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Even now it is not very difficult to pro- | of euphony; lengthened, or abbreviated cure the original editions of the best au- words, and made them from the Latin. thors, scattered as they are over Europe, “Sometimes," says ANTONIO DAS NEVES, so little national reading is there.

“he abused this liberty, and coined words As a language, the Portugueze has about almost macarronic.” He revived obsolete a due proportion of vowels and consonants words also. -bones enough for solidity, not all bone These are merits which escape the notice like the German.

of a foreigner. We look at Camoens as a This eldest daughter of the Latin has dim eyed man beholds a cathedral. He been the servant of the Goths and the slave catches the general plan, and the stronger of the Moors.

features ; but the minuter parts, the numThere is a fashion of language. The berless ornaments escape him : he sees an choice of expressions of the best authors in arch indeed, but the capital and the frieze Portugueze, were aped affectedly in con- elude his eyesight; he beholds the battleversation; thus they became trite and vul- ments, but he cannot see the Caryatides that gar. Fellows who could not ride Pegasus, form them and their varying attitudes of made use of his trappings, and dirtied them, beauty. We build with ready materials, but and wore them to rags and shabbiness. Camoens dug in the quarry, and hewed the

An affectation of French words has stones for his edifice. Camoens called Barbrought the vernacular ones often into dis- ros his Ennius, and the frequent perusal of use, and the puppies of the day call the le- his Decades kindled his imagination. By gitimate words of the old authors, the studying the same author, Vieyra acquired “ wells undefiled” of Portugueze, gothic, his power of language. and rusty, and obsolete. A French dic- In the Hospital de Letras, Camoens is tionary is now more necessary than a Por- complaining of four translators and two tugueze, to enable our youth to understand commentators. The Bishop Thome de Fatheir native tongue.

This alters the con- ria, who translated him into such Latin that struction of the sentences. The Portu

mais
parece

Romance Punico que Romano. gueze is an inverted syntax, not difficultly But if one Faria lessened him, another as perplexed, but well varied; the French, a extremely magnified him,-Manoel Sevestraight-forward phraseology: thus trans- rem de Fana, in his life. Macedc was the lations have impoverished and debased the other translator, who rather travestied than Portugueze.

translated him. Besides these was a CasThree epochs in the language.

telhão, and a Franchinoti, who, as they made 1. From the foundation of the monarchy him lose his name, do not deserve to have to Affonso V., four hundred years.

their own mentioned. Of the commenta2. to Sebastian.

tors, Manoel Correa was too short, and Ma3. to the present day.

noel de Faria too long. “But I,” says Don FRANCIS MANOEL, “ from my friendship think it short,” though his trouble was not,

for more than twenty years did he study Camoens.

this book. There are besides MSS. commenIle treated the language like a man of taries of Joað Pinto Ribeyro, and another genius, supplying its defects. To nouns

of Ayres Correa, corrected by Frey Franonly plural he gave a singular; changed the cisco do Monti. Besides, Camoens comproper names for the sake plains of the Abbot Joað Soares, and the

Sancristað Manoel Pires, for an Apology 1 In the earlier extracts the MS, has almost

and a Defence, “for which God forgive invariably Camoes.-J. W. W.

them!” “ Are there more Camoistas ? ” says

termination of

VIEYRA — JUAN DE ESCOBAR.

259

LIPSIUS. Author. “ One Rolim, and one Gallejos.” Lipsius. “Both learned men, as I have heard.” Boccalini. “Both, like many of our time, very learned, que sempre sabem o que nao importa."

Besides, he complains that certain booksellers have had little conscience enough to bind him up with the Sylvia de Lizardo !

todos guantes olorosas Rodrigo guante mallado; todos sombreros muy ricos Rodrigo casco afinado, y encima del casco lleva un bonete colorado,"_ff. 10.

