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shall revert to the person or persons who dedicated the same for alley purposes, or to his or their heirs or assigns.

Sec. 1609. That it shall be the duty of the surveyor of said District, as soon as may be thereafter, to distinctly mark off such alley in the manner in which it may be designated in the petition therefor, and make out triplicate plats of such alley, showing its courses and boundaries and the quantity in square feet which may be taken from the lots or parts of lots in the square by the opening, extending, widening, or straightening thereof, and showing also the alley or part of alley to be closed, if any, and the lots or parts of lots to which the land contained in such closed alley is to be annexed; one of which plats shall be deposited with the recorder of deeds of said District, to be filed among the records of his office, another [kept] recorded in the office of the surveyor of said District, and one filed in the office of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia.

Sec. 1610. That in the opening, extension, widening, or straightening of an alley or minor street, as herein provided for, it shall be lawful for the Commissioners of the District of Columbia to close any alley or part of an alley thereby rendered useless or unnecessary, the fee to which is in the United States, by entering into an agreement with the owners of the lots or parts of lots contiguous thereto for the purchase by them of the land contained in said alley sought to be closed, at a price to be agreed upon by the said Commissioners and said owners, which price shall not be less per square foot than the assessed value per square foot of the contiguous lots; said agreements to be in duplicate, one of which shall be filed in the office of the recorder of deeds and the other in the office of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia, and the sums so agreed to be paid shall be assessed severally against the lots or parts of lots to which the land so purchased shall be annexed; such assessments to bear interest at the rate of ten per centum per annum until paid, and shall be collected as other taxes are collected: Provided, horrerer, That the Commissioners of the District of Columbia may, in their discretion, sell and convey the land contained in the alley to be closed, for cash, to any person or persons; that the Commissioners of the District of Columbia may, in the opening, extension, widening, or straightening of an alley, close an alley, or part of an alley, the fee to which is not in the United States, provided the owners of all the lots or parts of lots abutting thereon and the party or parties holding the fee title to the land contained in the alley to be closed shall first sign and file a petition therefor in triplicate, together with a plat thereof in triplicate, as provided by section sixteen hundred and eight of this code. 'One copy of said plat shall be filed and recorded in the office of the surveyor of the District of Columbia, one in the office of the recorder of deeds, and the other in the office of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia.

Sec. 1611. DAMAGES. --That upon the filing of such plat by the surveyor in the office of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia, as aforesaid, the said Commissioners shall make an application in writing to the marshal of the District of Columbia to summon and impanel a jury of twelve citizens who have no interest in the real estate mentioned in the said petition (and it is hereby made his duty to summon and impanel the same in all such cases, upon application to him in writing by said Commissioners), and who, having first taken and subscribed an oath in writing to discharge the duty imposed upon them by the provisions of this act justly and impartially, shall proceed to ascertain and appraise the damages which may accrue to the real estate of any person or persons by the opening, extending, widening, or straightening of such alley or minor street, which shall be the value of the land at the time of the taking; and they shall make and file a statement in writing, signed by them, of the damages so ascertained and appraised, in the office of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia, and a duplicate of said statement in the office of the recorder of deeds for the said District, and the amount thereof shall be paid to the persons, respectively, entitled thereto by said District of Columbia, out of any funds arailable therefor; and all such alleys or minor streets or extensions, widenings, or straightenings shall thereafter be kept open and free for public use.

Sec. 1612. That the said jury shall apportion an`amount equal to the amount of said damages so ascertained and appraised as aforesaid, including five dollars for the services of said marshal when actually employed and five dollars per diem for the services of each-of said jurors when actually employed, according as each lot or part of a lot of land in such square may be benefited by the opening, widening, extending, or straightening of such alley or minor street: Provided, horrerer, That in cases provided for in section sixteen hundred and ten of this code the sums paid or agreed to be paid for the land contained in any alley or part of alley to be closed shall first be deducted from the amount of benefits so to be assessed; and they shall make due return of such apportionment to the recorder of deeds and to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia, in which they shall designate each lot or part of a lot of land in such square so benefited, and the amount so apportioned to each, respectively; and in case of failure to pay the amount so apportioned, it shall be the duty of said Commissioners, or some one designated by them, to levy an assessment upon each lot or part of lot of land in accordance with such apportionment, the same to be collected as other special assessments upon real estate are collected; and said assessment shall bear interest at the rate of ten per centum per annum until paid.

