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ity to Bees, 69; Kensall Green Cemetery, 153 ; Harvest Moon, The, 317
Ladies' “ Pet Fancies,"Dogs, 165; Ladies' Hair, Hats, Modern, 45, 88
36; Love, general and particular, 331 ; “Man Haymaking, Joys of, 9, 25
Overboard !" 173, 204 ; Memory, 296 ; Men and Health of Mind, 288, 309
Brutes, 226; Mischief of Fun, 382 ; My First -Dependent on Light and Sun, 43
Salmon, 124; Nature's Goodness, 323 ; Night, A - - and Ventilation, 252
Fragment, 116; Notes by a Naturalist, 162, 180, Hedgehog, The, 92, 97, 156, 364
242, 290, 353, 385 ; Our Climate, 6; Our Heron, The, 301
Codes of Health and Religion, 209, 344, 394 ;| Hollyhock, The, 204, 348
Pen, The, Danger resulting from its Use, 271 ; Honors paid to the Rose, 265
Poetry,- What is it ? 68; Philosophy of Sleep, Honey-Bees, 268, 284
250 ; Pictures of Society, by Forestiera, 337, -

and Chloroform, 349
369, Power of Love, 330 ; Progress of the Sea- “Hope on-Hope ever!" 56
sons, 8, 24, 40, 56, 62, 72, 88, 104, 120, 137, Horse-Dragon Fly, 181
152, 168, 184, 216, 233, 249, 264, 280, 296, Horse, Revenge in a, 299
328, 360, 392, 408; Rambles to-Sharpham Human Head, The, and Figure, 352
Wood, 33 ; Wanstead and Hainault Forest, 139;

Pulse, The, 94 Montgomery, North Wales, 144, 244 ; Banks of Hyacinth, Management of the, 309 the Lea. 130 : Shaking Hands. 204. 413 : Sound,

with Diseased Roots, 348, 381 the Nature of, 242, 404; Spider, The, 275; Ichneumon, The, 83, 311 Spring-Day in Winter, 373; Street Music, 91; India-Rubber Tree of Brazil, 79 Sun, The, 357; Tame Hares, 135; Town or Indoor Plants, 346 Country? 286 ; Value of Reason, 257; Water- Insects, To destroy, 266 ing-place Delights and Follies, 169, 200; Insects and Spiders, 266 White Coral Islands, 84; Winter in the Olden - Remarkable Descent of, 218, 253 Time, 415 ; Woman, a "Fairy," 201 ; Women, - their wonderful Strength, 327 their Value, 342; Women, Powerful Influence Intemperance, Horrors of, 32, 60 of, 143; Wonders of the Insect World, 228 ; Iron, Utility of, 365 World, The, and its Inhabitants, 270 ; World Jackdaw, A Remarkable, 410 we Live in, 183.

John Bull, "proved to be mad," 329, 361, 362 Evil Company, 80

Kangaroo Hunt in Australia, 75 Fairy Rings, 10, 58

Kindness to Animals, 170, 177 Fertility of Animals, 123

Lack-a-daisical Women, 136 Fish, Artificial Fecundation of the Roe of, 139 Ladies, their Dress, and remarkable Taste, 88 Fishes, Migration of, 197

