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1633. MISERABLE state of the clergy and than communicates any thing with Engof the church.-Ibid. vol. 1, pp. 187-8. land. An opinion I should better excuse

in them, if those were less English that

practise it; and yet this have they drunk “HERE are divers of the clergy whose

so far down as it will be impossible to gain wives and children are recusants, and there it from them: unless it be not only against I observe the church goes most lamentably their wills, but before they be aware of to wreck, and hath suffered extremely un

what is intended.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 223. der the wicked alienation of this sort of pastors.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 188.

SIR HENRY SIDNEY down to Strafford's

time was called by the people the good de" They are accustomed here to have all

puty," and the common people, who knew

not his name, would account from the time their christenings and marriages in their private houses; and which is odd, they being there.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 224.

of the good deputy, making an æra of his never marry till after supper, and so to bed. This breeds a great mischief in the commonwealth, which is seen in this, that

CHARLES thought that when men probecause these rites of the church are not posed to be undertakers in plantations (in solemnized in the public and open assem- Ireland) he might“ pleasure servants in that blies, there is nothing so common as for a

way with doing himself rather good than man to deny his wife and children, aban- | hurt,” he says.-Ibid. vol. 1, p. 252. don the former, and betake himself to a new task. I conceive it were fit these particulars should be reduced to the custom of 1634. The Council of Ireland “grant it England, which is not only much better for undeniable in all reason and justice, after the public, but the more civil and comely." so long a peace and our estates so much STRAFFORD to Laud. Ibid. vol. 1, p. 188. improved under the happy government of

your Majesty and your royal father, that

this kingdom should defray itself without Ibid. p. 195. State of the army. “Their any further charge to your crown of Enghorsemen's staves rather of trouble to them- | land.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 264. selves, than of offence against an enemy." He wished the staves changed into cara

They speak of “great annual disbursebines, musket-bore, and he would have had the calevers changed for muskets, but the

ments continually issued for the good and king disapproved this, considering the man- quiet settlement of this kingdom alone."

Ibid. ner of service in those parts.

A wise refusal to one of Mr. Attorney's 1633. HERE STRAFFORD says, “ they have (Noy) proposals that laws might be passed swallowed down this maxim, that the re- without certifying them first to the English venue of this crown must ever be rather Government.— Ibid. vol. 1, p. 269. over than undercharged; because if there be once a surplus, it will be carried over into England, and so by little and little

66 Tuis the Irish have transcendently," says drain the kingdom of all her wealth ; where STRAFFORD, “ to be the people of all others in the other case, this rather fetches from, lothest to be denied any thing they desire,

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p. 281.

1, p. 291.

be it with or against reason.”—Ibid. vol. 1, country as otherwise I am persuaded they

would, found they at home decency and

handsomeness to entertain them. I con1634. “Acts past for restraining the bar- fess this must be remedied by time and debarous customs of ploughing by the tail, grees; yet if there were some strict course of pulling the wool off living sheep, of burn- used to bring them in this town to a good ing corn in straw, and barking of standing order in building, the example might stir trees, of cutting of young trees by stealth, up an emulation through the whole kingof forcing cows to give milk, and of build- dom to intend and accommodate their own ing houses without chimneys.”—Ibid. vol. | dwellings much more than now they do.

Certainly the proclamation you have in

England might be of good use here.” 1634. 1634. “ Just at this present," says STRAF- -Ibid. vol. 1, p. 306. FORD to Laud, “I am informed that my Lord Clanricard hath engrossed as many

Even in 1634 the Commons of Ireland parsonages and vicarages as he hath mortgaged for £4000 and £80 rent: but in speak of a population such as it now is, faith have at him, now this parliament is duly weighing the want of industry in the well past, and all the rest of the ravens: if inhabitants, increased by the want of manuI spare a man among them, let no man ever

factures and trades in this kingdom, wherein spare me. How beit I foresee this is so the common sort of people, vagabonds and universal a disease, that I shall incur a beggars, sound of limb and strong of body, number of men's displeasures of the best that swarm among us, might be profitably rank amongst them. But were I not better employed.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 311. lose these for God Almighty's cause, than lose Him for theirs ?"-Ibid. vol. 1, p. 299.

1634. STRAFFORD says, “I should advise

the planter should pay a rent for ever of a Dublin College.

full half of what the land is worth at an "Above all things I would recommend improved value; as if the land will give that we might have half-a - dozen good two shillings an acre I should reserve twelve scholars to be sent us over to be made fel- pence an acre rent, which considering the lows, there will be room for so many once

covenants of building, of maintaining horse in a year ; and this encouragement I will

and foot on the land for your majesty's give them, cæteris paribus I will prefer service, and such like, I take to be sufficient. them before any but my own chaplains, Nor would I advise there might be any which I assure you are not many. But to greater proportions allotted to any one man make offer no better than it is, the most

than 1000 acres.

