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after the burial of a person above twelve years of age, or within eight years after the burial of a child under twelve years of age, unless the grave has been, in the first instance, of sufficient depth to permit subsequent interments, in which case a layer of earth of not less than one foot thick shall be left undisturbed over the previously buried coffin, unless such coffin has been separately entombed in properly cemented stone or brick work; but if on reopening any grave the soil be found to be offensive, such soil shall not be disturbed. In no case shall a grave be opened in which has been buried the body of any person who has died of Asiatic cholera, yellow fever, typhus fever, smallpox (including varioloid), leprosy, the plague, tetanus, diphtheria, or scarlet fever.

Sec. 681. DEPTH OF GRAVES. -No coffin shall be buried in said District so that any part thereof is within less than four feet of the ordinary level of the ground, unless it contains the body of a child under twelve


when it shall not be less than three feet below that level.

Sec. 682. CREMATION.-No person shall, in the District of Columbia, build or maintain a crematory or other device for destroying human bodies, except within the limits of some duly established cemetery in said District, unless such person or persons has in writing the consent of the owners of more than one-half of the property within a radius of two hundred feet from the place where such crematory is to be erected and maintained and a permit from the Commissioners of said District for the erection and maintenance of such crematory or other device; such permit to be for a term of years, not exceeding five, to be specified therein: Provided, That this section shall not apply to such crematories or other devices for destroying human bodies as may have been erected and are in operation at the time of the passage of this law.

Sec. 683. PERMIT TO CREMATE; EMBALMING.-It shall be unlawful for any person or persons to cremate or otherwise to destroy the dead body, or part of the dead body, of any human being in said District before the issue of the burial permit by the health officer of said District, and then only when said permit is countersigned by the coroner of said District, authorizing such cremation or destruction. It shall be unlawful for any person or persons to embalm, inject, or by any similar method preserve the dead body, or part of the dead body, of any human being in said District within four hours after death or before the issue of the death certificate; and in case the death is believed to be due to other than natural causes, or the cause thereof is unknown, such embalming, injecting, or preserving shall at no time be done unless such death certificate has been signed or approved by the coroner of said District.

Sec. 684. PENALTY.-Any person who shall violate or aid and abet in violating any of the provisions of this subchapter shall, upon conviction thereof by competent judicial authority, be punished, for each offense, by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than ninety days, or both.

Sec. 685. PROSECUTIONS.—Prosecutions hereunder shall be in the police court of the District of Columbia, in the name of said District: Provided, That any person or persons so tried shall have the privilege, when demanded, of a trial by jury, as in other jury cases in said police court.

Sec 686 DISINTERMENT BY ORDER OF COURT.-Nothing herein shall be construed to interfere with or prevent the disinterment of any body when such disinterment is ordered by one of the justices of the supreme court of the District of Columbia, or by the coroner of said District, (for judicial purposes] after due notice to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia. The provisions hereof shall not be held to interfere with the disposal of the ashes of bodies which have been cremated.

Subchapter VII.-BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS. Sec. 687. CERTIFICATE OF ORGANIZATION.–Any five or more persons who desire to form an incorporated building or homestead association, all being citizens of the United States, and a majority of them residents of the District of Columbia, may make, sign, seal, and acknowledge, before some officer authorized to take the acknowledgment of deeds, and file for record in the office of the recorder of deeds, a, certificate, in writing, to the same effect as that required in subchapter four of this chapter, aforesaid, for the formation of the corporations therein mentioned.

Sec. 688. When such certificate shall have been filed for record as aforesaid, the persons who have signed and acknowledged the same, and their successors, shall become and be a body politic and corporate, in fact and in law, by the name stated in the certificate, and by that name have succession and be capable of suing and being sued in the courts of the District, and of purchasing, holding, and conveying such real estate as may be necessary to the conduct of its business, and to make reasonable by-laws not inconsistent herewith.

Sec. 689. POWERS AS TO STOCK.-Such corporation shall have power, in its certificate of incorporation or in its by-laws, to provide that its shares of stock may be issued in series; to limit the number of shares which each stockholder may be allowed to hold; to prescribe the entrance fee to be paid by each stockholder at the time of subscribing, and to regulate the installments to be paid on each share and the times at which they shall be payable. It shall also have power to enforce the payment of all installments and other dues by such fines and forfeitures as its by-laws may from time to time provide.