“ Justicia buen rey te pido
que aquel que non la mantiene
de rey non merece el nombre
nin comer pan a manteles,
nin

que le sirvan los nobles.”—ff. 12.

Vieyra. “ Like Seneca, he corrupted the oratory of his countrymen, but not the language, which he alone enriched as much as all the poets."— Fr. Dias.

Corrupted! Vieyra is the Jeremy Taylor of Portugal.

Can the Arte de Furtar be his? It wants the flow, the fulness, the flood of language, the life, warmth, the animation of spirit.

His is a rapid style; he runs, yet is never out of breath: it is a current that hurries

you on. A compressed sententious language would, in a fourth part of the words, express the meaning: perhaps the reader would not gain time: he must pause and ponder as he proceeded, the galley may equal the speed of the brig, but the one sails easily along, and the other is impelled by the tug and the labour of arms.

“ Todos eran fijos dalgo los que Rodrigo traya, armas nuevas trayan todos, de una color se vestian, amigos son y parientes todos los que le seguian.”—ff. 17.

“A LA carta de Ximena responde el rey por su mano, despues de fazer la Cruz con quatro puntos y un rasgo. aquestas palabras finca."—ff. 29.

The Cid to his Sword. “Y QUANDO alguno te vença del torpe fecho enojado, fasta la Cruz en mi pecho te escondere muy ayrado.”

JUAN DE Escobar's Collection, ff. 7.

“ Si figo prometo dalle
una espada y un cavallo,
y dos mil maravedis
para ayuda de su gasto.
si fija, para su dote
prometo poner en cambio
desde el dia

que

naciere de plata quarenta marcos."—ff. 31.

- Para salir de contray sus escuderos vistio, que el vestido del criado dize quien es el señor.”—ff. 31.

“ Todos cavalgan a mula, solo Rodrigo a cavallo; todos visten oro y seda. Rodrigo va bien armado; todos espadas ceñidas Rodrigo estoque dorado; todos con sendas varicas, Rodrigo lança en el mano;

“Dos patenas lleva al cuello puestas con mucho primor, con San Lazaro y San Pedro Santos de su devocion.”—ff. 31.

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¡Aqui del Rey, señores ! ¿ por ventura Fui yo Cain de mi inocente hermano ?

[Voltaire and the Cid of Corneille.] E Mate yo al Rey Don Sancho el Castel- ACCORDING to Voltaire, Chalons, a secrelano ?

tary to Mary de Medicis, who had retired ¿O sin alma signe falsa escritura ? to Rouen in his old age, advised Corneille ¿Pusome acaso en la tablilla el Cura ? to learn Spanish, and proposed the Cid to ¿No soy hidalgo y montañes Christiano ? him as the hero of a tragedy. There were TOMÉ DE BURGUILLOS, ff. 28. two Spanish plays upon this subject. El

honrador de su padre by Diamente (?), and

El Cid by Guillende Castro, the latter the [Alphonsus ad Valentiam Abi Ahmedo

latest, and then much in fashion. parcit.]

Corneille's play is full of anachronisms. “Anno denique Egiræ 487, Christo 1094, quum Imperator Alphonsus maximo adducto exercitu, ad urbem Valentiam castra

Joan IV. posuisset, laudatus Ben Althaherus annis “ The King,” says FLECKNO, " is et virtutibus plenus decessit. Ferunt Va- honest plain man, changing nothing of the lentinos post toleratam per dies aliquot ob- Duke of Braganza by being King of Porsidionem, urbem Imperatori tradidisse his tugal; faring as homely as any farmer, and nempe conditionibus; ut in primis populi going as meanly clad as any citizen, neither vita et libertas una cum bonis servarentur; did he ever make use of any of the crown deinde ut Prætor Abi Ahmedus Ben Gia- wardrobe since he came unto the crown. phar Ben Hagiaph Almoapheræus neque His ordinary exercise is hunting and music, fortunis, neque dignitate ullo pacto detur- never omitting the first every Monday, nor bandus esset. Annuit tunc Imperator; sed the second every day after dinner, for any anno vix exacto Abi Ahmedum tota cum business. But for the Queen, she bas more familia in carcere inclusit, verbera et mor- of the majestic in her, and if she be not tem, ni pecuniam publicam traderet, mina- | king, her ambition 'twas that made the

an

JUAN ALVAREZ GATO – FRANCISCO DE PISA – VERSTEGAN. 261

king. She has a goodly presence, a stately gait, and uses the Trowel in painting with