Sec. 1613. That the said marshal shall give or cause to be given at least ten days' written or printed notice of the time and place of the meeting of such jurors, for the purposes aforesaid, to each proprietor of land in the square designated as the location of such alley or minor street. If the proprietor be a resident of the District of Columbia, the notice shall be served by delivering a copy thereof to him or her personally, or leaving it at the usual residence with some person over ten years of age. If the proprietor be a nonresident, the notice shall be served by delivering a copy thereof to his or their tenant or agent, or depositing it in the post-office at Washington City, inclosed in a post-paid envelope, which shall be addressed to the proprietor at his or her post-office address. If the proprietor or proprietors be under twenty-one years of age, the notice shall be served as herein before provided upon the guardian or parent of such minor or minors. A return of such service and the manner thereof shall be made by the marshal to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia, and shall be filed among the records of said District.

Sec. 1614. ALLEYS PREVIOUSLY OPENED, AND SO FORTH.—That all alleys opened or extended in the city of Washington since June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, under an ordinance of the late corporation of Washington approved November fourth, eighteen hundred and forty-two, are hereby made valid: Provided, That nothing in this code shall affect the rights of parties to suits now pending in such cases.

Sec. 1615. That all alleys or parts of alleys heretofore closed by subdivision, with the approval of the Commissioners, shall remain unaffected by this code.

S:c. 1616. MONEYS FROM SALE OF LAND.-If any money from the sale of land in which the United States is interested shall remain after carrying out the provisions of the preceding sections of this code, such

moneys shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States by the Commissioners of the District of Columbia.

CILAPTER LVI.

USES AND TRUSTS.

Sec. 1617. THE LEGAL ESTATE TO BE IN CESTUI QUE USE.— Where lands, tenements, or hereditaments are conveyed or devised to one person, whether for years or for a freehold estate, to the use of or in trust for another, no estate or interest, legal or equitable, shall vest in the trustee, but the person entitled, according to the true intent and meaning of such instrument, to the actual possession of the property and the receipt of the rents and profits thereof, in law or in equity, shall be deemed to have a legal estate therein of the same quality and duration and subject to the same conditions as his beneficial interest, except where the title of such trustee is not merely nominal but is connected with some power of actual disposition or management of the property conveyed.

Sec. 1618. PURCHASER FOR VALUE.- No implied or resulting trust shall be alleged or established to defeat or prejudice the title of a purchaser for a valuable consideration and without notice of such trust; and where an express trust is created, but is not contained or declared in the conveyance to the trustee, such conveyance shall be deemed absolute in favor of purchasers from the trustee for value and without notice of the trust.

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CHAPTER LVII.

WAREHOUSEMEN.

Sec. 1619. LIEN OF WAREHOUSEMEN.-Every person, firm, association, or corporation lawfully engaged in the business of storing goods, wares, merchandise, or personal property of any description shall have a lien first, except for taxes thereon, for the agreed charges for storing the same and for all moneys advanced for freight, cartage, labor, insurance, and other necessary expenses thereon. Said lien for such unpaid charges, upon at least one year's storage and for the aforesaid advances in connection therewith, may be enforced by sale at public auction, after thirty days' notice in writing mailed to the last known address of the person or persons in whose name or names the said property so in default was stored, and said notice shall also be published for six days in a daily newspaper in the District of Columtia. And after deducting all storage charges, advances, and expenses of sale, any balance arising therefrom shall be paid by the bailee to the bailor of such goods, wares, merchandise, or personal property, his assigns or legal représentatives.

Sec. 1620. ASSIGNEE. --Said property may be so sold either in bulk or in separate pieces, articles, packages, or parcels, as will in the judgment of the lien holder secure the largest obtainable price: Provided, That if the person or persons storing said property shall have assigned or transferred the title thereto and have duly recorded said assignment or transfer upon the books of the storage warehouse, the written notice of sale shall also be mailed to said transferee or assignee.

Sec. 1621. WHERE TITLE IN ISSUE.—Whenever the title or right of possession to any goods, wares, merchandise, or personal property on storage shall be put in issue by any judicial proceeding, the same shall be delivered upon the order of the court, after prepayment of the storage charges and cash advances then due by the person at whose instance such change of possession is so ordered, and who shall be entitled to recover such payment as part of the cost in such proceeding, or, if defeated therein, he shall be credited with such payment in taxation of costs against him. And unless the person, firm, association, or corporation so conducting a storage business shall claim some right, title, or interest in said stored property other than the lien hereinabove authorized, he, it, or they shall not be made a party to such judicial proceedings.

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