141 Five Fingers, The, 183,

- and Dogs, 165 Flies, Destroyed by Flowers, 285

- Monkeys, 285 Flint in Vegetables, 59

Ladies' Hair, 36 Flowers, 59, 141

- "Shrouds," invented by Satan, 44, 107, - To Strike Cuttings of, 364

201, 253 Flower Bulbs, 187, 284

Life in Death-A Man Overboard, 174, 204 Fly-papers, The, 21, 42

Light, Irradiation of, 365, Flying-Fish, 364

Lightning, Velocity of, 143 Forget me Not, Origin of the, 123

Lily, The, 318 Fox, Sagacity of a, 378

Lion Ant, The, 329 Friends, (How Rare!), 99

London and its Public Conveyances, 268, 282 Friendship, A Trial of, 8

London in November, 297 Fright, Effects produced by, 95

Long Faces,Out of Date, 121 Frog, The, a Weather Glass, 140

Love and Friendship, very different Things, 110 Frogs, 189, 203, 267, 283, 315

Lungs, Development of the, 412 GALL, Dr.. His Celebrated Work, 328

Mackerel, The, 119 Game of the “ Christmas-Tree,” 415

Magnet, The, 142 Gardens, Hints on Watering, 284

Magpie, The, 61 Gardening in Australia, 254

Man, a Semi-Savage, 227, 285 Garden-Warbler, The, 211

Matrimonial Jars, 122 Goat, The Marching Military, 173

Mechanism of the Eyes of Birds, 295 Goats, 26, 108, 122, 143, 173

Mice, Singularly marked, 110 Goldfinch-Mules, 27

“Might against Right," 205, 349 Gold-Fish, Odd Feat of a, 158

Migration of Birds, 261 Goldsmith, Anecdotes of, 215, 238, 311

Mind's Expanse, The, 192 Good-Nature sometimes ridiculous, 96

- Influence on the Body, 111 Good-Will to Man, 215 Gossamer, The, 218, 228

MISCELLANOUS PARAGRAPHS. Grapes, How to Ripen Early, 189

Ages Passed Away, 350; Authorship, 355 ; Be "Grave of Annie !" 154

Merry and Wise, 414 ; Beauty, 186, 335; Green-eyed Monster, The, 379

Beneficence of Nature, 220 ; Benevolence, Grouse, A curious Hybrid, 218

-416; Blue Glass for Hot-houses, 333 ; Case Gutta-Percha Tree, 236

of Conscience, 345 ; Californian Onions, 333; Hares, Tame, 135

Charity, 318; Child, The, we livo for, 240 ; Harmony of Colors in a Garden, 237

Cloye, The, 411; Cold in the Arctic Regions, Harvest of 1852, Joys of the, 137

237; Confined Air, 397; Contentment, 240, 325;

Corns, A Cure for, 333 ; Curious Bill of Costs, | Picnics, 25, 74
332 ; Cut Flowers, 379; Daisy, The, 399; 1 Pigs, Sagacious, 188
Dear Bargains, 151; Eating, 272 ; Ennui, 182 ; | - Swift of Foot, 365
Entomology, Study of, 221; Fancy, 383 ; Fear, Pigeons, 51, 125, 219, 268
351; Female Education, 13; Feminine Beauty,

Wood, 78, 154
16; First Love, 320; Forgiveness, 256 ; Plants in Bed-rooms, 380
Friendship, 215, 319; Gardens, 111; “Gen-

for Pillar Decoration, 411 tlemen" and their Wide-awake Hats, 253 ; “ Platonic Affection," 157 Happiness in Degree, 103; Health, 252; Pleasure,-- What is it? 43 Honest Conscience, 16°; Human Hair, 142;

