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sixty-three, two hundred and sixty-four, and two hundred and seventyfive aforesaid, shall be sufficient to secure the proper application of all the personal estate of the testator or intestate; and when it shall become necessary to sell the real estate of the decedent, in part or in whole, the executor or administrator shall give such additional bond, with approved security, as shall be directed by the court, to secure the proper application of the proceeds arising from such sale or sales. And whenever an executor is empowered by the will to make sale of the real estate of the testator, for any purpose, he shall account for said proceeds in said court.
Sec. 296. ADDITIONAL BOND.-Whenever the probate court shall be satisfied that the bond already given by an executor or administrator is insufficient, the said executor or administrator may be required to file an additional bond, and on his failure to do so his letters may be revoked. And upon the revocation of letters testamentary or of administration under this provision, the executor or administrator whose letters are so revoked shall forth with deliver to any substituted executor or administrator all the assets of his testator or intestate in his possession or under his control.
Sec. 297. ACTIONS ON BONDS. -Every bond executed by an executor or administrator shall be recorded in the office of the register of wills; and any person conceiving himself to be interested in the administration of the estate shall be entitled to have or demand a copy of such bond, under the hand and seal of the register of wills, on which an action may be maintained, in the name of the United States, for the use of the party interested, and judgment may be recovered in such action for the damage actually sustained. And an administrator appointed in the place of an executor or administrator who has resigned, been removed, or whose letters have been revoked, may in like manner maintain an action against the executor or former administrator and his sureties, on his administration bond, for all loss and damage to the estate resulting from this breach of duty. No creditor shall be entitled to maintain an action on a testamentary or administration bond for any claim against a testator or intestate until, when practicable, an action has been commenced against the executor or administrator of the deceased and a summons issued therein has been returned “Not to be found," or a writ of fieri facias or of attachment, issued on a judgment against such executor or administrator, has been returned “nulla bona," or until such apparent insolvency of the executor or administrator or insufficiency of his effects as in the judgment of the court before which such action may be tried shall show the said creditor to be without remedy except by such action on the executor's or administrator's bond.
Sec. 298. DEATH, AND SO FORTH, OF EXECUTOR NAMED.-In case any will admitted to probate shall not appoint an executor, or the executor therein appointed shall have died or renounced the executorship, or shall be incompetent to serve, administration shall be granted with the will annexed to the person who would have been entitled to administration in case of the intestacy of the deceased testator: Provided, howoever, That if there be a residuary legatee named in such will, he shall be preferred to all, except a widow. And the condition of the bond of the administrator so appointed and the oath to be taken by him and his duties and liabilities shall be the same if he had been appointed executor in the will and had received letters testamentary.
Sec. 299. LETTERS DE BONIS NON.-If an executor or administrator shall die before the administration of the estate is completed, letters of administration de bonis non or de bonis non cum testamento annexo, as the case may require, shall be granted, in the discretion of the court, giving preference, however, to the person who would be entitled in the order hereinbefore given, if he shall actually apply for the same; and the form of the letters shall be the same as in the case of an original administration, except that it shall be confined to the property of the deceased not already administered, and the authority shall be to administer all property herein described as assets and not distributed and delivered or retained by the executor or former administrators, under the court's direction.
Sec. 300. EXECUTOR OF EXECUTOR. --In no case shall the executor of an executor, as such, be entitled to administration de bonis non on the estate of the first deceased.
Sec. 301. ORDERS AGAINST REPRESENTATIVE OF DECEASED. On the application of an administrator de bonis non the court may order the executor or the administrator of a deceased executor or administrator to deliver over to him all the personal property that was in the hands of the said deceased executor or administrator, as such, and also all the money, bonds, notes, accounts, and evidences of debt which the said deceased executor or administrator may have taken, received, and had at the time of his death, including the proceeds of sale of either personal or real estate made by said deceased executor or administrator, which shall be deemed unadministered assets.
Sec. 302. On the failure of said executor or administrator to comply with said order by a day named, the court may enforce its order by attachment against such executor or administrator, and may direct the bond of the deceased executor or administrator, or that of the executor or administrator so failing, or both, to be put in suit for the use of the administrator de bonis non.
Sec. 303. The executor or administrator of the deceased executor or administrator shall return, on oath, to the court, on or before the day named as aforesaid, a list of the bonds, notes, accounts, and money aforesaid, and shall be entitled to retain out of the money such commission as the court shall allow, not exceeding ten per centum on the principal inventory, and the personal estate and money turned over by him shall be assets in the hands of the administrator de bonis non, to be accounted for by him as such.
