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Life. The private school in American, Popular education, Industrial and
264, 511

technical training in, 281
Little red schoolhouse, The, 304 President, Draper, Andrew S., 525

MACDONALD, JOHN.-My schools and technical training in popular
and schoolmasters, 50

education, 281
MANLEY, EDWARD.-Compulsory in- Private school in American life, The,
surance for teachers, 152

264, 511
MANNY, FRANK A.-Do children Private schools in American educa-
know the alphabet ? 420

tion, 503
MARK, H. THISELTON.-The Ameri- Progress, Education and social, 355

can and the English public ele- Public elementary school, The Ameri-
mentary schools, 250

can and the English, 250
MARTIN, GEORGE.— My schools and PUTNAM, HERBERT.- Relation of the
schoolmasters, 182

National Library to historical re-
Mathematics, The teaching of, 158 search, 217

(Emerson E.) The art of teaching, RADDATZ, C. F.-Thomas (Calvin)

and Hervey's (William A.) Ger-
Modern education, The classics in, 407 man reader, 530
Monroe's (Paul) Source book of the Recent legislation in Connecticut,
history of education, 210

Temperance teaching and, 233
MONROE, WILL S.—Monroe's (Paul) Recitations, Lectures versus, 345

Source book of the history of edu- Red schoolhouse, The little, 304
cation, 210

Rein's (W.) Encyclopedic handbook
Moral and religious instruction in of education, 147
France, 325

Relation of education to industrial
Motor training, Survival of the fittest and commercial development, The,
in, 81


Relation of the National Library to
National Library to historical

historical research, 217
search, Relation of the, 217

Religious instruction in France,
NELSON, A. H.-The little red school- Moral and, 325
house, 304

Research, Relation of the National
New York State, History teaching in, Library to historical, 217

Reviews, 95, 210, 316, 423, 523
Normal schools of Japan, 371

Rhodes (Cecil), The will of, 534
North and South, Education, 486 Richmond's (Ennis) The mind of a
North Central Association of Colleges

child, 423
and Secondary Schools, 533

Rights of donors, The, 15, 203
Notes and news, 215, 323, 429, 533 ROGERS, HOWARD J.-The relation
Notes on new books, 102

of education to industrial and com-

mercial development, 490
OGDEN, ROBERT C.-Educational Ross,

conditions in the Southern States, schools in American education, 503

PARKER, ALTON B.-The rights of chronicle play, 526
donors, 15

Schoolhouse, The little red, 304
Parker, Colonel Francis, 431

School in American life, The private,
PERRY, JOHN.-The teaching of

264, 511
mathematics, 158

School, The American and the Eng-
Ph. D., Elevating the degree of, 429 lish public elementary, 250; The
PHILPOT, H. S.-Professor De Gár- various educational demands upon
mo on the lecture system, 520

the high, 136
Pohlmann's (Robert) Socrates und Schools and schoolmasters, My, 50,
sein Volk, 97

182, 385



Schools in American education, Pri-

vate, 503
Schools of Germany, Changes in the

secondary, 103
Schools of Japan, Normal, 37 1

among the higher Alps, 92 ; Rich-
mond's (Ennis) The mind of a

child, 423

SEAVER, EDWIN P.-Elective studies,

Secondary Schools, North Central

Association of Colleges and, 533
Secondary schools of Germany,

Changes in the, 103
Small college do? What shall the,

Temperance teaching and recent leg-


Social aspects of education, Some,

Social force, Industrial education as a,

Social progress, Education and, 355
South, Education North and, 486
Southern States, Educational condi-

tions in the, 468

education as a social force, 462

(Felix E.) English chronicle play,

islation in Connecticut, 233
Ten Brink's (Bernhard) Language

and meter of Chaucer, 528
Tendencies, desirable and otherwise,

Educational, 446
ThiLLY, FRANK.-Academic free-

dom, 195; Pöhlmann's (Robert)

Socrates und sein Volk, 97
Thomas (Calvin) and Hervey's (W.

A.) German reader, 530

(Th.) Die Geisteskrankheiten des
Kindesalters, 211; Ganzmann's (O.)
Ueber Sprach- und Sprachvorstel-
lungen, 213; Brauckmann's (Karl)
Die psychische Entwicklung und
pädagogische Behandlung der

schwerhöriger Kinder, 213
Training in popular education, In-

dustrial and technical, 281
Training, Survival of the fittest in

motor, 81

Studies, Elective, 483
Supplementary educational agencies,

Survival of the fittest in motor train-

ing, 81
System in university teaching, The

lecture, 109
System, Professor De Garmo on the

lecture, 520


Encyclopedic handbook of educa-

tion, 147
Universities and their benefactors,

University teaching, The lecture sys-

tem in, 109

Versus recitations, Lectures, 345

Teachers, Compulsory insurance for,

152; The wages of, 430
Teaching and recent legislation in

Connecticut, Temperance, 233
Teaching in New York State, History,

Teaching of mathematics, The, 158
Teaching, The lecture system in uni-

versity, 109
Technical training in popular educa-

tion, Industrial and, 281

Wages of teachers, The, 430
Ware's (Fabian) Educational founda-

tions of trade and industry, 425
WENLEY, R. M.-Academic freedom,

What shall the small college do?

