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Sec. 1563. WHAT CAN BE SET-OFF. -Mutual debts and claims under contract between the parties to a common-law action, or between any of the several defendants and the plaintiff, or between one party and the testator or intestate of the other, or between the testators or intestates of both parties, may be set off against each other by plea in bar, whether said "debts or claims be of the same or a different nature or degree, and whether the claims be for liquidated debts or unliquidated damages for breach of contract; and if either debt be in the form of the penalty of a bond the exact sum to be set off shall be stated in the plea.
Sec. 1564. FORM OF PLEA.—The plea of set-off may be as follows: That the plaintiff, at the commencement of the suit, was, and still is, indebted to the defendant in the sum of
dollars, for that, and so forth, as appears by the particulars of said indebtedness hereunto annexed; and defendant is willing that the same may be set off against the plaintiff's demand.
Sec. 1565. SET-OFF AN ACTION BY DEFENDANT. A defendant who files a plea of set-off, founded on a claim against the plaintiff, shall be deemed to have brought an action at the time of filing such plea against the plaintiff for the matters mentioned in the plea; but it shall not be necessary that the amount of the claim so sought to be set off shall be such that the court would have jurisdiction of an original actio recover the same; and the plaintiff shall not thereafter be allowed to dismiss his suit without the consent of the defendant, but the defendant shall be entitled to a trial of and judgment upon his claim, but the same shall be open to the same defenses to which it would be open in an action brought by him thereon; and on the trial of an issue on said plea of set-off judgment shall be rendered for the balance found due, whether to the plaintiff or to the defendant, with costs: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to enlarge the jurisdiction of justices of the peace so as to authorize any judgment by any such justice in excess of three hundred dollars.
Sec. 1566. EFFECT OF ASSIGNMENT. - When cross demands have existed between persons under such circumstances that if one had brought an action against the other a counterclaim or set-off could have been pleaded, neither can be deprived of the benefit thereof hy an assignment by the other; but in an action by the assignee of any nonnegotiable debt the defendant may set off any indebtedness to him of the assignor, existing before notice of the assignment, as well as any indebtedness to him of the plaintiff.
Sec. 1567. SET-OFF AS TO PART. -If the defendant's plea of set-off covers or applies to only part of the plaintiff's demand judgment may be forth with rendered for the part not controverted and the costs accrued until the filing of the plea, and the case shall be proceeded with for the residue as if the part for which judgment was rendered had not been included therein.
Sec. 1568. ACTION AGAINST PRINCIPAL AND SURETIES.-In an action against principal and sureties an indebtedness of the plaintiff to the principal may be set off as if he were the sole defendant, and in such case, if the indebtedness so set off shall exceed the plaintiff's demand, the judgment for the excess shall be ir: favor of the defendant, who is sued as principal.
Sec. 1569. ACTION BY TRUSTEE. -If the plaintiff is trustee for another, o has no actual interest in the contract on which the action is founded, a demand against the plaintiff shall not be pleaded by way of set-off, but a demand against the person whom he represents or for whose benefit the action is brought may be pleaded.
Sec. 1570. ACTION BY OR AGAINST EXECUTOR, AND SO FORTH.-In an action against an executor or administrator, in his representative capacity, the defendant may plead, by way of set-off, a demand belonging to the decedent where he would have been entitled to rely upon the same in an action against him; and in an action brought by an executor or administrator, in his representative capacity, a demand against the decedent, belonging at the time of his death to the defendant, may be pleaded by way of set-off, as if the action had been brought by the decedent in his lifetime.
Sec. 1571. SETTING OFF JUDGMENTS.—Where reciprocal claims between different parties have passed into judgments the court may, on motion, in its discretion, order that the judgments shall be set off against each other and satisfaction of both be entered to the amount of the smaller claim.
Sec. 1572. COUNTER SECURITY. When the surety, or his personal representatives, of any officer, commissioner, receiver, or trustee appointed under a decree of court and required to give bond shall apprehend himself to be in danger of suffering from the suretyship and shall petition the court to be relieved from the suretyship, or that the court shall require said officer, commissioner, receiver, or trustee to give counter security, the court may, on reasonable notice to the trustee or other officer, require him to give counter security or to give a new bond in the same manner as if none had been given by him, and on his failure so to do by a day named may remove him from his office or trust and appoint a new trustee or other officer in his stead to complete the duties of his office or trust, and may thereupon order him to deliver over to his successor all the trust property, including moneys, books, papers, bonds, notes, and evidences of debt, and may compel compliance with said order by attachment.
Sec. 1573. JUDGMENTS AGAINST.- Where any person shall recover a judgment or money decree against the principal debtor and a surety or indorser, and the judgment shall be satisfied by the surety or indorser, the latter shall be entitled to have the judgment or money decree entered by the clerk to his use and to have execution in his own name against the principal, and where any judgment or money decree shall be rendered against several sureties and one of them shall satisfy the whole debt, the said surety shall be entitled to have the judgment or decree entered to his use, as aforesaid, and to have execution against each of the other sureties in the judgment or decree for a proportionate part of the debt so paid by him; and on the motion of said surety so paying the entire debt and notice to the other sureties the court may determine for what amount execution shall issue against each of the other sureties.