Sec. 304. LETTERS AD COLLIGENDUM.—Letters ad colligendum may be granted to one or more persons in case of a contest in relation to a will, or the absence of the executor from the District, or his delay in qualifying, or for other sufficient cause, and the form of such letters shall be as follows:
To all persons to whom these presents shall come, greeting:
deceased, had, as is said, at his decease, personal property within the District of Columbia, administration whereof can not immediately be granted, but which, ii speedy care be not taken, may be lost, destroyed, or diminished, to the end that the same may be preserved for those who may appear to have a legal right or interest therein, we do hereby request and authorize
.., to secure and collect said property, wheresoever the same may be, in said District, whether the same be goods, chattels, debts, or credits, and to make a true inventory thereof and exhibit the same with all convenient speed, with an account of his collections, into the oflice of the register of wills.
Witness (A B) the chief justice of the supreme court of the District of Columbia.
CD, Register of Wills.
Sec. 305. Every collector, except corporations authorized to act as such, before letters shall be issued to him, shall execute a bond to the United States, in a penalty and with security to be approved by said court, with the following condition:
* The condition of the above obligation is such that if the above bounden and honestly discharge the office of collector of the goods, chattels, and personal estate of deceased, in the District of Columbia, and shall make or cause to be made a true and perfect inventory or inventories of such of said goods, chattels, personal estate, and debts as shall come to his possession or knowledge and make return of the same to the probate court of the District, and shall also deliver to the person or persons who shall be authorized by the court to receive them such of said goods, chattels, personal estate, and debts as shall coine to his possession, except such as shall be allowed for by said court, then the said obligation shall be void; it shall otherwise be in full force and virtue at law." And he shall also take and subscribe the following oath: “I, swear that I will well and truly discharge the office of collector of the goods, chattels, and personal estate of
deceased, according to the tenor of the letters granted me by the probate court of the District of Columbia and the directions of law, to the best of my knowledge, so help me God.”
Sec. 306. DUTIES OF COLLECTOR.—The collector shall collect the goods, chattels, and personal estate of the deceased, including the debts due him, and cause the same to be appraised and return an inventory thereof, as an administrator is required to do, and may, under the authority of the court, sell perishable articles and bring suits for debts or other property, as an administrator may do, and shall account for the money recovered. Said collector may be allowed a commission on the property and debts actually collected, and afterwards delivered to the executor or administrator, not exceeding three per centum, and said collector may be authorized and directed by the court to discharge, pendente lite, all or any of the duties of an administrator, including the payment of debts.
Sec. 307. WHEN POWERS TO CEASE. – On the granting of letters testamentary or of administration the power of any such collector shall cease, and it shall be his duty to deliver, on demand, all the property and money of the decedent in his hands, except as before excepted, to the person obtaining such letters, and the executor or administrator may be permitted to prosecute any suit commenced by said collector as if the same had been begun by said executor or administrator.
Sec. 308. If the said collector shall neglect or refuse to deliver over the property and estate to the executor or administrator, the court may, by citation and attachment, compel him to do so, and the executor or administrator may also proceed, by civil action, to recover the value of the assets from him and his sureties by action on his bond. Such collector shall not be liable to an action by any creditor of the deceased.
Sec. 309. INVENTORY TO BE MADE.—Every executor, administrator, or collector shall, within three months after his appointment, or such longer time as the court may allow, make and return, upon oath, into court a true inventory of all the goods, chattels, moneys, and credits of the deceased which are by law to be administered and which shall have come to his possession or knowledge; and if the court shall think fit it may also order him to include in the inventory all the real estate of the deceased: Provided, That this section shall not apply to the cases provided for in sections two hundred and sixty-four and two hundred and seventy-five of this code.
Sec. 310. APPRAISERS. On the granting of letters testamentary or of administration, except in the aforesaid excepted cases, a warrant shall issue to two suitable persons not interested in the estate, to appraise the estate of the deceased, known to them or shown to them by the executor or administrator, and they shall severally take and subscribe an oath well and truly, without partiality or prejudice, to value the goods, chattels, and personal estate and real estate (if so directed) of the deceased, as far as the same shall come to their knowledge, to the best of their skill and judgment.
Sec. 311. On the death, refusal, or neglect of any appraiser to act another person may be appointed in his stead.