For I find where more spiritual livings in my gift are not above have been granted the covenants of planta£100 a year, or thereabouts. But I pur- tion are never performed, nor doth it bring pose to hook into the crown again as many in half so many planters to undergo the advowsons as I can, so abominably do I public service of the crown, to secure the find them abused where they fall into other kingdom against the natives, or to plant hands.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 299.

civility, industry and religion amongst them, which are indeed the chief and excellent

goods the plantation hath wrought in the “There is a want of good houses in this kingdom.”—STRAFFORD's Letters, vol. 1, p. kingdom, which may be an occasion they 341. take not that delight in their abodes in the


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" CERTAINLY the Irish here are the least during the troubles in Elizabeth's time. sensible of the dignity and state which “ Very little of the foreign coin brought into ought not only inwardly to attend the ser- this kingdom ever comes to the Tower of vices of great kings, but also to appear to London to be minted, but is transported the people in the outward motions of it, back into France, much into the Low that ever I knew. And the reason is very Countries, and much back into Spain itself. plain ; they would have nothing shew more And considering that it is most evident, the great or magnificent than themselves, that exportation of this kingdom exceeds the so they might, secundum usum Sarum, lord importation at least £200,000 a year, it doth it the more bravely and uncontrolably at necessarily follow that great quantities of home, take from the poor churl what, and coin is brought in to balance the trade as they pleased.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 348. yearly, which if the Mint was once settled

amongst them, would in a great part be coined here, and be so considerable a profit

to the crown, beside an excellent means to “It may seem strange that this people should be so obstinately set against their increase the trade of this kingdom which is own good, and yet the reason is plain ; for

now all lost, and hindered exceedingly for the Friars and Jesuits fearing that these

want of it.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 366. laws would conform them here to the man

The friars and seminaries must have been ners of England, and in time be a means to

the means of drawing from Ireland the lead them on to a conformity in religion

money which would otherwise have been and faith also, they catholickly oppose and plentiful here. fence up every path leading to so good a purpose. And indeed I see plainly, that so long as this kingdom continues popish, they are not a people for the crown of Eng

1635. “The proportion we were guided land to be confident of. Whereas if they

by was to rate every £1000 a year at £40 were not still distempered by the infusion

payment to the King for each subsidy, which of these Friars and Jesuits, I am of belief,

in itself is no great matter, nor would inthey would be as good and loyal to their

deed seem so, but when they compare it King, as any other subjects.”—Ibid, vol. 1,

with the rates of England: wherein this is to be said more than in their case, that it is now above twenty years since they here

gave a subsidy, where the other have been STRAFFORD says of Dublin, “this town

in yearly payments all that while. That in is the most dangerous for corrupting the

these late contributions the nobility in a disposition of youth that ever I came in."

manner, wholly laid the burthen upon the Ibid. vol. 1, p. 362.

poor tenants, most unequally freeing themselves, and therefore it is reason they should

pay the more now. As for example my The rebellions, and disorders and loose

Lord of Cork, as sure as you live, paid ness of the war, had almost as much ruined

towards the £20,000 yearly contribution, them in civility and the paths of virtue, as

not a penny more than 6s. 8d. Irish, a in their estates and fortunes.— Ibid. vol. 1, quarter.." --Strafford's Letters, vol. 1,

p. 351,

P. 366.

p. 407.

STRAFFORD advises the re-establishment of the mint, which had been discontinued

1 A quarter was 120 acres, but whether time or measure be meant in this passage, I am not


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LAUD writes to Strafford, 1635. “I have rents, their civility, increase daily; and tolately understood of some practising on the gether with them, the King's revenue doth Queen's side about portions of tithes, to in some measure grow upon us, so as we keep them still alienated from the Church; shall be presently able to defray ourselves, I am bold to give your Lordship notice of which at my coming fell short near thirty this which I hear, that if there be any such thousand pounds a year.” — Ibid. vol. 2, thing you would be pleased to make stay p. 80. of it, till his Majesty's pleasure be farther

known, whose royal intendments I make no It was Strafford's advice that the King

doubt are alike gracious touching the por- should not permit gunpowder to be made tions of tithes as the impropriations them- in Ireland.-Ibid. vol. 2, p. 87. selves.”—Ibid. p. 431.