POETRY. Humanity, 28 ; Hypocrisy, 304; Idiosyncrasy; 296; Ignorance, 28; Infidelity, 327'; Inqui- | Age of Cruelty, 384 ; August in London, 89; Ausitive People, 391; Judgment, 16; Lapland tumn Robin, 255; Be Kind! 215; Beauty, Witch, 232 ; Latin Prescriptions, 391 ; Lemon 192 ; Bless that Dimple! 208; Blessings of Juice, 381; Lend me a Shilling, 413; Life, Friendship, 32; Chastity, Majesty of, 160; 138 ; Little Kindnesses, 384; Lock of Hair, Childhood's Happy Hours, 144 ; Childhood's 224; Mechanism of a Watch, 411; Man Tear, 144; Christmas, 407, 415 ; Capture of the known by his Dress, 400 ; Milk, Cream, Cheese, Pike, 221; Child's, A, First Letter, 343; 267 ; Mussel found in Sand, 397; Modesty, 87; Choice of a Wife, 239 ; Contentment, 240 ; Necessities and Superfluities, 55; New Planet, Daisy to Violet, 336 ; Death and Sleep, 272 ; 45 ; Novel Weather-glass, 286 ; Old Oak, 397 ; Delights of the Country, 96; Domestic Lays, Opinions, 16; " Our own Editor," 218; Petty 320, 352 ; Dream, The, 256 ; End of Autumn, Annoyances, 357; Philosophy of the Heart, 400; Evening Star, 121; Faith and Hope, 303 ; Pleasure and Pain, *48; Praise, 208; 288; First Love, 64; First Sorrow, The, 128; Present Age, The, 256 ; Pretty Look-out, 367; Flora and her Handmaidens, 96; Flowers on the Prosperity and Adversity, 48, 336; Reading, Tomb, 160 ; Glow-worm, The, 119; “Good Ship 306; Revolutionary Principles, 285 ; Romping, Honesty," 208; Good Night 112; Goodness of God 25; Salt, 239; Sea, The, 111, 265; Seed Time to Man, 16; Harmless Pleasures, 208; Hast thou a and Harvest, 83 ; Sparrow killed by Electricity, Friend? 368 ; Heart to dispose of, 80; Holly, The, 397 ; Temperance, 336; Time, 239, 324 ; To 416; Home, 304;" Hope on- Hope ever," 91; morrow, 314; Triumph of Principle, 351; How wilt thou love me ; 336 ; Hope, 224 ; True Goodness, 255; True Philosophy, 16; Insect Life, 58 ; Joy in Heaven, 272; Joys of Try Again! 224; Unkindness, 16; Value of Hope, 400 ; Joyous Innocence of Childhood, Life, 219; Vinegar and its Adulterations, 219; 336 ; Law of Kindness, 176 ; Lines connected Vulgar Minds, 272; Walnuts as Medicine, with “Our Own Editor's" Tomb, 154 ; Lines 221; Water for Ever! 265 ; Way to Fame, on Helvellyn, 348 ; Lines on a Solitary Thrush, rough very! 67; White Thorn, The, 23; 406; Little Fairy Reaper, 105 ; Long looked Wine, 348; Wit and Judgment, 246; Wo for come at Last, 80; Love better than Fear, men, deadly Foes to each other under Suffering, 144; Love and Friendship, 128 ; Love thy 234; Won't You ? 174

Mother, 368 ; Love one Another, 413; Love, a Mole Cricket, The, 74

Mystery, 416; Madness, 416;" To Mary," 216; Mother's Love, A, 174, 204

Merry Hearts, 347 ; Mind's disease, The, 272; Mule, A very ancient, 391

Mother's Love, 352 ; Mother and her Dumb Boy, Mushrooms, 220, 316, 381

399; Nature's 'Constancy, 25 ; Nature's Gentle Nature and Art, 26

man, 400; Nightingale's Nest, 59; “Our Own Nettles, converted into Cloth, 333

Editor," 151 ; Plea for the Poor, 416 ; Private New Regulation of Time by the Electric Ball, 126 | Whisper, 174 ; Reapers, The, 137, 138; RememNightingale, The, 3, 20, 45, 53, 59, 93, 99, 155, brance, 176 ; Summer, 48,57, 151, 184; Shades of 273, 286

Character, 288 ; Sketch from Life, 248 ; Small Notable Things, 16

Things, 237 ; Smiles and Tears, 384; Social Notes upon Notes, 294

Harmony, 320; Solitude, 271; Succor the Nothing seen but Light, 103

Distressed, 267; Sweet o' the Year, 32; Nuthatch, The, and its Nest, 332

Talking, 288 ; Taste, 368 ; To an Absent Girl, Nutting Excursions, 184

256 ; To my Love, 223, To a Wife Sleeping, Obituary,-Death of Professor Macgillivray, 194 352; True Friend, The, 407 ; True Happiness, Odors of Flowers, 238