White's (Emerson E.) Art of teach-

ing, 318.

vate school in American life, 511
Will of Cecil Rhoc 's, The, 534
WYER, Jr., W. I.- -Columbia Univer-

sity Bibliography of education, 95

Ziehen's (Th.) Die Geisteskrank-

heiten des Kindesalters, 211

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In discussing the questions summed up in the phrase academic freedom, it is necessary to make a distinction between the university proper and those teaching bodies, called by whatever name, whose primary business is to inculcate a fixed set of ideas and facts. The former aims to discover and communicate truth and to make its recipients better judges of truth and more effective in applying it to the affairs of life. The latter have as their aim the perpetuation of a certain way of looking at things current among a given body of persons. Their purpose is to disciple rather than to discipline—not indeed at the expense of truth, but in such a way as to conserve what is already regarded as truth by some considerable body of per

The problem of freedom of inquiry and instruction clearly assumes different forms in these two types of institutions. An ecclesiastical, political, or even economic corporation holding certain tenets certainly has a right to support an institution to maintain and propagate its creed. It is a question not so much of freedom of thought as of ability to secure competent tea hers willing to work under such conditions, to pay bills, and to have a constituency from which to draw students. Needless to say, the line between these two types of institutions is not so clear-cut in practice as it is in theory. Many institutions are in a state of transition. Historically, they are bound by ties to some particular body of beliefs, generally to some denominational association. Nominally, they


still owe a certain allegiance to a particular body. But they are also assuming many strictly university functions and are thereby accepting obligations to a larger world of scholarship and of society. In these respects the institution imposes upon its teaching corps not merely a right, but a duty, to maintain in all ways the university ideal of freedom of inquiry and freedom of communication. But, in other respects, while the historical denominational ties are elongated and attenuated, they still remain; and thru them the instructor is to some extent bound. Implicit, if not explicit, obligations are assumed. In this situation, conflict between the two concerns of the university may arise; and in the confusion of this conflict it is difficult to determine just which way the instructor is morally bound to face. Upon the whole it is clear, however, that the burden falls upon the individual. If he finds that the particular and local attachment is so strong as to limit him in the pursuit of what he regards as essential, there is one liberty which cannot be taken away from him: the liberty of finding a more congenial sphere of work. So far as the institution is frank in acknowledging and maintaining its denominational connections, he cannot throw the burden back upon it. Nevertheless he, and those who are like-minded, have the right to deplore what they consider as a restriction, and to hope and labor for the time when the obligation in behalf of all the truth to society at large shall be felt as more urgent than that of a part of truth to a part of society.

But it cannot be inferred that the problem is a wholly simple one, even within the frankly announced denominational institutions. The line in almost any case is a shifting one. told that a certain denominational college permits and encourages a good deal of instruction in anatomy and physiology because there is biblical authority for the statement that the human body is fearfully and wonderfully made, while it looks askance upon the teaching of geology because the recognized doctrine of the latter appears to it to conflict with the plain statements of Genesis. As regards anatomy and physiology, an instructor in such an institution would naturally feel that his indebtedness was to the world of scholarship rather than to

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his own denomination, and here conflict might possibly arise. Or a teacher of history might find a conflict existing between the supposed interests of his denomination and the historical facts as determined by the best research at his command. Here, again, he would find himself naturally pulled in two different directions. No possible tie to what his own institution specially stands for can impose upon him the obligation to suppress the truth as he sees it. I quote such cases simply to indicate that, while in a general way there is a line of demarcation between the two types of institutions referred to, and consequently the problem of academic freedom does not arise so definitely in one type, yet even in the latter, because all things shift, the question, after all, may assert itself.

In the subsequent discussion I shall confine myself exclusively to institutions of the university type. It is clear that in this sphere any attack, or even any restriction, upon academic freedom is directed against the university itself. To investigate truth; critically to verify fact; to reach conclusions by means of the best methods at command, untrammeled by external fear or favor, to communicate this truth to the student; to interpret to him its bearing on the questions he will have to face in life—this is precisely the aim and object of the university. To aim a blow at any one of these operations is to deal a vital wound to the university itself. The university function is the truth-function. At one time it may be more concerned with the tradition or transmission of truth, and at another time with its discovery. Both functions are necessary, and neither can ever be entirely absent. The exact ratio between them depends upon local and temporal considerations rather than upon anything inherent in the university. The one thing that is inherent and essential is the idea of truth.

So clear are these principles that, in the abstract, no theoretical problem can possibly arise. The difficulties arise from two concrete sources. In the first place, there is no gainsaying the fact that some of the studies taught in the university are inherently in a much more scientific condition than others. In the second place, the popular or general recognition of scientific status is much more widespread as regards some

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