STRAFFORD recovered or purchased the “ — I HEAR they have sent over agents, customs, which had been usurped or alieforsooth, into England, to what intent I nated. Upon asking authority to purchase know not; but I trust they will be wel- back the grant of those of Carrickfergus, he comed as they deserve; it having been an- says :-“ And then are all the customs thociently the chief art of this nation, by the rough the kingdom entirely the King's, as intervention of these agencies to destroy the in all reason of state they ought to be, and services of the crown, and strike thorough so preserved; for when they are in several the honour and credit of this state and the hands, each labouring to improve the profit ministers thereof. But I trust they will of his own port, and by favouring merfind this receipt to fail them now, and the chants, to draw them thither, hinders the temper of their constitution better under- King far more in other places, and consestood than that such physic as this shall be quently in a great part impairs the revenue longer thought to be proper to recover them itself.”—Ibid. vol. 2, p. 91. forth of that superstition and barbarism which hath hitherto been the reproach almost of the English.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 473. “ As for the Archbishop of Cashell, I

know him to be as dangerous and ill-affected a person as is in the kingdom, and

know also he is a pensioner of Spain. You STRAFFORD calls the army “ an excellent would little imagine, perhaps, that the timinister and assistant in the execution of tular bishoprick should be worth above two all the King's writs, the great peace-maker thousand pounds sterling a year, yet it is between the British and the natives, be

no less."-Ibid. vol. 2, p. 111. twixt the Protestant and the Papist; and the chief securer, under God and his Majesty, of the future and past plantations." “For the Cathedral of Down, if it shall -Ibid. vol. 2, p. 18.

be thought fit, (as stands with reason in my opinion,) there should be an act of state en

joining that whole diocese to contribute 1637. He writes :-“Yet methinks some their several proportions of the charge it thing begins to appear amongst us, as if this shall be estimated at, and to be raised upon nation might in time become a strength, a the abler sort, not upon the poor people. I safety, and without charge, to that crown; assent it with all my heart,-neither for that a purpose the English have long had, but alone, but for all the Cathedrals throughhitherto never effected. Their trade, their out the whole kingdom. For, methinks, it

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p. 120.

is somewhat strange that all the public 1638. “The old bishop of Kilfanova is
works should be barely put upon the crown, dead, and his bishoprick one of those which
the subject the whilst be at no charge, who when it falls, goes a begging for a new hus-
hath all the benefit by it." - Ibid. vol. 2, band, being not worth more than fourscore

pounds to the last man: but in the handling
of an understanding prelate might, per-

chance, grow to be worth two hundred 1637. “If we be foreborne awhile at the

pounds; but then it will cost money in first, till we have invited over and settled

suits."-Ibid. vol. 2, p.

172. the English in these plantations now on foot, this kingdom will grow not only to itself,

mo but to the increase of his Majesty's revenues

STRAFFORD. “It is very truth there is exceedingly above what is expected from

something further touching confession in it. But it seems there are some envious

these canons, than are in those of England, against so great a good, and have sent us

and in my poor judgement much to the betover a new book of rates, and thereby laid

ter. For how beit auricular confession to such a burden upon trade as will affright the parish priest is not allowed as a necesall people to touch upon our coasts. this, forsooth, under a pretence of raising sary duty to be imposed upon the con

science, yet did I never hear


but comthe King's revenue. I know not the work

mend the free and voluntary practice of it, man; but be it who it will, I am sure he undertook either more than he understood, be thought fit to communicate with in so

to such a worthy and holy person as should
or more than he meant any good unto.”-
Ibid. vol. 2, p. 121.

serious and important a business.”—Ibid.
vol. 2, p. 195.

“ REMEDY sufficient would be found here Sir Arthur Hopton, from Spain, 1618. to help the church to her own, if we might "— The two colonels that are here, Tybe let alone : but being carried hence to de

rone and Tyrconnel, would make them belegates in England, we have no more to say, lieve, that all the Irish that serve them, further, than that by this means two poor

come for love of them, and without his Mavicars have been undone, through the charge jesty's leave, which I conceive to be so preof prosecution, and now as near an end of judicial to his Majesty's service, both in retheir cause as when they begun. Indeed, gard of the honour of his sovereignty, and my lord, if there be way given to such ap- depriving him of the gratitude that is due peals as these in an ordinary way of pro

unto him from this King, as I could wish ceeding, this clergy shall sue for no tithes there were a watchful eye had, that no solbut the recovery of them shall cost infalli- diers be suffered to pass out of that kingbly more than they are worth, how good so- dom but by his Majesty's order. Here they ever the success can be ; and so the chan- would esteem them in any kind, for it is the cery and your civilians there, under colour nation that hath their good opinion, and not of enlarging their jurisdiction over Ireland, the colonels who have done no service at bring the greatest oppression upon this poor all.” — Ibid. vol. 2, p. 243. clergy that ever was. And yet I will not say, but in some emergent occasion it may be fit such appeals be procured; but in " — As the woods decay, so do the hawks truth, it is too strong a medium to be ap- and martins of this kingdom. But in some plied as an ordinary and safe cure for all woods I have, my purpose is by all means diseases."— Ibid. vol. 2, p. 138.

I can to set up a breed of martins : a good

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