Sec. 1574. OFFICE. - The office of the surveyor of the District shall be the legal office of record of the plats and subdivisions of all private property in the District of Columbia and of all property belonging to the District of Columbia. And the copies of all records of the division of squares and lots made between the public and the original proprietors and all plats, papers, books, maps, and records now in the office of the surveyor shall remain therein. — Act of June 30, 1902.
[Sec. 1574. OFFICE.—The office of the surveyor of the District shall be the legal office of record of the plats of all private property, in the District of Columbia, and anthenticated copies of all records of the division of squares and lots made between the public and the original proprietors or otherwise authorized by law shall be kept in said office.]
Sec. 1575. TRANSCRIPTS.-All transcripts from such records certitied by the surveyor shall be prima facie evidence thereof.
[Sec. 1576. RECORDS.—The records of the surveyor of the District of Columbia shall be a part of the United States property under the jurisdiction of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia.]
Sec. 1577. SALARY.--The surveyor of the District of Columbia shall receive a salary of three thousand dollars per annum in lieu of fees, and shall be appointed by the Commissioners of the District of Columbia for a term of four years, unless sooner removed for cause, and shall be under the direction and control of the said Commissioners.
Sec. 1578. Bond.—The surveyor shall give bond to the United States in the penalty of twenty thousand dollars, with security, to be approved by the Commissioners, conditioned for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office, and shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation before the Commissioners that he will faithfully and impartially discharge the duties of his office, which bond and oath shall be deposited with the Commissioners of the District of Columbia.
Sec. 1579. ASSISTANT SURVEYOR.—The Commissioners of the District of Columbia, on the recommendation of the surveyor, are hereby authorized to appoint one assistant surveyor, at a salary of one thousand eight hundred dollars per annum, and such employees as may in the judgment of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia be required for the surveyor's office and operation, at an aggregate expense of not exceeding ten thousand dollars in any one year.
Sec. 1580. SCALE OF PL T$. --- The plats and squares and subdivisions of the city of Washington shall be drawn upon a uniform scale of not less than one inch to fifty feet, and shall show the lines of all subdivisions of the squares as the same existed at the date of the completion of each
Sec. 1581. SUBDIVISIONS.—Whenever the proprietor of any square or lot shall deem it necessary to subdivide the same into convenient building lots or portions for sale and occupancy and alleys for their accommodation, he may cause a plat to be made by the surveyor, on which shall be expressed the dimensions and length of all the lines of such portions as are necessary for defining and laying off the same on the ground, and may certify such subdivision under his hand and seal, in the presence of two or more credible witnesses, upon the same plat or on a paper or parchment attached thereto.
Sec. 1582. At the request of the proprietor the surveyor shall examine whether the lots or parcels into which any square or lot may he subdivided as provided in the preceding section agree in dimensions with the whole of the square or lot so intended to be subdivided, and whether the dimensions expressed on the plat of subdivision be the true dimensions of the parts so expressed; [and if upon such examination he shall find the plat correct, he shall certify the same under his hand and seal, with such remarks as appear to him necessary, and shall record the platas examined in a book to be kept by him for that purpose.] and whether said lots or parcels conform to the general orders of the Commissioners of the District of Cofumbia made under eristing law or under authority of section sixteen hundred and one of this code; and if upon such examination he shall find the plat correct he shall certify the sáme under his hand and seat to the said Commissioners with such remarks as appear to him necessary; but no such plat or subdivision shall be admitted to record in the office of the surveyor without an order to that effect, indorsed thereon by said Commissioners.
Sec. 1583. REFERENCE TO SUBDIVISIONS.- -When a subdivision of any square or lot shall be so certified, examined, and recorded, the purchaser of any part thereof or any person interested therein may refer to the plat and record for description in the same manner as to squares and lots divided between the Commissioners and original proprietors.
Sec. 1584. ALLEYS.—The ways, alleys, or passages laid out or expressed on any plat of subdivision shall be and remain [to the public or subject to the uses declared by the person making such subdivision] at all times under the same police regulations as the alleys laid off by the Commissioners on division with the original proprietors.
Sec. 1585. DEFICIENCY OR EXCESS IN NUMBER OF FEET. -Whenever the surveyor shall lay off any lot, or any parts into which a square or lot may be subdivided, as provided in this chapter, he shall measure the whole of that front of the square on which said lot or part lies, and if, on such a measurement, the whole front of the square exceeds or falls short of the aggregate of the fronts of the lots on that side of the square, as the same are recorded, he shall, except in that portion of the city of Washington included within the limits of what formerly constituted the city of Georgetown, apportion such excess or deficiency among the lots or pieces on that front agreeably to their respective dimensions; and in that portion of the city of Washington included within the limits of what formerly constituted the city of Georgetown he shall allow such excess or charge such deficiency to the highest numbered original lot on that front of the square, or apportion such excess or deficiency among any lots into which such highest numbered