64 ; Twilight, 48, 89, Violet to Daisy, 368 Omnivorous Caterpillar, 37, 310

"We'll meet again !" 224; What am I tó "Our Little Carpet Bag," 105, 137

Thee ? 400 ; Wedding Ring, 238; Winter, 407 ; Our “ Open Sesame !" 185

Winter Robin, 304; Women and Flowers, Ostrich, The, 314

240 ; Won't You ? 174; World, The, as good Owl, The, 11, 12

as ever, 112 ; Yes, and No, 415; Poonies Improvable by Culture, 139

Poppy, Seed of the, 189 Papering of Walls,

Popular Discussions-Booksellers' Question, The, Parrots, 90, 178, 314

3, 12 ; Ichneumon, 83 ; Phrenological DevelopPartridge, Affection of the, 187

ment, 53 Peacock, The, 159

POULTRY_Valuable Remarks connected with, 12, Pheasant, Ferocity of the, 366

26, 51, 59, 92, 108, 124, 155, 187, 219, 255, Pheasants, Gold and Silver, 12

300, 366, 380, 393 PHIRENOLOGY FOR THE MILLION, 5, 21, 37, 70, 85, Pride and Humility, 199

117, 133, 163, 196, 230, 262, 292, 326, 355, Prudery, 160 387

"Rabbits, 15, 45

Railway and Steam-Boat Dangers, 137, 150, 201, net, 302, 318 ; Journey to London, 13; Lion, 294

the King of Dogs, 246, Olive Hathaway, 158; Rat Poison, 110

Particular People, 126 ; People of Importance, Reason, 103

334 ; Philosophers and Philosophy, 397 ; PleaReward of Fidelity, 208

sure Party in July, 101 ; Slow People, 222; Roach and Dace in Ponds, How they spawn, 316 Two Shining Characters,-Grant Thorburn Robin, The, 9, 255, 274, 363

and Jenny Lind, 206 Roses, a Freak of Nature, 58

Tallow Greaves for Fattening Animals, 267 The Moss, 396 ; The Bourbon, 413 Telescope, Craig's “Monster," 174 Russian Violets, 331

Thrush, The, 42, 77, 89, 274 Salt-Cat for Pigeons, 268

Tiger Moth, 108, 171 Scarlet Runner, Thé, 318

Toad, The, 267, 283, 315, 332, 394 Shell Fish, Notes on, 141

Toads and Wasps, 253 Ship-worm, The, 123

Tobacco and its Victims, 383 Silk-worm The, 195, 213, 333

Two Full Moons of July, 1852, 88 Silk worn as under Clothing, 346

Vampire Bat, The, 237 Siskin, The, 273

Vanessa Antiopa, 157 Skeleton Cat and Rat, 266

Urticae, 391 Skeletons of Animals, -How to obtain, 365 Vermin in Cages, 236 Sky-Lark, 28, 93, 110

Victoria Regia, 299 Sleep, Philosophy of, 144

Vine Mildew, 364 Small Pox and Vaccination, 47

Vinegar Eels, 378 Smoking and Smokers, 25, 169

Virginian Creeper, 317 Snakes in India. 386

" Vocative" of Cat, 314 Soap, Substitution for, in California, 124

Wasp, The, 154, 267 Sound, Nature of, 145

Water Ermine, The, 200 Spider, History of the, 275

Welch Rarebits, 60 Squirrels, 13

Wellington Mania, The, 339, 361, 362, 394, 396 Starling, The, 61

Whale, The, 381 Summer-Heat in 1852, &c., 107

Wheatear, The, 45 Sunburn, 44

Whitethroat, The, 227 Sunrise in Autumn, 152

Why and Bécause, 375 Surfeit in Birds, 203

Window Plants, Directions for Watering, &c., 140 Swallow, The, 111, 187

Wire Lace, 268 Talc, A Substitute for Glass, 379

Woman, and her dear little “Silver Bell," 379

Woman,--the ONLY one we ever failed to please! TALES AND SKETCHES.

24, 78
Curate and Apparition, 62; Fatal Gift, 269: Woodpecker, The, 187

First Love, 350, 366 ; Foreign Railways, 149; Wood-Pigeons, 78
Give me the other Fig, 190 ; Green Silk Bon- World we live in, 121, 183

THE UNIVERSAL FAMILY PAPER FOR INTER-COMMUNICATIONS ON

NATURAL HISTORY—POPULAR SCIENCE — THINGS IN GENERAL.

