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but she and her property shall remain liable therefor in the same manner as if the marriage had not taken place.

[Sec. 1167. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST WIFE.—Proceedings at law or in equity, according to the nature of such debts, claims, or demands, may be taken against such married woman, notwithstanding her coverture, in her married name, joining her husband therein as defendant if he be within the District; but no judgment or decree shall pass against the husband or his estate, but such judgment or decree shall be passed against the wife only; and it shall operate only upon her estate held and owned by her prior or subsequent to said marriage.]

[Sec. 1168. POWER OF WIFE TO APPOINT ATTORNEY.-Any married woman against whom any proceeding may be taken under the two preceding sections shall have power to appoint an attorney at law to act for her in such proceeding.]

Sec. 1169. PROCEDURE TO EJECT MARRIED WOMAN WHO IS A TENANT.-In all cases in which a married woman is or shall hereafter be a tenant of real estate in this District, and has defaulted in the payment of rent therefor or has made other default, it shall be lawful for the landlord to make such reentry or bring such action for recovery of the demised premises as he or she might do if the lessee were a feme sole and had contracted for the payment of said rents or the performance of other acts and to suffer such reentry to be made upon default therein.

Sec. 1170. MARRIED WOMAN MAY MAKE COVENANT RUNNING WITH THE LAND.-In all deeds hereafter made to married women of real estate or chattels real it shall be competent for the grantee or lessee to bind herself and her assigns by any covenant running with or relating to said real estate or chattels real the same as if she were a feme sole.

Sec. 1171. EQUITABLE SEPARATE ESTATE.—Nothing contained in the preceding sections of this chapter shall be construed to prevent the creation of equitable separate estates. Said estates shall be held according to the provisions of the respective settlements thereof and shall be subject to and governed by the rules and principles of equity applicable to such estates.

Sec. 1172. DEVISE IN LIEU OF DOWER.—Every devise of land or of any estate therein, or bequest of personal estate to the wife of the testator, shall be construed to be intended in bar of her dower in lands or share of the personal estate, respectively, unless it be otherwise expressed in the will.

Sec. 1173. RENUNCIATION OF BEQUEST.-A widow shall be barred of her right of dower in the land or share in the personal estate by any such devise or bequest, unless within six months after administration may be granted on her husband's estate she shall file in the probate court a written renunciation to the following effect: "I, A B, widow of

deceased, do hereby renounce and quit all claim to any bequest or devise made to me by the last will of my husband exhibited and proved according to law; and I elect to take in lieu thercof my dower or legal share of the estate of my said husband."

But by renouncing all claim to a devise or bequest, or devises or bequests, of personal property, made to her by the will of her husband, she shall be entitled to one-third part of the personal estate of her husband which shall remain after payment of his just debts and claims against him, and no more.

Sec. 1174. DEVISE OF BOTH REALTY AND PERSONALTY.-If the will of the husband devise and bequeath a part of both real and personal

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estate to the wife, she shall renounce the whole or be otherwise barred of her right to both real and personal estate.

Sec. 1175. DEVISE OF EITHER REALTY OR PERSONALTY.-If the will devise only a part of the real estate or bequeath only a part of the personal estate, the devise or bequest shall bar her of only the real or personal estate, as the case may require: Provided, nevertheless, That if the devise of either real or personal estate, or of both, shall be expressly in lieu of her legal share of one or both she shall accordingly be barred, unless she renounce as aforesaid.

Sec. 1176. WHEN NOTHING PASSED BY THE DEVISE.-If, in effect, nothing shall pass by such devise she shall not be thereby barred, whether she shall or shall not renounce as aforesaid, it being the intent hereof that a widow accepting or abiding by a devise in lieu of her legal right shall be considered a purchaser with a fair consideration.

Sec. 1177. HUSBAND LIABLE FOR WIFE'S ACTS IN CERTAIN CASES. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to relieve the husband from liability for the debts, contracts, or engagements which the wife may incur or enter into upon the credit of her husband, or as his agent, or for necessaries for herself or for his or their children; but as to all such cases his liability shall be or continue as at common law.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

INTEREST AND USURY.

Sec. 1178. RATE OF INTEREST.-The rate of interest in the District upon the loan or forbearance of any money, goods, or things in action, and the rate to be allowed in judgments and decrees, in the absence of express contract as to such rate of interest, shall be six dollars upon one hundred dollars for one year, and at that rate for a greater or less sum or for a longer or shorter time.

Sec. 1179. EXPRESS CONTRACTS. --The parties to a bond, bill, promissory note, or other instrument of writing for the payment of money at any future time may contract therein for the payment of interest on the principal amount thereof at any rate not exceeding ten per centum per annum.

Sec. 1180. WHAT IS USURY.-If any person or corporation shall contract in the District, verbally, to pay a greater rate of interest than six per centum per annum, or shall contract, in writing, to pay a greater rate than six per centum per annum, the creditor shall forfeit the whole of the interest so contracted to be received: Provided, That nothing in this chapter contained shall be held to repeal or affect the Act of Congress approved March second, eighteen hundred and eightynine, relating to pawnbrokers.-- Act of June 30, 1902.

[Sec. 1180. What is usury.--If any person or corporation shall contract in the District, verbally, to pay a greater rate of interest than six per centum per annum, or shall contract, in writing, to pay a greater rate than ten per centum per annum, such contract shall be deemed usurious, and shall be void as to the excess of said interest above the rate of six per centum per annum, as aforesaid, and the creditor to whom the principal debt is due shall only be entitled to recover said principal debt with interest thereon at the rate of six per centum per annum.