[Alcacer of Toledo.] better reason than other ladies do the pen

FRANCISCO DE PISA

says,

" that the King cil. Having an epilepsy (erysipilis, I sup- gave the Alcacer of Toledo in charge to the pose), makes one side of her face redder Cid, with a guard of a thousand Castilian than the other (like the sunny side of fruit) hidalgos, and that he was the first Alcayde did not her painting make both sides alike." of Toledo after its recovery. The Cid - Relation of Ten Years' Travel, p. 57.

afterwards put another knight in his place, and took for his place of abode the houses near, which in Pisa's time were called S.

Juan de los Cavalleros." —Descr. de Toledo, “Coplas porque el Viernes Santo vido lib. 1, cap. 17. a su Amiga hazer los ñudos de la passion en un cordon de seda.”—Cancionero, ff. 80. “ Gran belleza poderosa

Raderyc. a do gracia no esquivo,

PLENTIFUL, or rich in counsel or advice; destreza no fallecio,

or liberal in yielding remedy or redress. hermosa que tan hermosa

Raderic by travelling into Spain became nunca en el mundo nacio.

Rodrigo, and lighting into Latin was made Oy mirandos a porfia

Rodericus."—VERSTEGAN. tal passion passe por vos

que no escuche la de Dios con la ravia de la mia.

RODERICUS, 'Proepexós. Rode-rijch.

Quietè pollens.
“ Los ñudos que en el cordon

distes vos alegre y leda
como ñudos de passion,
vos los distes en la seda,

[Slaves of the Isle of Ferro.]
yo los di en el coraçon.

The slaves in the Island of Ferro live Vos distes los ñudos tales

chiefly upon milk and cheese of goat's milk, por nombrar a Dios loores,

says THEVET, France Antarticque, ff. 11. yo para en nombre de amores; Quelque demy philosophie, on demy mevos para sanar de males,

decin (honneur gardé a qui le merite) yo para crecer dolores."

pourra demander en cest endroit, si usans JUAN ALVAREZ GATO. de teller choses ne sont graveleux, attendu que le laict et formage sont matiere de

gravelle, ainsi que l'on voit advenir a plusieurs

en nostre Europe : je repondray que le Toledo.

fourmage de soy peut estre bon et mauvais, Entre las obras que dexo hechas en nu- graveleux et non graveleux, selon la quanestros dias Joan Gutierrez Tello, Corre- tite que l'on en prend, et la disposition de gidor, fue una el rastro nuevo donde se venden la personne. Vray est qu'a nous autres, y matan los carneros, dos dias de cada semana, qui a une mesme heure non contens d'une y algunas vezes mas. Poco mas abaxo deste espece de viande, en prenons bien souvent sitio, es otro menor rastro donde se mata de vingt cinq on trente, ainsi qu'il vient oveja para gente pobre, o para moriscos.”— et boire de mesme, et tant qu'il en peut FRANC. DE Pisa. Desc. de Toledo, lib. 1, tenir entre le bast et les sangles, seulement

pour honorer chacune d'icelles, et en bonne quantité et souvent; si le fourmage se

cap. 22.