Conducted by WILLIAM KIDD, of Hammersmith, AUTHOR OF THE FAMILIAR AND POPULAR ESSAYS ON “NATURAL HISTORY;” “BRITISA SONG

Birds; ” “ BIRDS OF PASSAGE;" “ INSTINCT AND REASON;” “THE AVIARY,” &c.

"THE OBJECT OP OUR WORK IS TO MAKE MEN WISER, WITHOUT OBLIGING THEM TO TURN OVER FOLIOS AND

QUARTOS.-TO FURNISH MATTER FOR THINKING AS WELL AS READING."-EVELYN.

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ON

A WONDERFUL CHAPTER

are determined not by their will, but by the

action of the medium in which they move; ANIMALCULES AND THEIR INSTINCTS. that they have neither head, eyes, muscles,

vessels, nerves, nor indeed any particular Minute and marvellous creations these!

determinable organ, whether for respiration, Infinite multitudes in every drop!

generation, or even digestion. On account Their lives ALL ECSTACY, and quick cross motion.

MONTGOMERY, of these supposed negative characters, they

were called by De Blainville, Agastria, or OF ALL THE GROUPS OF ANIMALS, those of stomachless. as having no intestines: but the least consequence, one would think, Ehrenberg, who has studied them in almost must be those that for the most part escape every climate, has discovered, by keeping the inquiring eye, unless aided by a micro- them in colored waters, that they are not the scope. The infusories, or as they have been simple animals that Lamarck and others also called animalcules, microscopic animals, suppose, and that almost all have a mouth acrita, or indiscernibles, amorpha or without and digestive organs, and that numbers of form, are of this description. These won- them have many stomachs. Spallanzani, and derful little creatures, though they are every- other writers that preceded Lamarck, had where dispersed, remain like seeds, without observed that their motions evidently indiapparent life or motion, perhaps after ani- cated volition: this appeared from their mation has been suspended for years, till avoiding each other and obstacles in their they come in contact with some fluid, when way; from their changing their direction, and they are immediately reanimated, move about going faster or slower as occasion required ; in various directions, absorb their proper from their passing suddenly from a state of nutriment, and exercise their reproductive rest to motion without any external impulse; powers according to the law of their from their darting eagerly at particles of several natures. Yet these little animals, infused substances; from their incessantly though in some respect they exhibit no slight revolving on themselves without a change of analogy to vegetables, are not only distin- place; from their course against the current; guished from them by their irritability, but and from their crowding to shallow places of likewise by their organisation, and powers of the fluid in which they are: each species locomotion and voluntary action. Their seems also to exhibit a peculiar kind of mode of reproduction, however, is not far instinct. Lamarck thinks all this delusion; removed from that of some vegetables; they proceeding from errors in judgment, and the are spontaneously divisible, some longitu- result of prejudices inducing people readily dinally and others transversely, and these to believe what accords with their persuacuttings, if they may be so called, as in the sions. But to apply this remark to such Hydra or common Polype, become separate observers as Spallanzani, &c., is drawing animals. They are also propagated by rather largely on the credulity of his readers, germs, and some appear to be viviparous. who might very justly change the tables and The species of Vibrio, found in diseased apply it to himself, who is certainly as much wheat by M. Bauer, is oviparous, as is evi- chained by system as any one can be. dent from his observations and admirable Admitting that the observations of Spallanfigures. Lamarck indeed regards them as zani just stated record facts, it appears having no volition, as taking their food by clearly to follow from them that these aniabsorption like plants; as being without any mals have volition, and therefore cannot mouth, or internal organ; in a word, as properly be denominated apathetic, or insentransparent gelatinous masses, whose motions sible. The fact that they almost all have a

VOL. II.