Sec. 690. Any person applying for membership or stock after a month from the time of the incorporation may be required to pay on subscribing such bonus or assessment as may be fixed by said by-laws in order to place said new members or stockholders on a footing with the original members and others holding stock at the time of such application.

Sec. 691. OBJECTS.--The object of such corporation shall be the accumulation of a capital in money, to be derived from the savings and accumulation by the members thereof, to be paid into said corporation in periodical installments, in fixed and certain sums, and in such amount as shall be designated by the by-laws, until the value of all the shares of stock in said corporation, and every series thereof, shall be equal to the nominal or par value thereof or of some multiple thereof, at which time said corporation shall cease to exist, and in the meantime to enable the members thereof, by obtaining advances upon their shares of stock, to purchase or erect homes for themselves.

Sec. 692. ADVANCEMENTS.—The moneys accumulated from time to time shall be offered to such shareholder or shareholders as shall bid the

highest premium for preference or priority of right to an advancement of the ultimate value of one or more of his or their respective shares. The said premium shall consist of a percentage on the amount of the advance and shall be deemed to be a consideration or bonus paid by the shareholder for the present and immediate use and possession of the future or ultimate value of the share so advanced, and shall not be deemed usurious. The said premium may either be deducted in advance from the amount to be advanced to the shareholder or be made payable in monthly installments, in addition to legal interest on the sum advanced, as the by-laws may provide.

Sec. 693. For every advance made as aforesaid a bond in a penalty equal to the ultimate value of the shares advanced may be required, secured by a first mortgage or deed of trust on real estate, and a pledge of the shares advanced upon, as additional or collateral security, which bond shall be conditioned for the payment at the stated meetings of the corporation of the monthly dues on the shares so advanced upon and the interest on the sum advanced, and the installments of premium, if made so payable, and all fines chargeable upon arrears of payments, until said shares shall reach their ultimate value aforesaid, or said advance be otherwise canceled or discharged.

Sec. 694. PROFITS.The shares advanced upon shall participate equally with the other shares in the profits and the amounts paid by the advanced shareholders, together with such proportion of the profits accrued or such rate of interest as said by-laws may determine, the same as allowed on shares withdrawn not advanced upon, less all fines and a proportionate part of losses and other charges incurred.

Sec. 695. REDEMPTION OF SHARES.—Where advances from the funds on hand can not be made on satisfactory terms, the shareholders failing to bid therefor, the by-laws may provide for the redemption of shares of stock, with the consent of the shareholders, and in case that can not be done, for the involuntary withdrawal and cancellation of shares, the said shares to be selected by lot, always from the oldest series, until exhausted, or the funds to be applied ratably among the owners of shares of the same series.

Sec. 696. WITHDRAWAL.-A shareholder shall be entitled to withdraw at any time, by giving such notice as the by-laws may require, where no advance has been made on his shares, in which case he shall be entitled to receive the amount of dues paid in by him on each of his shares, together with such proportion of the profits accrued or such rate of interest as said by-laws may determine, less all fines due and a proportionate part of all losses and other charges incurred: Provided, That not more than one-half of the funds in the treasury at any time shall be applicable to the demands of the withdrawing shareholders without the consent of the board of trustees.

Sec. 697. REPAYMENT OF ADVANCES.- A shareholder who has been advanced may at any time repay his advance upon application to the corporation, whereupon, on settlement of his account, he shall be charged with the full amount of the advance and of the accrued installments of the premium, if that has been added to the advancement and made payable in installments, together with all monthly dues, interest, and fines accrued and charged, and sball receive credit for all monthly dues paid on his shares and the profits thereon the same as are allowed under the by-laws on shares withdrawn not advanced upon, and if the premium has been deducted in advance, with such proportion of the premium as the by-laws may direct, and the balance remaining due, over and above such credits, shall be received by said

corporation in satisfaction and discharge of said advance: Provided, That in case of the insolvency of the association, he shall not be entitled to credit for the full amount of dues paid by him, but shall only be entitled to a dividend upon said amount, in common with the nonadvanced shareholders.

Sec. 698. FORFEITURE. —Any nonadvanced shareholder failing to pay the installments due on his shares and the fines due from him for such time as the by-laws shall determine, shall forfeit his stock, but may, on application, receive a return of the amount paid in on account of his stock, less the accrued fines.