But no person, being a party to any contract for such unlawful interest, shall

be liable to any penalty or forfeiture or criminal prosecution in consequence thereof.]

Sec. 1181. ACTION TO RECOVER USURY PAID.-If any person or corporation in the District shall directly or indirectly take or receive any greater amount of interest than is herein declared to be lawful, whether in advance or not, the person or corporation paying the same shall be entitled to sue for and recover the amount of the unlawful interest so paid from the person or corporation receiving the same, provided said suit be begun within one year from the date of such payment.

Sec. 1182. UNLAWFUL INTEREST TO BE CREDITED.-In any action brought upon any contract for the payment of money with interest at a rate forbidden by law, as aforesaid, any payments of interest that may have been made on account of said contract shall be deemed and taken to be payments made on account of the principal debt, and judgment shall be rendered for no more than the balance found due after deducting and properly crediting the interest so paid; but no bona fide indorsee of negotiable paper purchased before due shall be affected by any usury exacted by any former holder of said paper unless he had notice of the usury before his purchase. -- Act of June 30, 1902.

[Sec. 1182. UNLAWFUL INTEREST TO BE CREDITED.-In any action brought upon any contract for the payment of money with interest at a rate forbidden by law, as aforesaid, any payments of interest that may have been made on account of said contract in excess of the lawful interest shall be deemed and taken to be payments made on account of the principal debt, and judgment shall be rendered for no more than the balance found due after deducting and properly crediting the excess of interest so paid; but no bona fide indorsee of negotiable paper purchased before due shall be affected by any usury exacted by any former holder of said paper unless he had actual notice of the usury before his purchase.]

Sec. 1183. TESTIMONY OF PARTIES.—Whenever in any action to recover a debt the defendant shall claim that payments of unlawful interest on said debt have been made to said plaintiff or those under whom he claims, which the defendant is entitled to have credited on the principal of the debt, the plaintiff or the party who received said unlawful interest may be examined as a witness to prove the payment of the same, and shall not be excused from testifying in relation thereto, nor shall a creditor who is made defendant to a bill in equity exhibited against him for discovery as to payments of unlawful interest made to him be excused from answering as to the same.

Sec. 1184. JUDGMENTS FOR LIQUIDATED DEBT.-In an action in the supreme court of the District to recover a liquidated debt on which interest is payable by contract or by law or usage the judgment for the plaintiff shall include interest on the principal debt from the time when it was due and payable, at the rate fixed by the contract, if any, until paid.

Sec. 1185. JUDGMENTS FOR DAMAGES.-In an action to recover damages for breach of contract the judgment shall allow interest on the amount for which it is rendered from the date of the judgment only; but nothing herein shall forbid the jury, or the court, if the trial be by the court, from including interest as an element in the damages awarded, if necessary to fully compensate the plaintiff. In an action to recover damages for a wrong the judgment for the plaintiff shall bear interest.

Sec. 1186. JUDGMENT IN SUITS ON CONTRACTS MADE ELSEWHERE. In an action on a contract for the payment of a higher rate of interest than is lawful in the District, made or to be performed in any State or Territory of the United States where such contract rate of interest is lawful, the judgment for the plaintiff shall include such contract interest to the date of the judgment and interest thereafter at the rate of six per centum per annum until paid.

CHAPTER XXXV.

JAIL.

Sec. 1187. WARDEN.—The supreme court of the District shall bave authority to appoint a suitable person to act as warden of the jail and to remove such officer whenever, in the opinion of the court, the public interests may require his removal, and to fill all vacancies which may occur.

Sec. 1188. TERM OF OFFICE. - The warden shall hold office for the term of four years, unless sooner removed in accordance with the preceding section.

Sec. 1189. SALARY.-He shall receive an annual salary of two thousand dollars, which shall include all fees and emoluments.- Act of June 30, 1902.

[Sec. 1189. Salary.—He shall receive an annual salary of eighteen hundred dollars, which shall include all fees and emoluments.]

Sec. 1190. BOND.-The warden shall, before entering upon his office, execute to the United States a bond for the faithful performance of the duties thereof, in the penal sum of five thousand dollars, with sureties to be approved by some judge of the supreme court of the District.

Sec. 1191. PowERS AND DUTIES. --The warden shall have the exclusive supervision and control of the jail of the District and be accountable for the safe-keeping of all prisoners legally committed thereto, and shall have all the power and discharge all the duties legally exercised and discharged over said jail and the prisoners therein prior to the twenty-ninth day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, by the marshal of the District.

Sec. 1192. EMPLOYMENT OF PRISONERS. —Persons sentenced to imprisonment in the jail may be employed at such labor and under such regulations as may be prescribed by the supreme court of the District and the proceeds thereof applied to defray the expenses of the trial and conviction of any such person.

Sec. 1193. COMMITMENT BY MARSHAL.—Nothing in the preceding sections of this chapter shall be construed to impair or interfere with the authority of the marshal of the District to commit persons to the jail or to produce them in open court or before any judicial officer when thereto required.

Sec. 1194. DELIVERY TO MARSHAL. -It shall be the duty of the warden to receive such prisoners and to deliver them to the marshal or his duly authorized deputy, on the written request of either, for the purpose of taking them before any court or judicial officer, as provided in the preceding section.

Sec. 1195. SUBORDINATE OFFICERS. — The warden shall have authority to appoint such subordinate officers, guards, and employees as are

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