as will be seen by present year, at Highgate, the mean the following Table: height is 29:522: this difference is too Account of the Quantity of Rain fallen in each Month, since the Year 1802, as ascesa tained by a correct Rain-gauge. By Dr. Pole, Bristol.
1803. 1804 1805. 1800. 1807. 1808,
Total 27 39 99 77 26 1 34 38 31 31 32
Average Quantity for each Year, is equal 29.46. During the year 1809, the number of We shall pass on to the prevailing rainy days has exceeded those that may winds during the year. From the obserbe reckoned brilliant in the proportion vations made by order of the Royal 142 to 128; the remainder are divided into Society of London, it should seem that fair, cloudy, and those on which snow or the south-west winds are by much the bail fell, so that the whole will stand thus: most predominant in London: froni our Brilliant days 128
notes we find the westerly, and Fair
north-west, have had the advantage Cloudy
during the last year. The following Rainy
Table will enable the reader to draw a Snow or hail
S65 Average Observations by the Royal Society. Observations at Highgate, for 1809. Winds. No. of days.
No. of days. South-west 112
60 North-east 56
64 West 53
64 South-east 33
51 East 26
47 South 18
It is stated, from the rrgister kept at this passage as follows: “ Gemit civilns the Royal Society, that the south-west a terra tanquum circumclusa ;" as if wind blows more upon an average in they had found the word gội Sey. It apeach month of the year than any other, pears, indeed, that the scholiast reid particularly in July and Angust: that the the word so : CELETZ1, (says he,) á égetépeze north-east prevails during January, 78. The word onder does not setm 10 March, April, May, and June; and is have any meaning: znow, on the conmost unfriquent in February, July, Sep- trary, expresses very well that dead tember, and December: the north-west sound occasioned by the trampling of a occurring more frequently from Novem- multitude of men on the enth, and which ber to March; and less so in Septem- is prolonged to a greater or lesser disber and October than in any other tance; but instead of translating it, montis, Our observations for the last “ Tunquam circumclusa ;" it should ra. year, do not correspond with this state ther be,“ upoie sub pedibus circuina ment; and the difference may perhaps sese-fundentuim; for the poet did not account for the quantity of rain fallen; mean to describe the grief of an afflicted for the few hot days, and in short, for people, but the actual noise which als that small share of summer weather, bounces the approach of enemies lovarils which was open to every person's notice. the ramparts. Highgate,
Your's, &c. Verse 487 offers an interesting variaJan. 3, 1810.
J. J. tion. In our editions,we read,
Eπευχομαι δη ταδε με ευτυχεϊν
ιω προμαχ' εμών δόμαν. YANUSCRIPT of ÆSCHYLUS'S TRAGEDIES, Opto quidem huic succedere defensor entitled, thes SEVEN at TIEBES," und mearum dlowo um."--This dative tyos, PROMETILEUS."
which is of the third person, cannot acTHE learned French critic, Mons. cord with the vocative,
' appoleceye. Thie Vauvitiers, has discovered in the manuscript before us reads táce, whicis library at Paris, formerly called the forms a very perfect sense-o" Opto Bibliotheqîc du Roi, a MS. copy of the guide:n in hoc certamine;"-and it subSeven at Thebes, and Prometheus, by Is- joins, at the end of the verse, ce, which chylus (No. 2785) on which he has offered renders the phrase complete, the following remarks :
Eπευχομαι δη τάδε μεν ευτυχεϊν σε. In verse 13, of the “ Seren ai Thebes," As to tlie measure of the verse, it de the particle to is suppressed
pends on too many combinations to beΩραν τ' έχονθ' έκαςον, ώς τι συμπεπες, come the object of these concise remarks, ant in the manuscript ώραν εχινθ' έκαςον;
It must, however, be observed, that but the omission of this letter gives some
in verse 619, Eteocles speaks of Amorder to a phrase, which before had phiaralis, who, notwithstanding his piety, none; and M. Brunk bas found the same was, for having associated with the wicka reading in other MSS. and adopted it. ed, to perishalong with them : At verse 250, a fault occurs, it must
'Ανοσιοισι συμμιγείς be owned, yet it points out a good reading: θρασυς ουοισιν ανδρασι φρενών βία Τατο γαρ 'Αρης βόσκεται φθόνω βροτών.
Τεινεσι πομπην την μακραν παλίν μολείο
Διος θέλοντος συγκαζελκα σβητεται. , Our editions have cólms; it is not,
So it is found in our <dicions. What bowever, with fright, but with carnage,
can many modely signify? Those words that Vars is glacting himself; and this
are translated by rererii, and that is cerconsideration induces us to preter the reading póimwhich another MS. pres of Argos Ld not mahe any criminal el
tainly the sense of quals. But the army This reading may be easily recognized in the word caówn, as found forts for returning :-ive crime with in the MS. before us, and the faults which Eteocles reproaches them is, that of different copies oiten yield this of having come to attack unjustly tlie
city of Thebes.
M. advantage to attentive readers.
In fact, the manuscript
Brunk very properly Brunk also has found cový in some MSS. reads Toxir. M and has printed it accordingly,
condemns, as ridiculous, the interpretaBut the reading of zāber, in rerse 253, worsis by the great journey towards the
tion of the scholiast, who explains these does not here appear. One edition has
infernal regions; but, in applying them Στένει πόλισμα δηθεν, ές κακλαμενών.
to the city of Thebes itselt, nothing can The Latin translators liare rendered be more clear than the meaning.--" Con