Sec. 312. Notice.- It shall be the duty of the executor, administrator, or collector [and] or of the appraisers to give notice to the persons immediately interested in the administration, or at least two of them, if they are numerous, of the time and place of making said appraisement, and thereupon they shall proceed at said time and place to value said property and estate, setting down each article or item separately, with the value thereof, in dollars and cents, and when such appraisement shall have been completed they shall certify the same under their hands and seals, and the same shall be returned with the inventory.
Sec. 313. CONTENTS OF INVENTORY.- The inventory shall contain a particular statement of all bonds, mortgages, notes, and other securities for the payment of moneys belonging to the deceased, and of all other debts and accounts due him, which are known to the executor, administrator, or collector, who shall designate those debts which he considers sperate and those which he considers desperate, and also an account of all moneys belonging to the deceased which shall come to his hands. And whenever, after an inventory has been returned, assets not therein included shall come to the knowledge of the executor, administrator, or collector an additional inventory and appraisement shall be promptly prepared and filed in the manner aforesaid.
Sec. 314. EXCEPTIONS.—There shall be excepted from the inventory the wearing apparel of the deceased, family pictures, the family Bible, and schoolbooks used in the family, and provisions for the support of the family on hand at the time of decedent's death. But if said decedent shall have been the head of a family, or a householder, the property exempt under chapter twenty-seven, as therein stated, shall so continue exempt from all claims against said decedent, and shall be distributed by the court to such members of the family or household as in the judgment of the court the necessity and exigencies of the particular case may require.
Sec. 315. COLLECTOR'S INVENTORY.- In case an inventory shall be returned by a collector, duly appointed, the executor or administrator thereafter administering shall, within three months after his appointment, either return a new inventory in place of the collector's inventory or an acknowledgment in writing that he has received from the collector the articles contained in the first inventory, and consents to be answerable for the same, as if said inventory had been made out by him as administrator, unless it shall appear that he has been prevented from making such return by the improper detention of the personal estate of the deceased by the collector.
Sec. 316. EXECUTOR, AND SO FORTH, NEGLECTING.–If there be more than one executor or administrator, any one or more of them, on the neglect of the rest, may, if authorized by the court, return an inventory.
Sec. 317. WHAT ARE ASSETS. – Leases for years, estates for the life of another person or other persons, and all goods, wares, merchandise, utensils, furniture, things annexed to the freehold which may be removed without prejudice thereto, the growing crop on the land of the deceased, and every other species of personal property, not including the clothing of the widow and minor children of the deceased and personal ornaments suitable to their station, and not including the property exempted by section three hundred and fourteen, shall be included in the inventory, and, together with the proceeds of any real estate sold for the payment of debts, shall be considered assets to be administered by an executor or administrator.
Sec. 318. DEBTOR APPOINTED EXECUTOR.—The discharge or bequest, in a will, of any debt or demand of a testator against any executor named in a will, or against any other person, shall not be valid as against the creditors of the deceased, but shall be construed only as a specific bequest of such debt or demand, and the amount thereof shall be included in the inventory of the effects of the deceased and be assets for the payment of his debts, if necessary for that purpose, and, if not so necessary, shall be paid in the same manner and proportion as other specific legacies.
Sec. 319. The naming of any person as executor in a will shall not operate as a discharge or bequest of any just claim which the testator had against such executor; but such claim shall be included among the credits and effects of the deceased in the inventory, and the executor shall be liable for the same, as for so much money in his hands, at the time such debt or demand becomes due; and he shall apply and distribute the same, in the payment of debts and legacies and among the next of kin, as part of the personal estate of the deceased: Provided, That in such cases the sureties of the erecutor shall not be liable if the claim against the executor would have been uncollectible if some other person
had been cxecutor. Sec. 320. On the failure of the executor to give in such claim in the list of debts due the deceased, any person interested in the administration may allege the same by petition to said probate court, and the said court, with consent of the parties, may decide on the same, or it may be referred by the parties, with the court's approval; or at the instance of either party the court may direct an issue to be tried by a jury; and if said claim shall in any of such proceedings be decided to be a just claim of the decedent against the executor, said executor shall be charged with the amount thereof as aforesaid.
Sec. 321. DEBT DUE BY ADMINISTRATOR.-In like manner it shall be the duty of every administrator to give in a claim against himself, and on his giving it, or failure so to do, there shall be the same proceeding as above described with regard to an executor, and the same rule shall apply to his sureties.
Sec. 322. SALES OF PERSONAL ESTATE.-In case any executor or administrator shall not have money sufficient to discharge the just debts of and claims against the decedent, the probate court shall, on