mouth and a digestive system, many of mouth and several stomachs, but no orifice them eyes, and some rudiments of a nervous for the transmission of their excrements; one, implies a degree, more or less, of sensa- others, again, have both a mouth and anal tion in them all, and consequently that they passage, and what is wonderful, in such have all-whether it be molecular and dif- minute creatures, sometimes as many as forty fused in their substance, or confined to or fifty stomachs: though many are without particular organs-I say that they have all a eyes, others are furnished with these useful nervous influence and excitement sufficient organs, some having one, others two, others for their several wants, corresponding with three, and others four ; some have processes their several natures.

resembling legs. In the second class of these These minim animals may be said almost animals, the Rotatories, to which the wheelto be universally dispersed; they inhabit the animalcules belong, the internal organisation sea, the rivers, and other waters; are sup- approaches to that of the higher classes, for posed to float in the air: they are found in they exhibit the rudiments of a nervous the blood and urine; in the tartar of the system; their alimentary canal is simple; teeth; in animal substances : in vinegar: they have a branching dorsal vessel, but in paste; in vegetable substances; in fruits, without a systole and diastole; their pharynx seeds, and grain ; in sand; amongst tiles;

is usually furnished with mandibles, which in wells, on mountains, &c. Their numbers

are sometimes armed with teeth. The mouth are infinite: hundreds of thousands may be of the majority, especially amongst the rotaseen in a single drop of water; their minute

tories, is fringed with ray-like bristles, ness is extreine, some being not more than

which Cuvier thinks are connected with their one-two thousandth part of a line in length. respiration. This circumstance of a circle and yet these atoms of animals have a mouth of rays surrounding the oral orifice, is found and several stomachs!

in the polypes and several other animals of a Let a man, says Dalyell, the translator of

of higher grade. Their use in the present Spallanzani, conceive himself in a moment

instance, I speak more particularly of the conveyed to a region where the properties,

wheel-animalcules, is by their rotation to and the figure and motions of every animal

produce a current in the water to the mouth are unknown. The amazing varieties of

of the animal, bringing with it the still more these will first attract his attention. One is

minute beings which constitute its food. a long slender line; another an eel or Organisation so complex, and life, and serpent; some are circular, elliptical, or tri- spontaneous motion, and appetite, and means angular; one is a thin flat plate ; another to satisfy it, and digestion, and nutrition, like a number of reticulated seeds; several and powers of reproduction in animals of have a long tail, almost invisible; or their such infinite minuteness! Who can believe posterior part is terminated by two robust it? Yet so it is, and that each of these horns; one is like a furnel; another like a should be varied in the different tribes and bell, or cannot be referred to any object genera ; that these less than the least of all familiar to our senses. Certain animalcules the creatures that present themselves to the can change their figure at pleasure: some- observation of mankind, and which till within times they are extended to immoderate a century or two were not suspected to exist, length, then almost contracted to nothing; should out-number, beyond all statement of sometimes they are curved like a leech, or numbers, all the other animals together that coiled like a snake; sometimes they are in- people the whole globe; that they should flated, at others flaccid; some are opaque, probably enter into us and circulate in our while others are scarcely visible from their blood, nestle between our teeth, be busy extreme transparence. No less singular is everywhere, and perceived nowhere, till the the variety of their motions; several swim invention of the microscope drew aside the with the velocity of an arrow, so that the veil between us and these entities, and we eye can scarcely follow them; others appear saw how God had filled all things with life, to drag their body along with difficulty, and and had based the animal kingdom upon move like the leech; and others seem to living atoms, as well as formed the earth and exist in perpetual rest; one will revolve on the world of inert ones! But to us, the its centre, or the anterior part of its head; wondrous spectacle is seen and known only others move by undulations, leaps, oscilla- in part ; for those that still escape all our tions, or successive gyrations; - in short, methods of assisting sight, and remain there is no kind of animal motion, or other members of the invisible world, may pro. mode of progression, that is not practised bably far exceed those that we know! by animalcules.

1 We may conclude that this vast, or rather Their organs are equally various. Some infinite host of animalcules, was not created appear to take their food by absorption, merely to be born and die; was not sown, as having no mouth; to this tribe belong what it were, over every part of the earth's surface, have been called vinegar eels : others have a lurking in seeds, and other vegetable and

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