Sec. 699. FORECLOSURE.—In case any advanced shareholder shall fail to pay all dues, interest, or premiums and shall be in arrears for any part of the same for the period of two months, the payment of the same and of the principal of the advance may be enforced by a foreclosure of the securities given for the same, and if upon a statement of account, as in case of a voluntary settlement of said advance, as hereinbefore authorized, there shall be any surplus of the proceeds of sale of the property given as security over the amount found due from such advanced shareholder, together with all costs incurred by the corporation, such surplus shall be paid to said defaulting shareholder, or his assigns, and his shares of stock so advanced upon shall be the property of the corporation.

Sec. 700. REAL ESTATE.-Such corporation shall not invest its funds in any real estate except what is necessary for the conduct of its business, but may purchase such property at sales made upon foreclosure of mortgages or in satisfaction of judgments or other liens held by it: Provided, That such property so purchased be sold within a reasonable time thereafter.

Subchapter VIII.-BOARD OF TRADE. Sec. 701. How INCORPORATED.-Any number of persons, not less than twenty, residing in the District, may associate themselves together as a board of trade, and assemble at any time and place upon which a majority of the members so associating may agree, and elect a president and one or more vice-presidents, as they may see fit, and adopt a name, constitution, and by-laws, such as they may agree upon.

Sec. 702. Such persons shall thereupon become a body corporate and politic in fact and in name, by the name and style or title which they may have adopted, and by that name shall have succession, shall be capable in law to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, answer and be answered unto, defend and be defended, in all the courts of law and equity; and they and their successors shall have a common seal, and may alter and change the same at their discretion.

Sec. 703. Such corporation, by the name and style which shall be adopted, shall be capable in law of purchasing, holding, and conveying any estate, real or personal, for the use of the corporation, not exceeding in quantity one city lot and building in the District.

Sec. 704. OFFICERS.— The president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer shall be ex officio members of the board of directors, and,


together with the directors elected, shall manage the business of the corporation.

Sec. 705. ELECTIONS.-All officers shall be elected by a plurality of votes given at any election, and a general election of officers shall be held at least once in each year; but in case of any accidental failure or neglect to hold such general election the corporation shall not thereby lapse or terminate, but shall continue and exist, and the old officers shall hold over until the next general election of officers provided for in the constitution adopted.

Sec. 706. TENURE OF OFFICE. — The officers shall hold their offices for the which shall be prescribed in the constitution adopted by the corporation and until others shall be elected and qualified as prescribed by such constitution.

Sec. 707. BY-LAWS.-Such corporation shall have the right to admit as members such persons as they may see fit, and expel any members as they may see fit; and in all cases a majority of the members present at any stated meetings shall have the right to pass, and also the right to repeal, any by-law of the corporation; and in all cases the constitution and by-laws adopted by the corporation shall be binding upon and control the same until altered, changed, or abrogated in the manner that may be prescribed in such constitution.

Sec. 708. FINES.-Such corporation may inflict fines upon any of its members, and collect the same, for breach of the provisions of the constitution or by-laws; but no fine shall in any case exceed twentytive dollars. Such fines may be collected by action of debt, brought in the name of the corporation, before a justice of the peace, against the person upon whom the tine shall have been imposed.

Sec. 709. WHAT BUSINESS TO BE CARRIED ON.-Such corporation shall have no power or authority to do or carry on any business excepting such as is usual in the management and conduct of boards of trade or chambers of commerce and is provided for in the preceding sections of this subchapter.


Sec. 710. REMOVAL OF DISUSED TRACKS. Whenever the track or tracks, or any part thereof, of any street railway company in the District of Columbia shall not have been regularly operated for railway purposes upon a schedule (approved by the Commissioners] as required by its charter for a period of three months, the Commissioners of said District, in their discretion, may thereupon notify such company to remove said unused tracks and to place the street in good condition; and if such company shall neglect or refuse to remove said tracks and place the street in good condition within sixty days after such notice, the said company shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be liable to a fine of ten dollars for each and every day during which said tracks are permitted to remain upon the street or streets, or said roadway shall remain out of repair, which fine shall be recovered in the police court of said District, in the name of said District, as other fines and penalties are now recovered in said court.

Sec. 711. USING OTHER COMPANY'S LINES.-It shall be unlawful for any street railway company operating its system or parts of its system

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