262

FRANCISCO DE PISA – ALVAR FANEZ.

trouve d'abondant, nature desju grevée de que acometen en el campo. Esta la ay en la multitude, en pourra mal faire son prof- todo el reyno, y se rige por leyes y pragmafit, joint que de soy il est assez difficile a ticas que vienen en la nueva recopilacion. No cuire et a digerer; mais quand l'estomach tiene Cabildo de por si, sino que la ciudad est dispos, non debilité d'excessive crapule, en su Ayuntamiento cada año nombra dos non seulement il pourra digerer le four- Alcaldes, el un año a un Regidor, y un Ciumage, fust-il de Milan, ou de Bethune, dadano, otro año a un Jurado y un ciudamais encores chose plus dure a un besoing." dano alternativamente. Tienen su escrivano

y quadrilleros, con todas las libertades y ex

celencias que le concedieron los dichos Reyes [La Hermandad vieja y nueva.]

Catholicos sus instituydores.” — FRAN. DE La Hermandad vieja de su primer prin- Pisa. Desc. de Toledo, 1. 1, c. 23. cipio no fue ordenada o fundada por los Reyes, sino por los mismos pueblos de los montes ; aunque despues fue confirmada por old verses which Sandoval has inserted in

ALVAR FanEz is mentioned in some rude los Reyes y previlegiada. Y esta solamente

his history, la ay en tres pueblos, es a saber, en esta

It is to be regretted that he ciudad, y en Ciudad Real, y la villa de Ta

did not give the whole poem, instead of lavera.

Fue confirmada por el Rey Don only the introduction. Fernando el Santo, circa de los años del Hismaelitarum gentes domuit, nec earum Señor 1265 : y para perpetuarla la dotó de Oppida vel turres potuerunt stare fortes. cierto derecho, que es assudura mayor y me

Fortia frangebat, sic fortis ille premebat, nor,

esto es una cabeça de cada hato que passa Tempore Roldani si tertius Alvarus esset por los montes. El nombre de assadura por

Post Oliverum fateor sine crimine rerum, ventura fue tomado de la parte por el todo : 0 Sub juga Francorum fuerat gens Agarenosegun parecer de algunos, corrupto el vocablo rum, se dize assadura, por dezir passadura, esto Nec socii chari jacuissent morte perempti. es, por los ganados que passan. Fue esta Nullaque sub cælo melior fuit hasta sereno. santa Hermandad instituyda por escusar las Ipse Rodericus mio Cid semper vocatus, muertes y robos que ciertos ladrones, llama- De que cantatur quod ab hostibus haud sudos Golfines, (que eran muchos en numero,) peratus, hazian en toda esta comarca, acogiendose a

Qui domuit Mauros, Comites domuit quolos montes, donde por su espesura y grande

que nostros, aspereza se hazian fuertes, sin que nadie los Hunc extollebat, se laude minore ferebat. pudiesse entrar. Tiene esta Hermandad su Sed fateor verum quod tollet nulla dierum, Cabildo, y se rigen los hermanos por anti- Meo Cidi primus, fuit Alvarus atque seguas costumbres y fueros : reside el juzgado en cundus." la misma car cel donde ay su sala, (y donde Prefacio de Almeria. Sandoval, t. 2, p. 276. se ponen en prision los malhechores

que
hazen

minn
dano en los despoblados ;) eligen entre si Al-
caldes, y un quadrillero mayor, y otros ofi-

Vargas y Ponze. ciales.

Un fantasma de honor tu pecho embarga. Mas la Hermandad nueva es la que orde- | Nuestro amor nada importa a los que yacen: naron los Reyes Catholicos Don Fernando

y mas allá del sepulcro de consortes Doña Ysabel año de 1476, y en el de 1478, a no hay lazo conyugal: juntas no arden imitacion de la vieja, o alomenos la acrecen- antorchas vivas que alumbro himeneo taron y favorecieron, aviendo començado en con las mustias del feretro espantable. tiempo del Rey Don Enrique su antecessor : 3 Tu juventud sin par la sorda lima y se ordleno contra los salteadores y ladrones de amargo llanto destruirá incesante ?

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